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Burlineton Magazine 

for Connoisseurs 

Illustrated & Published Monthly 

Volume VII— April to September 1905 



















Editorial Articles : Page 

The Opportunity of the Government .... . . ? 

Architectural Education in England . 
The Reform of Municipal Architecture 
The Boston Museum 
Private Enterprise in Public Affairs . 
Constantin Meunier 

The Extinction of the Middle-class Collector 
The Directors of our Public Galleries 
A Ministry of Fine Arts ? By M. H. Spielmann 
The New Velazquez in Boston Museum. By Francis Lathrop 
Archaic Chinese Bronzes. By C. J. Holmes 
Charles II Silver at Welbeck. By J. Starkie Gardner : 

Part I 

Part II (conclusion) ...... 

Minor English Furniture Makers of the Eighteenth Century. By R. S. Clouston :— 
Article VI— Robert and Richard Gillow 
Article VII — Shearer ..... 

Article VIII — (conclusion) ..... 

A Picture of St. Jerome attributed to Titian. By C. J. Holmes 
Opus Anglicanum. Ill — The Pienza Cope. By May Morris 
Andrea dal Castagno : 

Part I — His Early Life. By Herbert P. Home . . . 66, 222 

Part II — The Early Works of Andrea ...... 223 

Appendix . . . . ... 

The Pre-Raphaelite and Impressionist Heresies. By Bernhard Sickert 

The Failure of our Water-Colour Tradition. By P. A. 

The Rouen Porcelain. By M. L. Solon ....... 

The Life of a Dutch Artist in the Seventeenth Century. By Dr. W. Martin 
Part I — Instruction in Drawing ...... 

Part II — Instruction in Painting ...... 

The Father of Perugian Painting. By Edward Hutton .... 

Tempera Painting. By Roger E. Fry ....... 

Constantin Meunier : — 

I — Personal Reminiscences. By Prof. R. Petrucci 

II — His aim and Place in the Art of the Nineteenth Century. By Charles 
Ricketts ........•• 

Mr. J. H. FitzHenry's Collection of Early French P&te 'lendre. By C. H. Wylde 
The Rothschild MS. in the British Museum of ' Les Cas des Malheureux Nobles 

Hommes et Femmes.' By Sir Edward Maude Thompson, K.C.B 
English Primitives : The Painted Chamber and the Early Masters of the West- 
minster School. By W. R. Lethaby ....•• 

Some English Architectural Leadwork. By Lawrence Weaver, F.S.A. : 

Part I— The Early Period 

Part II (conclusion) — The Later Period ..... 



! 73 




J 9 

3 2 

2 1 1 





1 12 



l 32 






CONTENTS OF VOL. VII— continued 

Ecclesiastical Dress in Art. By Egerton Beck : — 

Article I — Colour (Part I) 281 

Article II— Colour (Part II) 

Article III — Colour [conclusion) ...... 

A Tudor Manor House : Sutton Place by Guildford. By Robert Dell 
Opus Anglicanum at the Burlington Fine Arts Club. By May Morris 
A Seventeenth-Century Wall-Paper at Wotton-under-Edge. By Archibald G. B 
Russell ............ 

An Unknown Fresco-Work by Guido Reni. By Robert Eisler, Fellow of the I.R 
Institute for Austrian History 





Notes on Some Recently Exhibited Pictures of the British School. By C. J. Holmes 324 

Pietro Aretino by Titian. By Roger E. Fry ....... 344 

Dalou. By Charles Ricketts 348 

Study for 'The Egremont Family Piece' by George Romney .... 354 

Some Florentine Woodcuts. By G. T. Clough . . . . . • 355 

The Auctioneer as Dealer . . . . . . . . . . 371 

Notes on Pictures in the Royal Collections : 

Article VIII — The Story of Simon Magus, part of a Predella Painting 

by Benozzo Gozzoli. By Lionel Cust, M.V.O., and Herbert Home 377 

Appendix. ........... 382 

Turner's Theory of Colouring By C. J. Holmes ...... 409 

On Two Miniatures by de Limbourg. By Roger E. Fry . . . . -435 

The True Portrait of Laura de' Dianti by Titian. By Herbert Cook, F.S.A. . 449 
Is Hans Daucher the Author of the Medals attributed to Albert Durer ? By 

S. Montagu Peartree .......... 455 

The Lemos and Este Bottles in the Waddesdon Bequest. By A. Van de Put . 467 
Notes on Various Works of Art : 

On a Florentine Picture of the Nativity. By Roger E. Fry . . 70 
The Image of Pity by an Unknown Master of the Fifteenth Century. 

By W. H. J. Weale 75 

On a Painting by Antonio da Solario. By Roger E. Fry . . -75 

Portrait of a Girl by H. Fantin-Latour . . . . . 76 
Old English Drug and Unguent Pots found in Excavations in London. 

By C. H. Wylde 76 

Mr. George Salting's Chinese Porcelain Figures in the Victoria and 

Albert Museum. By S. W. Bushell 82 

Miscellaneous Notes : 

The Annunciation by Roger de la Pasture. By W. H. James Weale . 141 
A Tapestry of Martin of Aragon and Maria de Luna. By A. V. de P. 

and W. G. T 141 

An Unknown Portrait of Lorenzo de' Medici. By Lewis Einstein . 142 

Recent Acquisitions at the British Museum. By R. L. H. . . . 147 
A Miniature by Heinrich Friedrich Fiiger in the Wallace Collection. 

By Claude Phillips 14 8 


CONTENTS OF VOL. VII— continued 

Sir J 

Miscellaneous Notes — continued 

A Museum of Roman Antiquities 

Some Portrait Drawings by Diirer in English Collections, recently 

identified. By Campbell Dodgson ..... 
Carved Wood Watch-Stands from the Collection of Mr. Charles Edward 

Jerningham. By C. H. Wylde .... 
Private Collections in Austria. By H. W. S. 
The Directorship of the British Museum 
A Miniature by Francois Boucher. By Claude Phillips 
Shutters of a Triptych by Gerard David. By W. H. James Weale 
' The Soldier and the Laughing Girl ' by Jan ver Meer of Delft 
The 'Virgin of Salamanca' by the Maitre de Flemalle. By 

C. Robinson, C.B. . . . • • 

A Tunic from a Cemetery in Egypt. By A. F. Kendrick 
The Oxford Exhibition of Historical Portraits 
Gilbert Marks : Silversmith. By M. H. S. 
The Verona Gallery. By Lionel Cust, M.V.O. 
German Art Institutions in Italy. By H. W. S. 
New Acquisition at Berlin 
A Portrait at Oxford . 

Holbein and Horenbault. By W. H. J. W. 
A Portrait of A. W. Pugin. By R. E. D. . 
A Francoise Duparc. By D. S. MacColl . 

The Forthcoming third German Exhibition of Applied Art. By H 
A Portrait of William Caxton. By S. Montagu Peartree . 
A Portrait of Napoleon by David . 

The National Portrait Gallery 

The ' Maitre de Flemalle ' and the Painters or the School of Salamanca 

By Sir J. C. Robinson, C.B. 
The Jordaens Exhibition at Antwerp. By R. 
A Flemish Picture from Abyssinia 
A Stolen Frans Hals . 
Ecclesiastical Art Exhibition 
Miscellaneous Notes and Letters : 

The Study for the Egremont Family Piece. 

The Stolen Frans Hals 

A Painting by Gerard David. By W. H. J. Weale . 

A Lost Letter by Rembrandt. By Dr. C. Hofstede de Groot 

'A History of Ancient Pottery.' By P. D. V 

Letters to the Editors : — 

The Van Eycks and M. Bouchot (W. H. J. Weale) . 

The Portrait of Isabella Brant in the Hermitage (Charles Ricketts) 

' Albert Durer ' (T. Sturge Moore) 

The Ascoli Cope (Eric Maclagan) 

I5 1 

l 5 2 




2 33 

2 37 


33 1 
33 1 
33 1 
33 1 


By Sir Walter Armstrong 469 







CONTENTS OF VOL. VII— continued 

Letters to the Editors — continued 


Francoise Duparc (Arthur B. Chamberlain) . . . . -85 

The History of Art according to Mr. Weale (Henri Bouchot and 

W. H.J. Weale) 159 

Drug and Unguent Pots found in London (R. L. Hobson) . . .160 

A Ministry of Fine Arts ? (Thackeray Turner) . . . . 1 60 

The Boston Velazquez (Alban Head) . . . . . . .160 

The Destruction of Thames Scenery (G. F. Millin) .... 247 

Harrington House, Craig's Court (Julian Sampson) .... 248 

The Tweedmouth Pictures. By Christiana J. Herringham . . 335 

Opus Anglicanum (Sidney J. A. Churchill) ...... 397 

The ' Savoldo ' in the National Gallery (Herbert Cook, F.S.A.) . . 398 

Bibliography ........ 85, 161, 248, 338, 401, 474 

Foreign Correspondence . . . . . . . . . . .88 

Books Received 

Recent Art Publications 

Art in America 

The German ' Salons' of 1905. By H. W. S. 

90, 169, 253, 340, 
170, 254, 
• 245, 336, 

4°5> 477 
406, 478 

39 8 > 479 
• 47° 



Frontispiece : Portrait of Philip IV of Spain — 

Velazquez ....... 2 

The New Velazquez in the Boston Museum : — 

Plate I — Portrait of Philip IV — Velazquez . 9 

Plate II— 1, Head from full-length Portrait of 
Philip IV in the Boston Museum; n, Por- 
trait of Philip IV, by Velazquez, in the 
Prado; m, Head from the full-length Por- 
trait of Don Carlos, by Velazquez, in the 
Prado ; iv, Head from the full-length Por- 
trait of Don Fernando, by Velazquez, in the 

Prado 13 

Archaic Chinese Bronzes : 

Plate I, Chinese Bronze Vessel, with Cover in 
form of a Monster's Head 

Plate II (Nos. 1, 2) . 

Plate III (Nos. 3, 4) 

Plate IV (Nos. 5, 6) 

Plate V (Nos. 7, 8) . 
Charles II Silver at Welbeck: — 

Plate I — 1. Dutch Covered Jars; 2. English 
Covered Jars and Beakers .... 

Plate II — 3. Dutch Flask-shape Vases ; 4. Dutch 
Flask-shape Vase and English Covered Jars . 

Plate III — 5. Incense Burner .... 

Plate IV — 6, 7. English Silver Wine-coolers . 

Plate V — 8. Pair of Wine Fountains ; 9. Wine 
Fountain . . . . . . .107 

Plate VI — 10. Vases, 1666; n. Flagons, 1700 no 


2 4 






Minor English Furniture Makers of the Eigh- 
teenth Century : — 

Robert and Richard Gillow : — Plate I — 1. Early 
Card Table; 2. Chair made in 1789 for 
Mr. De Trafford ; 3. Chair with back of 
Interlacing Hearts ; 4. Commode in Adam 
Style 45 

Plate II — 5. Ladder- back Chair ; 6. Shield- 
back Decorated Chair ; 7. Drawing of Side- 
board from ' Cost Book ' ; 8. Drawing of 
Pier Table from ' Cost Book ' . . .48 

Shearer: — Plate I — 1. Sideboard; 2. Bookcase 
and Secretaire 213 

Shearer: — Plate II — 3. Bookcase and Secretaire; 
4. Screen Writing-table ; 7. Chest of 
Drawers; 8. Horse-shoe Dining- table . .217 

Plate III — 5. Sideboard designed by Shearer; 
6. Sideboard designed by Hepplewhite . 220 

The Chippendale Period : — Designs by M. A. 
Pergolesi, from the Copy of his Book in the 
National Art Library 365 

Commode in Style of Adam, decorated by 
Angelica Kauffman ..... 368 

Chimney-piece decorated by Angelica Kauff- 
man, formerly in Sir Joshua Reynolds's 

House 368 

St. Jerome in the Desert — attributed to Titian . 51 
The Pienza Cope : — 

Plate I, The Cope 55 


LIST OF PLATES— continued 


The Pienza Cope — continued :— 

Plate II, Portion of the Cope . . . • 58 

Plate III, „ ,, 61 

Notes on Works of Art : — 

The Nativity — Florentine School . . . 71 
Head of St. John the Baptist — Antonio de 

Solario . . . . . . . . 71 

The Image of Pity by an Unknown Master of 

the Fifteenth Century . . . . -74 
Portrait of a Girl — H. Fantin-Latour . . 77 
English Drug and Unguent Pots excavated in 

London ....... 80 

The Lady with the Bird-cage — W. H. Deverell . 92 
La Loge — Auguste Renoir . . . . -99 

On the Wharfe, near Farnley — -T. Girtin . .113 
Rouen Porcelain in Blue and White . . .121 
The Life of a Dutch Artist :— 

Pupil Drawing from Plaster by Candlelight — 

Etching by Rembrandt . . . .129 

Woman Drawing from Plaster — Engraving by 

Brichet after Gabriel Metzu . . . .129 
The Pupil in the Studio — Engraving by 

Wallerant Vaillant 129 

Pupils Drawing and Painting — M. Sweerts . 131 
The Drawing School — Michiel Sweerts . .131 
A Painter's Studio — Adrian van Ostade . . 419 
Rembrandt's Studio — Wash Drawing by Rem- 
brandt 422 

A Painter in his Studio — Painting by Adrian 

van Ostade 422 

A Painter in his Studio — Etching by Adrian 

van Ostade 422 

Youth Drawing after a Picture — Probably by 

Michiel Sweerts 425 

Student Drawing after Plaster — Attributed to 

Ludolf de Jongh 425 

Paintings by Benedetto Bonfigli : — 

The Annunciation, with St. Luke Writing . 135 
Banner of the Brotherhood of St. Bernardine . 135 
Miscellaneous Notes : — 
The Annunciation — Roger de la Pasture . . 140 
Portrait of Lorenzo de' Medici .... 143 
Altar-frontal of French Tapestry made for 

Martin of Aragon and Maria de Luna, 

c. 1397-1407 143 

English Porcelain and Glass recently presented 

to the British Museum by Mr. Charles 

Borradaile ....... 146 

Portrait Study in Miniature of Two Sisters — 

Heinrich Friedrich Fiiger .... 149 
Ulricb Starck— Albert Diirer . . . .153 
Paulus Hofhaimer — Albert Diirer . . . 153 
Carved Wood Watch-stands from the Collection 

of Mr. Charles Edward Jerningham . . 156 
The Soldier and the Laughing Girl — Jan ver 

Meer of Delft 172 

Portrait in Miniature of Madame de Pompadour 

— Francois Boucher ..... 232 
Shutters of a Triptych by Gerard David . . 235 
The ' Virgin of Salamanca ' by the Maitre de 

Flemalle ....... 239 

Tunic from a Cemetery in Egypt . . . 239 

Miscellaneous Notes— continued : — 

Salvers designed and made by the late Gilbert 

Portrait of Augustus Welby Pugin . 

Painting attributed to Francoise Duparc . 

William Caxton presenting the ' Recuyell of 
Troye ' to Margaret of York . 

Portrait of Napoleon I by Jacques-Louis David 3S5 

The Mass of St. Gregory ; formerly in the 
Parish Church of Bonella della Sierra, near 

The Last Judgement, panel of the Reredos in 
the Cathedral of Ciudad Rodrigo . 

The Magdalen anointing the Feet of Christ 

The Resurrection ...... 

Head of Christ, Bruges School; formerly in 
possession of King Theodore of Abyssinia 

The Blessed Virgin and Child resting on the 
Flight into Egypt — Gerard David 
Works by Constantin Meunier : — 

Interior of a Colliery : Drawing 

Furnaces : Pastel 

Miners : Water Colour 

Puddler Resting : Bronze . 

The Soil : Bronze 

La Marteleur : Bronze 
Early French Pate Tendre in the Collection of 
Mr. J. H. FitzHenry:— 

Plate I (Figs. 1-5) 

Plate II (Figs. 28-31) 

Plate III (Figs. 6-27) 

A Rothschild MS. in the British Museum: — 

The Career of Saul 

The Contest between Poverty and Fortune 

Boccaccio Lecturing ..... 

Boccaccio's Interview with Fortune . 

Petrarch's Visit to Boccaccio .... 

The Preaching of Mahomet and the Death of 
Queen Brunhild ...... 

The Last Supper, Crucifixion, Entombment, and 

Resurrection — Andrea dal Castagno 
The Painted Chamber, Westminster : — 

Destroyed Figures of Virtues and Vices — from 
Engravings after Drawings by Stothard 

Fragments of the Virtues .... 

The Coronation Group .... 
English Architectural Leadwork : — 

Plate I — 1. Knole ; 2. Haddon Hall 

Plate II — 3. Dome Alley, Winchester; 4 
Haddon Hall; 5. Haddon Hall; 6. Knole 
7. Hatfield 275 

Plate III — 8. Shrewsbury; 9. Bramhall ; 10 
Bramhall ; 11. Coventry; 12. Knole; 13 
Haddon Hall; 14. Windsor Castle; 15 
Guildford 278 

Plate IV— 1. Haddon Hall; 2. Coventry 
3. Durham Castle; 4. Haddon Hall. 
5. Bideford ; 6. Hatfield ; 7. Frampton . 429 

Plate V.— 8. Bramhall; 9. Bolton Hall; 10 
Condover Hall; 11. Stonyhurst ; 12. Not- 
tingham Museum; 13. Plumbers' Company 
Museum ....... 432 








1 86 








LIST OF PLATES— «>«//;/«*/ 

Sutton Place by Guildford : — 
The Quadrangle, from the North 
The South and East Wings, from the South- 

The small Panelled Hall . 
The Dining-room .... 
The Great Hall .... 
The Long Gallery in the East Wing 
The Great Hall .... 
Opus Anglicanum at the Burlington Fine Arts 
Club : — Portion of the Steeple Aston Cope 

(Altar Frontal) 

Cope in the possession of Colonel J. E. Butler- 
Bowdon ....... 

Panel belonging to St. Dominick's Priory, 

Haverstock Hill 

The Harlebeke Cope, belonging to the Cin- 
quantenaire Museum, Brussels 
A Wall- Paper of the Seventeenth Century at 
Wotton-under-Edge . . . . . 
An Unknown Fresco- Work by Guido Reni : — 
Plate I — Frescoes by Guido and Paul Bril 
Plate II — Ceilings by Orazio Gentileschi : 
The Rape of Proserpine, The Rape of Am- 
phitrite, The Rape of Europa 
Plate III — Ceiling by Giovanni da Udine in 
the Grimani Palace, Venice ; Fresco by 
Guido Reni, with Landscapes by Paul Bril . 
Recently exhibited English Pictures : — 
Portrait of Mr. Vestris — Gainsborough 
Landscape with Figures — John Crome 
Portrait of Mrs. Irwin — Sir Joshua Reynolds 
Study for ' the Egremont Family Piece ' by 
Romney ..... 

Portrait of Pietro Aretino — Titian 
Sculptures by Dalou : — 

Head of Diana ..... 
Torso . . ... 
Study of a Sleeping Child 
Woman Taking off her Stocking 













35 2 


Panels from the Predella of the Altarpiece 
painted by Benozzo Gozzoli : — 
The Death of Simon Magus .... 379 

Miracle of St. Dominic 379 

St. Denis (Rivers of France). — J. M. W. Turner . 408 
Arundel Castle (Rivers of England).— J. M. W. 

Turner . . . . . . . .413 

Two Miniatures by de Limbourg : — 

St. Jerome in his Study ..... 437 

Virgin and Child, with Scenes from the Life of 
the Virgin ....... 437 

Drawing by de Limbourg in the MS. Douce 

144, Bodley's Library, Oxford . . . 440 
The Visitation ....... 443 

The Virgin, with Saints Peter and Paul, 
glorified by the Trinity ..... 443 

Titian's Portrait of Laura de' Dianti : — 

The Portrait in the Collection of Sir Frederick 

Cook, Bart., M.P 451 

Portrait of Alfonso I, duke of Ferrara . . 451 
Copy of the Portrait in the Collection of the 

baron von Lipperheide, Berlin . . . 454 
Copy of the Portrait in the Stockholm Museum 454 
Is Hans Daucher the author of the medals attri- 
buted to Albert Diirer ? 
1, 2, 3. Medals 457 

4. Relief in the Collection of Mr. J. Pierpont 

Morgan .... . . 457 

5. Group from Panel of the Descent into 

Limbo, in St. Ulrich, Augsburg . . 457 
The Deposition ...... 461 

The Holy Family with Attendant Angels. . 461 
The Resurrection ...... 464 

Repose on the Flight into Egypt — Joachim 

Patinir 481 

Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine — Attributed to 

Adrian Isenbrant ...... 484 



Opus Anglicanum : The Pienza Cope : — 

Detail of the Syon Cope ..... 
Detail of the Steeple Aston Cope 
English Porcelain and Glass : — 

The Chelsea triangle-mark .... 
Portrait Drawings by Diirer : — 

Fig. 1. — Hofhaimer at the Organ. Detail from 

' Maximilian at Mass ' . 
Fig. 2. — Hofhaimer at the Organ. Detail from 
' The Triumphal Procession of Maximilian ' . 
The Painted Chamber at Westminster : — 

Figs. 1 and 2. — Elevations of the North and 
South sides of the Chamber .... 258 






The Painted Chamber at Westminster — continued. 

Fig. 3. — Specimen of the Inscriptions 

Fig. 4. — From Cocker's Drawing of Painting . 

Fig. 5. — Pattern of Gesso-work from the margin 

of one of the window jambs . . . . 

Some Florentine Woodcuts 

Figs. 1 and 2 . 

Fig. 3 . ... 

F [ g- 4 
Figs. 5 
Figs. 7 
Arms of 

and 6 . 

and 8 . 

Fernando Ruiz (II) de Castro, count 
of Lemos, Andrade, and Villalba, viceroy of 
Naples, 1599-1601 . . . . . 










E have come to a cri- tions whose loss would be irreparable) ; but 

tical period. Family we need the very finest talent we possess to 

pride no longer pre- cope with the odds against us. While 

vents the most distin- applauding the enterprise of our American 

guished personages in 
England from selling 
the pictures on their walls to the highest 
bidder. Just as the decadent nobles of Italy 
more than a century ago sold their ances- 
tral treasures to the stronger, wealthier 
aristocracy of northern Europe, so that 
aristocracy in its turn is coming to a stand- 
still, and is selling its possessions to the great 
princes of modern finance. The transfer is 
only the inevitable result of the forces or 
evolution, and we need waste no time in 
amenting it, although the change places 
our art treasures within the reach of the 
scientific enterprise of Germany and the 
resources of America. 

For years it has been the fashion to smile 
at the American collector, on the assump- 
tion that he could be satisfied with any 
forgery that an unscrupulous dealer cared 
to plant upon him. Those who made for- 
tunes by such transactions in London and 
Paris are beginning to find their market 
gone. During the last few years the 
Americans have set their house in order. 
Many collectors in the United States now 
possess expert knowledge, almost all now 
obtain good expert advice. American public 
galleries are equally alert. Even in the 
matter of official salaries they are beginning 
to outbid us and to secure directors who 
know the treasures which still remain in 
our private collections. 

We could not hope entirely to stop the 
exodus of our treasures except by legisla- 
tion on the Italian model. For this the 
country is hardly prepared. A really strong 
and capable Director of the National Gallery, 
not to mention the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, would, however, be often able to 
save us from an irreparable loss (and there 
are still works of art in our private collec- 

cousins, we may still cherish a natural wish 
to have the first choice of our art treasures, 
and that choice can only be exercised by a 
man of exceptional experience. 

We rejoice to learn that a matter of so 
much importance is receiving the attention 
it deserves. Mr. Balfour stated in the House 
of Commons on March 15, in answer to 
Colonel Stopford-Sackville, that no appoint- 
ment had yet been made to the directorship of 
the National Gallery, and that the conditions 
of the appointment were under considera- 
tion. It may be presumed that these con- 
ditions include the various points that have 
been raised since The Times first drew 
public attention to the vacancy, such as 
the separation of the Tate Gallery from 
the National Gallery. On that question 
there seems to be something like una- 
nimity among persons interested in art. It 
is recognized that each of these institutions 
should have a responsible and independent 
director of its own. 

It has, indeed, been rumoured in some 
quarters that what is being considered is 
the question whether any director at all 
should be appointed to the National Gal- 
lery. It is true that a member of the 
Royal Academy has suggested that jTi,ooo 
of the small sum annually spent on art out 
of the public purse might usefully be 
diverted to other purposes by leaving the 
directorship vacant. But the suggestion 
has not been taken seriously, and we decline 
to credit a report which is so grave a re- 
flection on Mr. Balfour and his colleagues, 
the more so since in the estimates for 
1905-6 the purchase grant has been in- 
creased from £5,000 to £7,000. It must 
indeed be evident to anyone acquainted, 
however slightly, with the existing artistic 
conditions that never has our great national 

The Burlington Magazine, No. 25. Vol. VII— April 1905 

The Opportunity of the Government 

collection needed more than now a strong 
man at its head. 

Now it is difficult for a Prime Minister, 
however fine his taste and intelligence, to 
give proper attention to the choice of such 
a man, in view of the claims that affairs of 
State and Parliament make upon him. He 
must depend largely on the advice of 
friends, and must be inclined to leave the 
matter to a great extent in the hands of 
others. He is therefore liable, with the 
best intentions in the world, to pass over the 

most suitable men because the claims of a 
friend's friend are pressed upon him, and he 
has not time to go personally into the matter. 
Much greater is this danger when, as at 
present, the directorship of all our three 
chief public museums is, or soon will be, 

All these things point to the conclusion 
arrived at by Mr. Spielmann in his article 
on another page, that the interests of our 
national art demand a Minister whose sole 
business it is to look after them. 


ANY of those who re- 
member that musty and 
doleful place the old 
Architectural Museum 
in Westminster — now, 
fortunately, put to bet- 
ter uses — must wonder 
that we have any architects worthy of the 
name left among us. It would be difficult 
indeed to conceive any worse method of 
training the young student than that of 
hanging on a wall models of half the famous 
gothic capitals in England, isolated from 
their shafts and their natural setting, and 
then expecting the beginner to understand 
the principles on which our great cathe- 
drals were built from this muddle of iso- 
lated and unrelated fragments. 

It is curious that the amateurish taste 
which regarded architecture as ornament 
applied to a framework put up by a builder 
should have lasted so long after the experi- 
ments of Horace Walpole and Beckford 
had become a standing joke, and half-a-cen- 
tury after the death of Pugin, who first 
showed a better way. Nevertheless, the 
heresy still lingers, both in the mind of the 

public and in that of some so-called 'archi- 

We have, therefore, every cause to be 
thankful to the Royal Institute of British 
Architects for taking up the whole ques- 
tion of architectural education in England. 
The Board formed at the Institute's invita- 
tion would appear to be setting about its 
work in a businesslike way, with a view both 
to improving existing methods of teaching 
and to co-ordinating them throughout the 
country. The paper read in February by 
Mr. Reginald Blomfield, A.R.A., before 
the Institute, and printed in vol. xii, No. 8, 
of their Journal, is so entirely sound and 
sensible in its main lines that the success 
of the new system should be assured. The 
matter is one for general congratulation. 
Bad pictures can be hidden in dark corners; 
bad furniture and bad china can vex only 
those who live with them. Bad architec- 
ture, however, is an unavoidable public 
insult to every right-minded man as well 
as a standing disgrace to the nation which 
produced it. All, therefore, must wish 
well to the Board of Architectural Edu- 


[ROM time to time it has 
Ibeen asked whether a Min- 
istry of Fine Arts should 
not be established in this 
lcountry, and whether the 
[protection of such a de- 
partment would not foster the arts as 
effectively as they are fostered under similar 
patronage abroad. This is a proposition 
which I think has been more favoured 
hitherto by artists themselves than by the 
general public. For my own part I have 
had my doubts of the efficacy of the step, 
mainly in view of results we see in other 
countries, and from the opinions expressed 
by many a painter and architect. ' You 
may not rejoice in a grandmotherly nurture 
of the arts,' they have said, ' but you may 
thank Heaven that you have no tyrannical 
ministry, no governmental department to 
dictate and " patronize " official art, no 
minister and his deputies to open every 
exhibition, to attend at every inauguration, 
to make the same written speeches on 
every occasion, to stamp the same charac- 
ter of architecture on every town, to foist 
upon every departmental gallery and mu- 
nicipal museum the great canvases and 
machines which are only painted in the 
hope of such recognition. In fact, in 
England art is free, and that is why you 
have no " school of painting," no disciples, 
but many masters. With you art develops 
naturally ; it is not forced, it is not en- 
couraged this way or patronized that way, 
and your art is the expression of the feeling, 
and represents the character, of the people.' 
It is impossible to deny that there is 
much in the argument. Prosperity of art 
is not necessarily synonymous with the 
prosperity of the artists ; and official con- 
trol of art, however laxly it may be exer- 
cised, has always been regarded in Great 
Britain with mistrust. 

That mistrust has many a time been 
deepened into distrust when the action of 

our legislators has shown us what might 
be expected from a government depart- 
ment. It is not long since Lord Salisbury, 
then premier, in the House of Lords, and 
Sir William Vernon Harcourt, ex-cabinet 
minister, in the House of Commons, 
emptied the vials of their sarcasm — upon 
what ? — upon the finest work of architec- 
tural art which had for a long while been 
erected in the metropolis : Mr. Norman 
Shaw's New Scotland Yard — with the 
laughing approval of both Houses. The 
dignified protest published over the names 
of most of our leading architects may have 
undone part of the foolish mischief; yet 
it could not but have left the two legislative 
bodies in a state of bewilderment as to 
what constitutes nobility and originality 
in the greatest of the arts. On the other 
hand, when we have the good fortune to 
see the Office of Works controlled by such 
men as Lord Esher and Lord Windsor, and 
when we find in the Government one gifted 
with so fine a taste as we recognize in Lord 
Balcarres, we must admit that there are 
hopes for ministers yet. And, moreover, 
may we not entertain the hope that the 
civilizing and refining influence of a Minis- 
try of Fine Arts would be an excellent 
thing primarily for the art-education of the 
Government ? 

The moment is not inopportune for the 
consideration of the question, for by a 
curious and unprecedented coincidence the 
headship of our three most important 
museums is vacant, or about to fall vacant — 
the National Gallery, the Victoria and 
Albert Art Museum, and the British 
Museum. Thus the question as to the co- 
ordination of our public art institutions 
seems ripe for discussion. 

Discontent is rife in respect of several ot 
these institutions. Space is lacking in which 
to enlarge in detail upon these important 
points, but I may touch lightly upon one 
or two. Letters have lately appeared in 

A ^Ministry of Fine zArts ? 

the public press suggesting the suppression 
of the Directorship of the National Gallery 
and the restoration of the simple Keeper- 
ship, the writers forgetting apparently that 
the Directorship was established by a Trea- 
sury Minute (March 27, 1855), when it 
was proved that the Keepership adminis- 
tration existing up to that time had wholly 
broken down (see Report of the Select 
Committee on the National Gallery, 1853). 
On the other hand, the new Treasury Mi- 
nute, put forth when Sir Edward Poynter 
was appointed, so restricted the authority 
of the titular principal of the Gallery that 
the effect was to set up a Director who was 
not allowed to direct, and whose powers, 
which should have been inherent in his 
office, were virtually relegated to the Trus- 
tees, a board of gentlemen of whom, it is an 
open secret, two practically led the others. 
It was a weak and anomalous arrangement, 
by which a couple of trustees habitually 
spoked the wheel and left the nominal 
Director to take the blame. 

The South Kensington Museum suffers 
from a situation far more unsatisfactory ; 
that is to say, the remedy is not so easy ot 
application. When the House of Commons 
Inquiry turned the place inside out and 
suppressed the Science and Art Depart- 
ment, transferring the whole to the Board 
of Education, few, except a handful of 
determined men connected with the De- 
partment, foresaw that a still greater blight 
would soon fall, and that the museum would 
become a mere office of the Secretarial 
Department, hampered in its development 
and in its working. The point need not 
be laboured ; but an eloquent sign of the 
unsatisfactory and irritating condition of 
things may be read in the retirement of 
Sir Caspar Purdon Clarke, involving the 
sacrifice of his pension after a term of a 
long service of years when he might have 
taken an honourable and a well-earned 
rest ; and we now find him ready to take 
service under a new and a foreign master 

who will leave him the free hand denied 
to officials at home. 

Looking beyond these borders we find 
causes for discontent in various directions 
— the National Gallery of Ireland scurvily 
treated, the National Gallery of Scotland 
discreditably starved. 

Now, these matters and many more might 
be set right by the enlightened administra- 
tion of a Ministry of Fine Arts. Such a 
Department would look after the well- 
beina: of each institution without interfer- 
ing with the internal working of any of 
them which give satisfaction — such, for 
example, as the British Museum. All 
these public and semi-public museums 
and art galleries, such as the Dulwich 
Gallery and the Soane Museum, would be 
co-ordinated, and all similar municipal in- 
stitutions which desired to join could be 
merged in the same department. The 
Royal Academy would be left out of ac- 
count, just as the Salons are indepen- 
dent in France, for the governmental touch 
becomes a taint when it interferes with the 
production, as differentiated from the dis- 
posal, of works of art irresponsibly and 
happily created. Moreover, no advantage 
can be gained by any attempt to coerce so 
old an institution which was originally 
designed on wrong and illogical lines ; that 
is to say, it was begun, and is continued, 
as at once a teaching and an exhibiting 
establishment — so that its difficulty of con- 
science is to exhibit on its walls works 
executed in a style of art which it believes it 
cannot, as an ' academy,' honestly and con- 
sistently recommend in its schools. It is in a 
cleft stick. In Paris the Ecole des Beaux- 
Arts and the Salons are entirely different and 
independent institutions, and the difficulty 
from which the Royal Academy suffers 
can consequently never arise there. 

Thus, though a Ministry of Fine Arts 
can buy, commission, and construct, it 
could not be satisfactorily allowed to teach, 
exhibit, or sell, and the lines on which it 

would proceed could be well defined from 
the outset. But there are two other direc- 
tions in which its influence might be 
exerted for the public good, nay, not 
' might,' but should. It should take over 
the duties, the mission, of the Architectural 
Vigilance Committee, and expand them 
into universal application within the three 
kingdoms. Its duty would be to see that 
no artistic offence against taste in our 
public streets and buildings be perpetrated, 
and that control should be exercised with 
the view to beautifying our towns. The 
thing can easily and effectually be done ; 
it is done in France by the Conseil General 
desBeaux-Arts,working under theMinistere 
des Beaux-Arts, and it can be imitated here. 
And it is natural that such work should fall 
to the Government, for no unofficial body 
can arm itself with the necessary authority. 
At the present moment Lord Windsor, 
the First Commissioner of Works, is the 
chairman of the Architectural Vigilance 
Committee, so that a connexion which is 
unofficial and works well might be made 
official and work better. 

And it should take over the important 
office of arranging the British section in 
all international exhibitions. As Mr. 
Isidore Spielmann forcibly declared to the 
Society of Arts the other day, this coun- 
try is always at a great disadvantage in 
comparison with other nations, when in- 
vited to participate in these contests. By 
the time we have accepted the invitation, 
after the Foreign Office has conferred with 
the Treasury, with the Board of Trade, and 
the Home Office, and come to its decision, 
made its appointments, and established its 
committees, other countries have not only 
sent in their adhesion, but have secured the 

A Ministry of Fine Arts? 

best spaces, and spent several months in 
advancing the work of their sections. 
Great Britain is thus permanently handi- 
capped, and even the extraordinary energy 
invariably displayed by those who under- 
take the duties for the credit of the coun- 
try cannot compensate for the disadvantages 
that naturally attend a belated start. In 
France and Germany permanent depart- 
ments exist for the working of interna- 
tional exhibitions ; in the former the office 
has to undertake also local exhibitions at 
home. The intervals between the ending 
of one exhibition and the beginning of 
another are very short, if they occur at all, 
and the advantage is secured that imme- 
diately on an invitation from a foreign 
country being received and accepted, and 
notice of it given to the head official, the 
machinery of the department sets to work 
automatically, with extraordinary saving of 
time, trouble, and expense. 

Such are some of the functions that 
come within the province of a Ministry 
of Fine Arts. I have said nothing of its 
potentiality as an agency for the encour- 
agement of art and artists ; for that is the 
matter which demands more careful and 
independent exposition. The point to be 
established is that such an Office can be 
planned without undue dislocation of ex- 
isting administrations, and that there is 
needed no undue effort of constructive 
ability to simplify and co-ordinate the nu- 
merous derelict art bodies as they exist to- 
day. Moreover, as in the care of the Office 
of Works are so many charges of an artistic 
nature (of our palaces, gardens, public works 
and the like), the Office is naturally marked 
out as the nucleus of a fully established 
Ministry, if such there is to be. 




dimensions being such as would actually 
appear on the canvas had it been transparent 
and placed within a few feet of the model. 

This well-known device to prevent the 
disagreeable effect of a figure's seeming to 
protrude from the frame toward the spec- 
tator appears to have been one of the prin- 
ciples of the make-up of a picture that 
Velazquez held in mind from the beginning. 
Even the bodego/ies, which have so often 
been called 'mere studies' and in no sense 
of the word complete pictures, contain evi- 
dence that in his earliest work Velazquez 
was striving to achieve a pictorial whole, 
and in the few years that followed his pro- 
gress in this particular was phenomenally 
rapid. For example of his care in this 
respect, in the portrait under discussion, 
although no portion of it is slighted, and 
the attempt to make a true record of facts 
is everywhere apparent, all parts do not 
appeal with equal force to the eye. 

First and foremost, the face attracts and 
holds our attention, and it does so, we dis- 
cover, not alone by its intrinsic merit as a 
piece of painting, but partly by reason of 
the subordination of other parts deliberately 
adopted by the painter. The ear, for instance, 
is kept a little lower in tone than the face, 
and is not carried so far in the matter of 
modelling. In the hands, again, a method 
of expression more summary than in the 
head has been chosen, so that they do not 
unduly interest us in rivalry with it. Cos- 
tume and accessories are held down in tone 
and in the degree of detail rendered, and 
everything is balanced and spaced in a way 
to produce an impressive and harmonious 

Before proceeding I will briefly consider 
the possibility that has been suggested by 
several critics of this picture being a copy 
after Velazquez, made by some pupil or 
follower. The three principal men con- 
cerning whom such a possibility would be 
entertained are, naturally, Del Mazo, Pareja, 

'HE recent acquisition by 
the Boston Museum of 
Fine Arts of the picture 
entitled 'Portrait of Philip 
IV of Spain, by Velaz- 
quez,' 1 having aroused 
controversy regarding the 
authenticity of the work, several artists 
(myself among the number) were asked to 
make a critical examination of the paint- 
ing, and the following paper embodies for 
the readers of The Burlington Magazine 
some of the results of my study of the 
subject : — 

The picture is a portrait of Philip at the 
age of eighteen, and is painted in the early 
style of Velazquez, with some phases of 
which we are familiar in his works exe- 
cuted between 1622 and 1630. It retains 
a fair share of the hardness of the bodegones, 
but has in parts a more advanced execution 
and indicates a new conception in regard to 
the management of the materials of his 
composition ; it shows also the change from 
the brown flesh tones of the Sevillian pic- 
tures to the colour-scheme adopted in the 
portraits painted after his arrival in Madrid. 
The canvas resembles in texture that used 
by Velazquez at this period, and measures 
82 by 34J inches. 

Philip is represented at full length (against 
a grey background), dressed in black, with 
light grey golilla and cuffs, 2 wearing a gold 
chain from which depends the Order of 
the Golden Fleece, and standing with feet 
apart by the side of a small table covered 
with a dull crimson cloth trimmed with 
gold. His left hand rests on the hilt of 
his sword, while his right holds a folded 
paper. On the table is placed a high- 
crowned hat having a dark brown feather 
in its band. The figure is slightly under 
life size, as was usual with the artist, its 

1 Reproduced, frontispiece, page 2. 

5 That these were not white, ' kept down ' in the painting to 
enhance the value of the flesh tones, may be seen from the fact 
that the highest light on the golilla and cuffs is far below that 
on the presumably white paper held in Philip's right hand. 



The New Velazquez in the Boston ^Museum 

and Carrefio, and it is not difficult to form 
a definite conception of the artistic per- 
sonality of each from their extant works. 
In no one of these personalities does there 
appear a quality that is deeply characteristic 
of Velazquez — I mean his grasp of realities, 
his almost preternaturally sane understand- 
ing of his subject. So little do they seem 
to have seen that this was the foundation 
of his supremacy that we find in the known 
copies attributed to them only more or less 
successful attempts to imitate what may be 
called the superficial excellences of Velaz- 
quez, such as fluency of execution, ' mas- 
terly touches,' and the like, but scarcely 
the faintest echo of the grasp and concen- 
tration that are so marked in the picture 
we are considering. 

Indeed, we do not find this quality dis- 
played to an equal degree in all of the sub- 
sequent works of the master himself. Take 
the portrait of Philip (Prado, No. 1,070)2 
painted after this one. It shows a com- 
paratively less conscientious and strenuous 
effort to obtain a comprehensive statement 
of the facts of nature. This falling-off was 
no doubt due to his seeking a method that 
should give speedier results. When he has 
developed and amplified his method Velaz- 
quez returns to the more complete render- 
ing of what he saw, and does it with an 
economy of means, an ease, and a dexterity 
that seem to have little in common with 
the laborious struggle evinced in this earlier 
work. Precisely this evidence of a struggle 
and its happy issue tends to confirm belief 
in the authenticity of the picture. It shows 
us the young Velazquez working under the 
conditions to which he must have been 
subjected at the date assigned to the paint- 
ing of this picture. 

His first journey to Madrid in 1622 
having failed of its object, he returned 
there in 1623, and after many uncertainties 
and delays at last the moment arrived 
when the King was actually posing for his 

8 Plate I, page g. 

portrait. We can guess the supreme im- 
portance that Velazquez attached to making 
this a success. To do so, however, he had 
at hand no stock of superficial or facile ex- 
pedients ; the only art he knew was one of 
serious and solid qualities, based on sheer 
rendering of nature. This is the art that 
we see him putting forth to the utmost of 
his ability on this canvas, and we see it 
above all in the head. In it are no sub- 
terfuges or tricks to get an effect cheaply, 
no attempts to evade difficulties. The 
problem is faced fairly and squarely, and is 
solved. It was a task that taxed to the 
utmost his powers of concentrated obser- 
vation and such skill as he possessed with 
brush and pigments, already no incon- 
siderable skill for so young a painter. 
Finally he succeeded in setting down 
firmly and clearly what he saw — not with- 
out some youthful hardness, to be sure, 
yet with wonderful subtlety and truth. 
Especially convincing is the modelling 
around the eyes, as well as the veracity 
and variety of gradation in the hair. The 
entire picture is a monument of conscien- 
tious and sustained effort. Nowhere is 
there any sign of relaxation in the deter- 
mination to make it perfect. 

Examine the outline of the cloak and 
you will see with what minute care it has 
been corrected and recorrected to obtain 
to a hair's breadth the swing and action 
that the painter desired. This matter of 
outline has been a great preoccupation 
throughout the work, and its treatment is 
extremely characteristic of the painter at 
this period. He had not yet mastered the 
art of losing a contour and at the same 
time suggesting it, as he has done eight or 
nine years later in his portrait of Baltasar 
Carlos with the Dwarf, which hangs in 
the same museum, where it is instructive 
to compare the painting, say of the ears, 
with that in the portrait of Philip. In 
this last there is hard definition against the 
background, in spite of the artist's trying 


The New Velazquez in the Boston ^Museum 

not to make the ear too important. There 
may be observed, however, a premonition 
of his later treatment of outline in one 
finger of Philip's left hand, a demonstra- 
tion of the fact that Velazquez was not 
only using resources of painting that he 
already possessed, but was striving then 
and there to devise further means for 
realizing more satisfactorily the aspect of 

And in this connexion it will be of in- 
terest to note some of the immediate re- 
sults of the experimentation revealed in 
these hands. The one holding the paper 
appears to have been painted while the 
artist was still under the influence of the 
sort of work that he had been doing on the 
head ; so that while wishing to make it 
less important he could not help putting 
into it some of the same realization of de- 
tail. Dissatisfied with the result, the hand 
as first done having doubtless competed too 
much with the head, Velazquez seems to 
have tried to take out some of the excess 
of detail, and in so doing left it in the 
slightly confused state in which we now 
see it. But when he came to the other 
hand he broke away from all complica- 
tions and made a much simpler and more 
abstract statement of form, and one that 
if less truthful is also less liable to call 
attention away from the head. In making 
the simplification he probably noticed that 
this hand was more quickly painted than 
the other, and the advantages of a method 
that gave greater facility of production 
would soon become clear to him; for during 
the next few years, working as he did then 
without pupils or assistants, he must have 
been overwhelmed with the numerous 
royal portraits that were demanded of him, 
and have perceived the impossibility of 
keeping pace with these demands unless he 
could hit upon some way of working more 

That he did adopt such a method is 
shown by the full-length portrait of Philip 


in Madrid 4 (of which I have already 
spoken) painted two or three years later 
than the picture in the Boston Museum. 
The increase in freedom of execution is 
very striking, and the face and hands nota- 
bly show us a system in full swing. The 
painter does not now seem to be so com- 
pletely absorbed as heretofore in the im- 
mediate aspect of the nature before him. 
Some preconceived notion is clearly influ- 
encing him. The hands decidedly give 
this impression, and we have to acknow- 
ledge that it almost looks as if he were on 
the point of evolving a typical hand, to be 
ever after repeated in the manner of Van 
Dyck. Happily such a fear is groundless, 
as subsequent events prove. For in spite 
of the growing assurance displayed on this 
canvas, Velazquez does not become com- 
placent, nor does he contentedly degenerate 
into mannerism. On the contrary, he 
experiments further, he expands his system, 
developing its resources until he is able to 
express by it as much as he has done by 
the earlier and more painstaking method 
which we see so well exemplified in the 
head of the Boston picture. 

To pursue the subject of the full deve- 
lopment of the art of Velazquez would carry 
me beyond the limits of this paper, in 
which my purpose is to show its place in 
that development and to vindicate the good 
name of a picture that has been unaccount- 
ably looked upon askance. And I think 
that I have said enough to show that its 
handling is exactly such as we might look 
for in the work of Velazquez at this date, 
1623. The great gap between his Sevil- 
lian pictures and the Prado portrait, 
No. 1070 (usually assigned to the year 
1623), has often been remarked. It has 
seemed altogether abnormal that he should 
all at once jump from the bodegone style and, 
over-night as it were, appear before us in 
the guise of a self-confident man of the 

4 This applies also to the head in the bust portrait (Prado, 
No. 1071) reproduced on Plate II, which is the study made from 
life in painting No. 1070. 

' Mlt 

4S ®5 





PI -.1 E II. 

The New Vela 


in the Boston ^Museum 

world with a fluent system of painting at 
command. Now if we push forward the 
date of the Prado portrait to 1 625 or 1 626, 
as we are justified in doing hy the apparent 
age of Philip in it, the change of style is 
much more easily accounted for. The 
painter's life at court for a space of two or 
three years, the prestige of royal favour 
shown him, incessant work and rapid pro- 
duction, would all tend to the result that we 
find in this canvas. 

On the other hand, if 1623 be taken as 
the year in which the Boston picture was 
painted, we have the gap between the two 
phases of his early manner partly bridged 
over, not wholly so, it must be said, for 
probably this picture was immediately pre- 
ceded by a number of transitional works 
(now for the most part lost sight of), done 
under some strong influence 5 that must 
have come into the artistic life of Velaz- 
quez about this time. Another reason for 
making 1623 the date of the Boston pic- 
ture is that the subject seems to be about 
eighteen years old, the age of Philip in 
that year. 

I must notice here the assertion that has 
been made to the effect that this is not a 
portrait of Philip, but of one of his younger 
brothers, either Carlos or Fernando. It is 
true that at first sight the face appears to 
differ (noticeably in the chin) from that 
shown in what has been hitherto con- 
sidered the earliest portrait of Philip by 
Velazquez, namely Nos. 1070 and 1071 in 
the Prado Museum. But it also differs 
quite as much from the portraits of Carlos 6 
(No. 1073) and Fernando 6 (No. 1075) in 
the same museum. In the case ot Philip 
the discrepancy can be sufficiently ac- 

s Such an influence would have to be assumed to explain the 
sudden change from the dark bodegone effects (reminiscent of the 
Tenebrosi) to the searching for luminosity that becomes so dis- 
tinct a feature in his early Madrid portraits, and indeed Palomino 
says plainly enough that his admiration for the works of Tristan 
(the pupil of El Greco) caused a great change in Velazquez's 
early method of painting — a statement, however, that has been 
questioned by recent writers. One of the transition works 
alluded to above may be found, I think, in the head of Gongora 
(Prado, No. 1085). 

6 Plate II, page 13. 

counted for by the different way in which 
the light falls in the Prado and Boston 
pictures, and the altered aim of the painter. 
Whereas in the cases of the other supposed 
subjects the divergences are not suscepti- 
ble of such explanation. 

A comparison in detail confirming this 
assertion can easily be made with the aid 
of photographs, and I need not particu- 
larize further than to mention one or two 
points which seem decisive. In the face 
of Carlos it will be observed that the eye- 
brows rise toward the temples (or descend 
toward the nose) and are strongly defined. 
In the fice of Philip (Prado, No. 1,070) 
this direction does not exist, and the eye- 
brows resemble those in the Boston picture 
in this respect as well as in being incon- 
spicuous. These last two portraits also 
coincide in the construction of the ear, 
the lower part of which closely joins the 
cheek, and has almost no lobe, but in the 
portrait of Fernando (Prado, No. 1,075) 
the ear detaches itself sharply from the head 
and has a well-developed lobe. 

It does not, I think, require further dis- 
cussion to dispose of a suggestion due to the 
strong family likeness that existed between 
the three brothers, and to prove that the 
Boston picture cannot be the portrait of 
either Carlos or Fernando, but must be that 
of Philip. 

The age of the subject then, together 
with the character of the work, would place 
the execution in the year 1623, and it may 
well be the portrait mentioned by Pacheco 7 
as having been done on August 30 of that 
year, unless we choose to believe that this 
is a replica by Velazquez himself of his 
original picture now lost. We might sur- 
mise that such an original once existed on 
the same canvas and under the Prado por- 
trait (No. 1,070), for this has been painted 

" Francisco Pacheco — ' Arte de la Pintura,' lib. i, cap. viii. 
It has frequently been taken for granted that this was an eques- 
trian portrait, but, as pointed out by Beruete, Pacheco does not 
explicitly say so, and in fact I should conclude from the passage 
cited that he was distinctly referring to a picture that preceded 
the equestrian portrait. 


T/ic New Velazquez in the Boston ^Museum 

over a figure that followed the main lines of 
the Boston portrait, as can be partly seen 
in the photograph, hut better in the picture 
itself, where we vaguely discern the outlines 
of the spreading cloak and a shadowy pair 
of legs standing apart, as they do in the 
earlv picture. 

This can hardly he called conclusive proof 
of the supposition, and as against it we have 
the apparent impossibility that even the 
master himself could have given to a replica 
such vital qualities as we find in the work 
under discussion. Still, such was the power 
of his genius that I am not prepared to say 
that Velazquez could not have repeated 
himself with all the vigour of a first im- 
pression. The corrections in the outline of 
the cloak already noted in the Boston picture 
as well as the experiments tried in the hands 
would seem to count against the theory of 
its being a replica, and it has besides all the 
aspect ot a painting directly from nature. 
Its state of preservation is unexpectedly 
satisfactory, in spite of some retouchings, 
chiefly in the background and foreground, 

and of re-lining, which usually detracts 
from the freshness of the surface. 

Take it all in all, we have every reason 
for congratulation in its having survived 
with so little damage, for it is a picture that 
must always be precious to painters and to 
students of Velazquez, both for its admirable 
qualities as a work of art and as marking a 
most important stage in his development 
and career. 

Note. — There exists in the palace of the 
dukes oi Villahermosa in Madrid a portrait 
of Philip IV, called bvjusti a school copy, 
in reference to the Prado portrait No. 1,070, 
but which is identical in general design with 
the picture in the Boston Museum, though 
(if an inference can be drawn from an 
unsatisfactory photograph) interior in 

Having had only a brief glimpse of the 
picture itself by insufficient light, I cannot 
express an opinion as to whether it is or is 
not a replica from the hand of Velazquez 


INCE the treasures of Pe- 
Ikin have twice been looted 
by the civilized peoples of 
the west, many Chinese 
works of art of one kind or 
[another have passed into 
the possession of European and American 
collectors. Among these works of art 
Chinese paintings perhaps hold the first 
rank, and those who have made any study 
of them are already realizing that, from an 
aesthetic point of view, the Chinese pain- 
ters were far in advance of the artists of 
Europe. This was proved by the admir- 
able article by Mr. Laurence Binyon, 
which appeared in The Burlington 
Magazine for January 1904. It would 
hardly be extravagant to prophesy that 
the next movement of European art (which 
for the moment seems to have exhausted 
the possibilities of realism) may take the 
form of a return to the principles enun- 
ciated by the Chinese more than a thou- 
sand years ago. The still older craft of 
bronze-working has fewer students, but in 
a more limited way it is hardly less im- 
portant than Chinese painting. 

Till quite recently the literature on the 
subject was exceedingly scanty ; the chief 
authorities being the Chinese catalogues 
(two of which can be studied at the Bri- 
tish Museum x ), some fragmentary notes in 
A. Favier's ' Peking,' and the picturesque 
and interesting survey of Chinese art in 
general, by M. Paleologue, in the series 
published by the Maison Quantin. Since 
these notes were originally compiled for 
delivery in the form of a lecture, the first 
volume of Dr. Bushell's handbook on 
Chinese art at the Victoria and Albert 
Museum has appeared, and has at once 
become the standard work on the subject. 

1 Po-koo-too (B.M. 15299. b. 1). Figures of a great number 
of antiquities. Composed in a.d. 1200. The plates in this are 
somewhat roughly engraved. 

Setsing-koo-kem (B.M. 15299. d. 1), 42 vols. Peking, 1749-50. 
Folio. Memoirs of antiquities in the Western purity (palace). 
Composed for the Emperor Kien-lung. The illustrations in this 
work are exquisitely cut. 

If then the present article does no more 
than help some readers of The Burlington 
Magazine to appreciate the scholarly 
treatise of Dr. Bushell, it will have served 
its purpose. 

In tracing the chronological sequence 
of Chinese works of art one great diffi- 
culty has to be overcome. The rever- 
ence of the Chinese for the past, of which 
their ancestor worship is the most promi- 
nent sign, extends to all the arts to such a 
degree that Chinese artists, generation after 
generation, seem to consider that the per- 
fect consummation of their craft consists 
in the repetition of ancient designs. With 
Chinese porcelain this is so much the case 
that a date mark can never be accepted by 
itself as a proof of the age of a piece. It 
is no more than an indication of the period 
whose style the maker was copying. 

Thus in the case of Chinese bronzes the 
shape of the ancient ritual vessels has been 
followed almost to the present day. It 
is only by a study of their development 
and by a close examination of the work- 
manship, the decoration, and the patina 
that we can decide what the approximate 
age of any bronze really is. The national 
regard for antiquity has been especially 
strong in the case of Chinese bronzes. 
The Chinese themselves have recognized 
that working in bronze is the oldest of 
their national arts, and the few archaic 
specimens that were preserved or discovered 
or excavated in the country have been re- 
garded with the greatest veneration. This 
reeling explains the fact that ancient 
bronzes formed one of the most important 
sections of the Imperial Museum at Pekin. 

It is to the looting of that museum 
that the collections at South Kensington, 
of the late M. Cernuschi at Paris, and of 
several American orientalists owe their 
chief treasures. Pekin, however, was 
looted without much system, and many fine 
bronzes have thus drifted into private 


^Archaic Chinese Bronzes 

collections. Though for the time being 
they have only the value of curiosities, 
their importance to the future student of 
the art of China deserves to be recognized 
more fully than has been the case hitherto. 

The few known remains of Chinese monu- 
mental sculpture dating before the Chris- 
tian era, and the Buddhist images in Chinese 
temples dating from the first few centuries 
after the Christian era, do not in any way 
prepare us for the sustained excellence of 
Chinese bronzes of the same date. The 
archaic reliefs are childish, the temple 
statues are florid, conventional, and fantastic. 
One or two portrait statues of considerable 
excellence exist in private collections, but 
until our knowledge of China is far more 
complete than it is at present we must 
presume that the nation has never possessed 
any noble school of monumental sculpture. 
Chinese bronzes thus represent the plastic 
art of the country in its most perfect form. 

Within the limits of the present article 
it is impossible to follow the development 
of the craft beyond the Christian era. If 
the bronzes of the Han and succeeding 
dynasties are to be dealt with, they must be 
dealt with in a subsequent article. The in- 
troduction of Buddhism into China shortly 
after the Christian era effected so drastic a 
change in all the arts that the Christian 
era becomes the natural point of division. 

The Chinese bronzes produced after the 
Christian era and the decorative bronzes 
of Japan (which sometimes are hardly to 
be distinguished from them) have often 
grace and ingenuity, and almost always 
display wonderfully skilful workmanship. 
These qualities alone, however, would not 
entitle Chinese bronzes to the serious con- 
sideration of artists and collectors. The 
more ancient specimens possess in addition 
that majestic simplicity of form which 
makes the sculpture of Egypt and Assyria 
with all its defects undeniably and inimit- 
ably monumental. Assyria, by the way, 
in the opinion of many sinologists, was the 


original source of Chinese culture. There 
are certainly many points of connexion, 2 
although we have no positive proof of any 
racial identity. Assyria, however, is not 
the only country with which the earlier 
phases of Chinese art suggest resemblances. 
In the archaic pottery of Peru and Mexico 
we constantly meet with a similar treat- 
ment of form and similar decorative motives. 
Thus it needs no very great stretch of the 
imagination to picture the spread of the 
ancient Chaldaean civilization through 
China to the sea coast, and from that coast 
across the ocean to the western shores of 

I have suggested that the character of 
these ancient specimens of Chinese art is 
monumental. Monumental art fascinates 
us by the sense of power which it conveys ; 
yet the power which inspires the metal- 
work of the pre-historic Chinese is not its 
only fascination. 

European ideals of art, however much 
they may be varied in different ages and 
different countries, have one thing at least 
in common. Though they may not always 
' make for righteousness,' they seldom 
appear in conflict with it. The devils of 
Notre Dame, of Hieronymus Bosch, or of 
'Hell' Brueghel are devilish only that 
sinners may be frightened and that righ- 
teousness may seem more fair. Power, in 
fact,with a European artist is rendered attrac- 
tive by combining it with grace and virtue. 

The ancient Chinese artists do just the 
reverse. They use their strength to glorify 
the terrible, trie malignant, and the merci- 
less. We know practically nothing of the 
people for whom the earliest bronzes were 
made, yet when we have once studied them 
we shall understand the Chinese character 
better. We shall see that, under her ancient 
civilization, under all her traditions of 
duty, reverence, and honesty, and under her 
philosophical good breeding, there lives a 

5 The recent discoveries in Eastern Chaldea seem to confirm 
this connexion. 


< u 

u < 

< - 



cruelty which, if it once be aroused, can 
transform the cultured disciple of Confucius 
into a ferocious savage. Painting and por- 
celain began to flourish after China had 
been disciplined by the gentle doctrine of 
Buddha. It is only in the far older art of 
working in bronze that this sterner side of 
Chinese national character can be seen. 

Apart from their archaeological interest 
and from their beautv of form, Chinese 
bronzes have a quality of substance which 
no other bronzes exhibit. The beautitul 
green patina which we see on Creek and 
Roman statues, and the more elaborate 
coloured patinas discovered by the ingenuity 
of the Japanese, are dull compared with the 
brilliant and jewel-like incrustation with 
which fine specimens of Chinese bronze 
are adorned. The formation of this patina 
is said to be due to the action of the soil 
upon the proportions of tin, zinc, and lead 
included in the alloy. It is sometimes 
forged with mixtures of wax, but the 
forgery being soft can easily be detected. 

Though Chinese annals refer the art of 
bronze-working to some two thousand 
years before the Christian era, very few of 
the pieces which survive appear to be 
older than the Chou dynasty (b.c. 1122- 
255). A certain number of specimens, 
however, survive which can almost cer- 
tainly be referred to the older dynasty of 
Shang (b.c. 1766— i 122), and with these we 
must begin our chronological series. 

1 . Sacrificial bowl and cover. — Inscribed, 
' Sacrificial bowl and cover made for the 
tomb of Cheng Shu of Lu. May it for 
10,000 years be ever preserved anu. used.' 3 

Though the South Kensington label 
merely describes this as ' much restored,' 
perhaps anterior to the third century B.C., 
I venture to regard it as one of the very 
oldest pieces of Chinese bronze in Europe, 
dating perhaps from the middle of the 
Shang dynasty, about 1 500 b.c The resto- 
rations themselves indicate great antiquity 

3 Plate II, page 21. 

zArchaic Chinese Bronzes 

and value ; but the heavy, solid form, simple 
decoration, and rude execution, point still 
more definitely to a very early date. The 
barbaric treatment of the monstrous heads 
on the handles can hardly be merely archa- 
istic, since their handling shows the clumsy 
brutality of primitive work. 

2. Temple vessel. — Russet patina. 4 A 
very ancient example of the altar vessel 
still used in Chinese temples. It probably 
dates from considerably before iooo b.c, 
since it is evidently much older than two 
similar vessels at South Kensington dated 
750 b.c Though the original is only about 
15 inches high, its proportions give it an 
air of almost menacing greatness, like that 
of some colossal building, an air which is 
accentuated by the savage effect of the 
projections on its surface. Similar pieces 
seem to have been manufactured right up 
to the earlier part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, and the form is thus comparatively 
common both in bronze and in enamel. 

3, 4. Sacrificial cup with cover decorated 
with figures of monsters. — Green patina. 5 
The archaic workmanship and patina of 
this specimen indicate a very early date 
apart from the evidence of the decora- 
tion. Its interest lies in the fact that it 
affords a primitive representation of the two 
chief symbolical monsters of China — the 
Taotieh (ogre, glutton), the symbol of the 
powers of the earth, and the Dragon, the 
symbol of the powers of the air. Worship 
of the elements formed a large part of the 
early Chinese religion. The vessel was 
probably used for the wine libation, and 
its form suggests that it may have been 
the precursor of the dragon-handled cups 
which, according to Dr. Bushell, in the 
later ritual superseded the helmet-shaped 
tripod libation vessels. 

The Taotieh or demon of the earth looks 
up from the back of the vessel. A larger 
and more perfect version of his unpleasing 
features will be found on the vessel repro- 

* Plate III, page 24. 

4 Plate II, page 21. 


zArchaic Chinese Bronzes 

duced in fig. 7. His lineaments in a 
conventional form can be traced on the 
hodv ot the cup, combined with the so- 
called ' Greek key pattern,' a symbol of 
the clouds among which the dragon lives. 
The same decorative motive, emblem at 
once ot earth and heaven, will be found 
not only in still more ancient pieces such 
as fig. 2, but in bronze and porcelain of 
comparatively modern date. Indeed a series 
of examples might be formed showing the 
Taotieh in every stage, from the realism of 
fig. 7 to the merest conventional pattern 
on a piece ot eighteenth-centurv porcelain. 
To trace the development of the Dragon 
is more difficult, and it is with some hesita- 
tion that I suggest that he began his career 
as a bull-headed snake. The monstrous 
handles in fig. 1 would then be only an 
earlier form of the horned beast with grin- 
ning teeth and glaring golden eyes that sur- 
mounts this less ancient vessel. 

A further development then follows. 
Between the horns projects a smaller head, 
like that of an archaic Greek bull, attached 
to a rudely fashioned serpent body with a 
curling tail which runs along the top of 
the piece. Here in tact we seem to have 
the Dragon in embryo, and a connecting 
link is supplied by the Chinese catalogue 
of the Imperial Collection, where an 
ancient bronze is figured round which is 
coiled a serpent with a monstrous bulbs 
head. Add a pair of feelers and four claws 
and we have the full-blown dragon. 

The satyr-like face which decorates the 
handle ot the piece may also be traced in 
later work, getting more and more conven- 
tional, and in the process losing his alert 
and halt-human animalism. 

5. Sacrificial tripod. — Fine green patina. 6 
Described on the Museum label as anterior 
to the first century b.c. It is certainly 
much older, and Dr. Bushell's attribution 
to the Shang dynasty, i.e. before 1 100 B.C., 
seems more probable. The tripod ba^e is 


decorated with an archaic and convention- 
alized form of the Taotieh monster. The 
vessel was used tor cooking sacrificial 
offerings of grain. 

6. Sacrificial wine vase. — Russet patina. 7 
An archaic example of one of the most 
graceful and riower-like forms which 
Chinese bronze can assume. It will be 
recognized as the original model not only 
of some ot the most perfect pieces of 
Chinese porcelain, but also of many of the 
charming bronzes of Japan. Pieces of this 
form figure largely in the catalogues of the 
Imperial Collection already mentioned. 
For the study ot Chinese bronzes, these 
catalogues are invaluable, the more so be- 
cause they compel us to recognize that the 
specimens we possess are far from doing jus- 
tice to the power and beauty displayed by the 
ancient Chinese craftsmen. The specimen 
figured may date from the earlier part of 
the Chou dynasty, that is to say from about 


7. Sacrificial wine vessel. — Russet and 
green patina. s This magnificent specimen 
ot bronze-work illustrates the art at its 
culminating point towards the latter half 
of the Chou dynasty, about 600 b.c In 
it archaic grandeur of form is allied with 
the utmost finish of execution. The real- 
istic head ot the Taotieh on the front is the 
most striking motive of the decoration, but 
the spirit and delicacy of the maker are 
exhibited more clearly in the exquisitely 
modelled serpents' heads on the handles. 

Yet even their poisonous serenity is less 
terribly impressive than the effect of a 
similar but more archaic vessel in the 
Cernuschi Collection. Here the whole 
surface is uniformly decorated with round 
bosses, but on the body of the vase there 
are the prints ot two huge hands worked 
deep into the metal, as if some mighty 
being had grasped it in a grip so terrible 
that the bronze had become like clay under 
his touch. 

Plate IV, pa 

Hate V, page 30. 

no. 5 

NO. 6 




NO 7 

NO. 8 


The earliest of the interesting vessels in 
the form of real animals should perhaps be 
referred to this period. The wine vase in 
the shape of a rhinoceros, or hippopotamus, 
at South Kensington will serve as an ex- 
ample of the way in which the forms of 
bulls, rams, and deer were utilized by the 
Chinese bronze workers. The elephant 
does not seem to have been used as a de- 
corative motive till the early part of the 
Han dynasty (about 200 B.C.), when animal 
and bird forms become comparatively 
common. These lead up to the employment 
of the human figure in the first century 
a.d., when the Buddhist influence first 
appears in Chinese work. This introduc- 
tion of realistic forms, however, does not 
mark an advance in the art, but rather a 
decline. The Chinese national genius is 
greatest when it deals with the elemental 
monsters of its imagination. Nevertheless, 
at first the decline is hardly noticeable, and 
the earliest specimens of inlaid work that 
we possess, which would seem to be nearly 
contemporary with the finest period of 
pure bronze-work, show but little failure 
of spirit. 

8. Vessel in the form of a duck. — Inlaid 
with gold and silver, emerald and vermilion 
patina. 9 This, the earliest specimen of in- 
laid metal-work at South Kensington, pos- 
sibly dates from about 600 b.c. The colour- 
effect produced by the combination of gold, 
silver, and bronze, with a fine patina of 
vermilion and emerald green is magnificent. 
The workmanship, though ruder than that 
of any other specimens I have seen, is more 
elaborate than would be possible had the 
art been in its infancy, and we must pre- 
sume that inlaying began several centuries 
before the date of this piece. Dr. Bushell 
states that these vessels were used for 
wine ; but one tradition represents them as 
being placed on the table at imperial feasts, 
and filled with water for the use of guests 

9 Plate V, page 30. 

^Archaic Chinese Bronzes 

who feared to disgrace the Emperor's pre- 
sence by getting drunk. This, or a similar 
vessel, was in the collection of the Emperor 

9. Flask with co"t>er in the form of a mon- 
ster s head. — Inlaid with gold and silver, 
emerald green patina. 10 This splendidspeci- 
men of metal work must be rather later in 
date than the previous example. The in- 
lay and the surface are far more delicately 
finished, and the date of 500 B.C. seems 
reasonable for it. The monster's head upon 
the cover is so grandly conceived in the 
manner of the finest archaic work, that it 
is incredible that the piece should be so 
late as the Han dynasty, although the 
beauty and finish of its execution recall 
the delicate pieces of inlay produced during 
that epoch. This vessel also would appear 
to have been in the collection of the Em- 
peror Kien-lung. 

With it we may fitly conclude the pre- 
sent series of notes. The later bronzes of 
China are perhaps more evenly skilful than 
the work of the Shang and Chou dynas- 
ties, while contact with Buddhist India 
and Mussulman Persia introduce many 
graceful and interesting forms into the 
somewhat stiff and limited designs of earlier 
ages. Nevertheless those designs, whether 
they are inspired by the barbaric force of 
the Shang dynasty or by the exquisite 
malevolence of the Chou dynasty, have a 
grandeur which makes all subsequent 
plastic art in China, and almost all plastic 
art in Japan, by comparison seem feminine 
or contorted. We may, however, under- 
stand this remarkable form of art more 
completely, when some of the fine oriental 
collections in America are better known. 

Note. — All the pieces illustrated are in 
the Victoria and Albert Museum, with the 
exception of the piece numbered 3 and 4, 
which is in the writer's collection. 

10 Plate I, page 18. 



NDER Charles I a vast 
[quantity of the royal plate 
|had become alienated or 
pledged, even before the 
necessitous times of the 
'Civil War. Indeed, from 
1 625, when the king's expensive favourite, 
the duke of Buckingham, and the earl of 
Holland were commissioned to convey a 
large quantity of gold and silver plate to 
Holland for sale or pledge, until 1641, 
when Parliament accused the queen of 
having conveyed another large consign- 
ment of royal plate to the same destination, 
the process of depletion of the Treasury 
continued. In those days the king dined 
in public in royal state, as seen in the pic- 
ture by Van Barren at Hampton Court, 
and the great traditional decoration of the 
banqueting hall was the buffet of several 
stages loaded with plate. The voids 
created perhaps had to be filled, and from 
failing revenues. A disposition to produce 
plate disproportionate as to its display to 
the weight of silver employed indeed now 
becomes evident for the first time in the 
history of the silversmith's craft in Eng- 
land. Flat, hollow ware, such as dishes 
and saucers, of extremely thin metal, crudely 
designed and executed, make their first ap- 
pearance as the troubled times of about 
1 634 are approached. Several of these are 
illustrated in the large work on ' Old Silver 
Work,' recently published by Messrs. Bats- 

The idea of embossing relatively ex- 
tremely thin silver into dishes, etc., seems 
to have reached us from Holland at a time 
when the king's court was much frequented 
by artists and others from that country ; for 
those produced are not in English contem- 
porary taste. Sir Samuel Montagu pos- 
sesses a large oval dish, two feet in length, 
which, though made here, is in Dutch taste, 
with its embossings of tulips and roses. 


Under the Commonwealth the innate 
English taste for plain and massive useful 
silver reasserted itself, but with the restora- 
tion of the monarchy comparatively thin 
embossed silver again became the mode. 
The well-known caudle cups and covers 
on mounted salvers, boldly embossed with 
tulips and acanthus decoration, appear as 
early as 1658. It was not, however, till 
towards the end of the reign that any os- 
tentatious use of silver set in. This was, 
no doubt, in the first place due to the ex- 
ample set by Spain, gorged with precious 
metals from the New World, where the 
indispensable brasero was commonly made 
in silver, as well as bedsteads, baths, and 
almost every article of furniture. Madame 
de Motteville affords glimpses of the tables 
of silver and the silver balustrade to the bed 
of the Spanish queen of Louis XIII ; and 
Sully mentions that the father-in-law of 
Fouquet, who was Controller-General of 
Castille, possessed furniture, such as was 
elsewhere of wood, made of solid silver. 

With such examples Louis XIV was not 
likely to let the court silversmiths languish 
for want of patronage, and they were kept 
actively employed. Work on the most 
grandiose scale was produced for him in 
the ateliers of the Louvre, and at the estab- 
lishment subsequently known as the Gobe- 
lins. So massive was it that, whenever the 
king's coffers failed, it was immediately 
melted and minted. Much as Charles II 
might have desired to vie with this magnifi- 
cence, either good sense or necessity prevail- 
ed, and our 'silver age ' continued to make a 
display, without locking up such masses of 
the precious metal as to lead to its entire 
consignment to the melting pot. The sil- 
ver toilet tables, so splendid in effect, are 
of wood coated with plaques of embossed 
silver, and the tall gueridons which flanked 
them and the frames of the mirrors are 
similarly constructed. The silver sconces 



'Al BEA K E R S . 






are also embossed, and the imposing pot- 
pourri jars and garnitures are of sheet silver, 
none too stout, but rich in effect. These 
are still to be seen in some of the houses 
of the great. The most notable sets be- 
long to Lord Sackville, Earl Cowper, the 
the earl of Home, and the duke of Rut- 
land. The little-known series belonging to 
the duke of Portland yields to none of these, 
either in number or quality, and as no suite 
has yet been illustrated in its entirety, no 
apology is needed for presenting it to our 

The Welbeck suite comprises two sets, 
one of them English and the other Dutch. 
The Dutch suite includes the three covered 
jars illustrated, 1 the centre one being 
1 6|inches high and weighing 87 oz., while 
the smaller pair, in a somewhat mutilated 
condition, weigh but 85 oz. together. With 
these are the two pairs of flask-shaped vases 
shown in illustrations 3 and 4.* All 
were produced at the Hague, and bear the 
seventeenth - century corporate mark— a 
bird on a shield under a coronet ; the seven- 
teen-century state control mark — a ram- 
pant lion on a shield under a coronet ; and 
the date-letter E on a shield under a coro- 
net, not hitherto determined. The large 
jar and the two covered flasks have in ad- 
dition an anchor for maker's mark ; and 
the gourd-shaped flasks bear for maker's 
mark A Lconjoined between pellets beneath 
a hunter's horn on a shaped shield under 
acoronet. The covered bottles are finches 
high, and weigh 53 oz. ; the uncovered 
are nearly 1 6 inches high, and weigh 88 oz. 

The English suite is the handsomer and 
more massive with finer embossing. Thus, 
though the large jar 3 is only ij inches 
higher than the Dutch it weighs 103 oz. 
against 87 oz. The fine pair of covered 
beakers, 14 inches high, which accompany 
it, 3 weigh jy oz., and the set is completed 
by the two covered jars, 8 inches high, 
weighing 48 oz., seen in No. 4, 2 finely 

1 No. 1, Plate I, page 33. 2 p] a t e II, page 36. 

3 No. 2, Plate I, page 33. 

Charles II Silver at JVelbecl^ 

embossed with tulips and anemones. Both 
the large jars are minutely described and 
figured to a large scale in 'Old English 
Silver,' recently published by Batsford. 

These pot-pourri jars and garnitures are 
oriental in their shapes, following fairly 
closely the well-known outlines of Chinese 
and Japanese pottery, which had begun to 
find its way into Holland and England in 
the reign of Elizabeth. The ' Chinese ' 
surface decoration which was then being 
applied extensively to silver ware in Eng- 
land, was evidently not considered suitable 
to such purely decorative pieces, which 
had to hold their own amidst the heavy 
brocades, tapestry, pictures, and gilded 
furniture of the palatial abodes of the 
last quarter of the seventeenth century. 
A bold surface decoration in high relief 
was required, and this must have been taken 
at the outset to some extent from the 
French, though with a Dutch rendering. 
Acanthus leaves, festoons of fruit, arrange- 
ments of tulips, roses, and anemones, laurel 
wreaths and pendants, all in matted work, 
relieved with burnishing, with sometimes 
gadroons, cameos, or amorini, were the 
stock designs, applied in a broad effective 
manner and not courting too close an in- 

The suites seem, unlike the garnitures 
of Chinese porcelain which inspired them, 
to have been got together at different times, 
and the pieces not all from one maker. 
Few of them are marked or dated, plate 
for the King's use being exempt from duty, 
and His Majesty having good naturedly 
' franked ' that for his entourage also. Or 
the Welbeck suite only the covered beakers 
are marked, — C L reversed in monogram 
under a sun, date 1676. Of the suite at 
Belvoir, comprising six covered jars, a pair 
of beakers \h\ inches high, and a pair of 
flask-shaped vases, only the latter are marked 
with T I and two scallops, probably for 
Thomas Issod, 1681. The suites at Knole 
and Panshanger are without marks. No 


£harles II Silver at Welbecl^ 

piece bears any crest or armorial bear- 
ings, and records of their purchase have 
not so tar been met with in any pub- 
lished household accounts. 

They were, however, extremely popular, 
and the jars are frequently represented in 
the well-known pictures of still-life by 
Peter Roestraten, a son-in-law and pupil of 
the great Frans Hals. He was born in 1627, 
and died in London at the age of 71. 
There are examples of his paintings, in- 
cluding such jars, at Hampton Court and 
Chatsworth. A gilt jar of slightly different 
shape is represented in the portrait of Mary 
Davis by Sir Peter Lely in the National 
Gallery. It was the display made by these 
and the silver tables, guer/'dons, sconces, 
andirons, and mirrors that excited the ire 
of Evelyn, who wrote as to his visit to the 
duchess of Portsmouth's room in White- 
hall Palace : ' That which engaged my 
curiosity was the rich and splendid furni- 
ture of this woman's apartments, now twice 
or thrice pulled down and rebuilt to satisfy 
her prodigal and expensive pleasures, whilst 
Her Majesty does not exceed some gentle- 
men's ladies in furniture and accommoda- 
tion. Here I saw the new fabric of French 
tapestry, .... japan cabinets, screens, 
pendule clocks, great vases of white plate, 
tables, stands, chimney furniture, sconces, 
branches, braseras, etc., all of massive silver, 
and out of number, besides some of His 
Majesty's best paintings.' And again, in 
1675, 'such many pieces of plate, whole 
tables, and stands of incredible value.' In 
1673 Evelyn visited Goring House, and 
was struck with the ' silver jars and vases, 
cabinets, and other so rich furniture ' of the 
countess of Arlington's dressing room. 
This must about coincide with their first 
introduction into England, as Evelyn adds 
that he had seldom seen such. 

Silver braziers, like the warming pans, 
were indispensable articles in the sleeping 
or dressing apartments of the great. None 
have escaped destruction ;' but if we may 


judge from the iron braziers still preserved 
at Hampton Court, they were large flat- 
tened basins with wide rim and domed and 
perforated covers, standing upon tripods. 
Their use penetrated from Spain to the 
Low Countries and France. Louis XIV 
possessed eight in 1689, most of them 
chased in large gadroons and decorated 
with masks, festoons, and foliage, and they 
stood on ball, dragon, or griffin leet ; five 
are distinguished as braziers d'argent cfEs- 
pagne. In the same year their production 
and sale was forbidden in France, as were 
many other large pieces of plate, because 
they absorbed so much of the silver needed 
for currency. Used at the same time were 
stands for burning incense or pastilles. The 
earl of Chesterfield possesses an exquisite 
specimen of French design of the period of 
Louis XIII, about 1630, 9J inches high. 

The duke of Portland is also the for- 
tunate owner of a silver incense burner, 
dating probably from about 1670. 4 It has 
the Hague marks, the crowned bird and 
rampant lion, the anchor maker's mark, 
and crowned D for date mark of an alpha- 
bet which has unfortunately not yet been 
deciphered. It weighs over 60 oz., and 
consists of a bulbous bowl supported on 
three grotesque horned dragons with claw- 
and-ball feet, and low cover, upon which 
a second smaller bowl is seated, with a high 
pepper-castor cover and vase-shape knob. 
Practically the whole surface is fashioned 
of a design of chased anemones, tulips and 
foliage, matted and burnished, with the 
interstices pierced. It has a singularly 
Turkish or Indian appearance. A speci- 
men, almost the counterpart of this though 
of different proportion, is owned by the 
duke of Rutland, and was made in London 
in 1677, by I. H. It is illustrated in ' Old 
Silver Work.' In the Roestraten picture 
at Chatsworth another almost identical 
example is represented. 

4 Plate III, page 39, No. 5. 

(To be concluded next month.) 

NO. 5 





'UR knowledge of the cir- 
cumstances of most of the 
famous eighteenth-century 
furniture makers is ex- 
ceedingly limited, being 
in many cases confined to 
the books they published ; but much more 
information has been preserved regarding 
the firm of Gillows, both as men and 
workmen, though they never advertised 
themselves, like so many of their contem- 
poraries, by producing a book. One rea- 
son for this is that the business has been 
carried on continuously for over two hun- 
dred years, and though for a considerable 
time no one of the name has taken an 
active interest in it, both books and papers 
have been carefully preserved. The ' cost 
books' of the firm, in which, latterly at 
least, it was usual for the clerk who kept 
them to insert rough sketches of the pieces 
mentioned, form a perfect mine of infor- 
mation, unobtainable elsewhere, regarding 
the introduction and growth of certain 
styles. These are rendered all the more 
useful from the tact that they were not 
show drawings got up to attract attention, 
but records of actual furniture made in the 
Lancaster workshops. 

Robert Gillow, the founder of the firm, 
seems to have been entirely a self-made 
man. Somewhere about the close of the 
seventeenth century he left Great Single- 
ton, and went to Lancaster, in which city 
he started business as a joiner. Even after 
he had attained to affluent circumstances 
he did not disdain working with his own 
hands at garden palings and jobs of a simi- 
lar character, for all was fish that came to 
Robert Gillow's net. That the joiner's 
shop should have grown into a high-class 

1 For Articles I to V, see Vol. IV, page 227 ; Vol. V, page 173 ; 
Vol. VI, pages 47, 210, 402 (March, May, October, December, 
1904 ; February, 1905). 

furniture-making business is only what 
might be expected to happen in 'the case 
of a man of his force of character ; but 
it is curious to find him setting up as 
somewhat of a general trader. 1 I is choice 
of Lancaster as the place for carrying on 
his business probably led to this. It- 
shipping came next to that of Bristol, and 
it struck Robert Gillow that money was 
to be made by exporting English-made 
furniture, which he did on a very large 
scale. As he seems to have accepted 
payment in kind, he made a double profit 
by selling the imported goods himself, and 
one of his chief trading places being the 
West Indies, he became a licensed dealer 
in rum. He was a furniture maker, an 
undertaker, a jobbing carpenter, and a 
spirit merchant. In fact, he put his hand 
to anything and everything that came in 
his way without stopping to consider 
whether it was either high class or 

Somewhere about 1740 Robert Gillow 
began shippingfurniture to London, which, 
considering that this was about Thom;b 
Chippendale's best period, must have ap- 
peared to some of his friends almost as 
unwise as the proverbial sending of coals 
to Newcastle. Robert Gillow, however, 
knew what he was about. Neither he nor 
his son Richard, whom he took into partner- 
ship in 1 757, ever posed as a great designer; 
in fact, from this point of view, they 
greatly undervalued their creations; but 
they prided themselves, and with justice, 
on the finish and excellence of their work- 
manship. These tentative shipments must 
have met with a ready sale in the metro- 
polis, for as early at least as 1744 Gillow 
started a London branch, which he de- 
scribes in his ledger as ' The Adventure to 
London,' a phrase which suggests rather 


English Furniture Makers — Th 

some barbarous and newly-discovered 
country than the first city of the world. 

For some time the London branch of 
the business appears in the directory as 
' Gillow & Barton, near the Custom 
House, Thames Street ' ; but in 1765 they 
took a lease of the land on which their 
present business premises are situated. 
This is another curious instance of Robert 
Gillow's propensity for never doing any- 
thing like other people. Instead of setting 
up in St. Martin's Lane, the Tottenham 
Court Road, or some other centre of the 
industry, he built his new premises in 
what were then the very outskirts of Lon- 
don, where but few people passed, except 
when they went to see a hanging at 
' Tiburn.' But what for the ordinary man 
would have been merely courting disaster, 
only brought to Gillow his accustomed 
success, and ' The Adventure to London ' 
soon became a principal part of his busi- 

The firm continually changed its desig- 
nation. Barton seems either to have died 
or dropped out, and when the move was 
made to Oxford Street it was as Gillow 
& Taylor. Taylor died shortly afterwards, 
and the firm became Gillows — Robert, 
Richard & Thomas; in 1790 Robert Gil- 
low & Co., and in 181 1 (on the death of 
Richard) G. & R. Gillow 6c Co. The 
London partners were probably taken into 
the firm rather as salesmen than practical 
cabinet makers, for all the furniture con- 
tinued to be made in Lancaster. The 
only available means of carriage between 
Lancaster and London for large consign- 
ments of goods was by sea, which probably 
accounts for the choice of the Thames 
Street shop in the first instance ; and a 
possible explanation of how the Gillows 
were enabled to compete with other cabi- 
net makers in London is that they them- 
selves, being foreign merchants as well as 
cabinet makers, imported the mahogany 
of which most of their furniture was made. 


e Gillows 

Richard Gillow, who was made a full 
partner at the age of twenty-three, was a 
man of just as strong character as his 
father. Though Robert made a business 
out of nothing, and even in his old. age 
retained the enthusiasm and business dash 
of youth, it was Richard who raised it to 
the front rank. The old joiner had prob- 
ably felt the want of education, and being 
a Catholic sent his son to the famous 
college of Douay. That Richard Gillow 
thus had the education of a gentleman may 
partly account for the fact that the firm 
had on its books not only the names of the 
greater part of the nobility, but of royalty 
itself; and may also, apart from the tho- 
roughness of the work they turned out, 
explain how so much of Adam's furniture 
design was entrusted to them. 

Richard Gillow was somewhat of a cha- 
racter, and cared nothing for prince or 
peer. Several stories are told of him illus- 
trating the independence of his attitude 
when dealing with the most exalted per- 
sonages, and one of these, though it has 
already been told elsewhere, gives a side of 
his character so thoroughly that I make 
no excuse for repeating it. He was one 
day showing a table, priced eighty guineas, 
to a nobleman : ' It's a devil of a price,' 
said his lordship. ' It's a devil of a table,' 
replied the independent salesman, and the 
deal was concluded there and then. 

It is not known whether Richard Gillow 
had any special architectural training, but 
it is probable that he had ; for from the 
time of his joining the firm they had a 
considerable business as architects. The 
Lancaster Custom House was designed by 
him, and is a very meritorious piece of 
work in the Adam style ; and that he also 
had technical knowledge of this subject is 
evidenced by the fact that he not only 
made out ail the required specifications, 
but himself superintended its erection. 

He was also somewhat of an inventive 
genius. The first billiard table emanated 

English Furniture Makers — The Gi//oTvs 

from him, and in 1800 he invented and 
patented the telescopic dining table, one 
of the most useful of furniture inventions, 
and certainly, of all such patents, the most 
universally used. It is probable, from the 
artistic capacity shown in his architecture, 
that Richard either made or superintended 
the designs of the firm, and it is by no 
means unlikely that it is to his inventive 
faculty we owe the ' shield-back ' chair, 
usually associated with the name of 
Hepplewhite. The first rough sketch for 
a chair of this kind which occurs in the 
Gillows' books is dated 1782, and if not 
the first must at least have been among 
the earlier specimens of the shape. In 
1788 there is a sketch in the cost book of 
a chair which has a back composed of 
interlacing hearts, a shape that is usually 
credited to Hepplewhite, but does not 
appear in the ' Guide.' The design would 
seem to be more correctly assigned to the 
Gillows, for it is so graceful and striking 
that, had such a pattern been made by 
Hepplewhite, it is impossible to under- 
stand its exclusion from his book, since it 
is equal to most of the best of his plates, 
and very distinctly better than the greater 
proportion of them. 

The chair sketched in the cost book has 
a shaped front and arms of the same pattern 
as are seen in the chair made for Mr. de 
Trafford 2 in the following year ; but the 
single chair illustrated 3 sufficiently explains 
the general idea of the design. In both of 
these chairs there are marked differences 
from what, so far as the evidence goes, was 
the use and wont of the time, not only in 
the very distinctive treatment of the backs, 
but in that of the arms. Sheraton gives no 
arm of the kind ; and though Hepplewhite, 
in one of his cabrioles, makes use of the 
patera on the terminal, it is not only 
without other carving, but is distinctly 
different in shape. It was, however, con- 
tinually used by the Gillows, and may 

* J No. 2, Plate I, page 43. 

3 No. 3, Plate I, page 45. 

therefore be considered as originating with 

If the differences between these sketches 
and the published designs of the time were 
found only in a few isolated instances, it 
would be manifestly unfair to base on them 
a claim to special originality of conception ; 
for the omission of any particular form from 
a book such as the ' Guide ' does not neces- 
sarily prove that it was not manufactured 
in the Hepplewhite workshops. It would, 
in fact, be still more surprising if the cost 
books of any firm of the time, had they 
been preserved, did not show similar differ- 
ences ; but the extent to which these occur 
in the Gillows' books, and the marked 
nature of the differentiation, are so striking 
as to make it impossible to deny an artistic 
and original personality. 

The connexion of the firm with the 
Adams is evidenced by pieces such as the 
commode illustrated, 4 but at least a dozen 
years before the death of Robert Adam 
they had acquired a distinctive style of 
their own. The sketchy but undeniable 
examples to be found in their books are far 
too numerous for illustration or even for 
descriptive mention, and at least some of 
them may be safely credited to the firm. 
We have, for instance, the first ladder-back 
chair, 5 which probably assumed the shape 
we know it best by about the middle of the 
eighties, but which, though an important 
part of the design of the period, is un- 
noticed elsewhere. Then there are several 
sideboard tables of quite a new shape, in 
which grace of design has been happily 
blended with attention to use as pieces of 
dining-room furniture. They are semi- 
circular, and, as the line of the front follows 
that of the back, a servant standing in the 
concave space in front could reach, almost 
without moving, any dish placed upon it. G 

It is remarkable, too, that in several in- 
stances where the Gillows differ from the 
other workers of the eighties we find the 

4 No. 4, Plate I, page 43. 
* No. 5, Plate II, page 48. ■ No. 7. Plate II, page 48. 


English Furniture Makers— The Gil lorn 

designs reproduced with only a few minor 
alterations by Sheraton several years later. 

Such an instance of Sheraton's un- 
acknowledged indebtedness to Gillows is 
the ' broken fronted ' pier table facing 
page 371 of the ' Drawing Book,' which is 
practically identical with the Gillows' work 
of five years before. 7 This design can, prac- 
tically with certainty, be claimed for them. 
At the time of its manufacture Sheraton 
had not even come to London, and there 
is nothing resembling its lines either in the 
' Guide ' or in the original sketches by 
Robert Adam preserved at the Soane Mu- 

The white decorated chair illustrated 8 
also differs both from Hepplewhite and 
Sheraton, the latter of whom consistently 
avoided the pure shield shape for the top 
rail, while the two outer banisters differ 
from both designers by reversing the outer 
curve of the shield. 

To a prospectus or a trade advertisement 
one very naturally applies the old rule of 
taking half the assumed amount and divid- 
ing it by three. To accept any business 
firm at their own estimate of themselves 
would, as a rule, show a considerable lack 
of judgement ; yet if I do not take the firm 
of Gillows as it existed at the end of the 
eighteenth century at the valuation of the 
same firm to-day, it is because, from my 
point of view, that valuation is too low. 
In a small historical account of the firm 
recently published by them, to which I am 
indebted for the biographical part of this 
article, no claim is made to a place in 
English furniture design. They say, and 
with reason, that their furniture of the date 
we are considering was of the best from 
the point of view of construction, but they 
do not go further. As regards the work 
executed by them through the greater part 
of the nineteenth century this is absolutely 
true, just as it was of that of most other 
firms. ' That's the worst about them,' said 

J No. 8, Plate II, page 48. 8 No. 6, Plate II, page 48. 


Whistler, speaking suo more, regarding the 
pigments supplied by the artists' colourmen 
of the present day, ' they ivont fade ' ; and 
my chief objection to the furniture of the 
nineteenth century is that the most of it 
can only be destroyed by the use of a sledge 
hammer. During this most terrible period 
in the history of our design the Gillows 
became a much too accurate reflex of sur- 
rounding influences,and their finished work- 
manship, where every joint and tenon was 
made only too well, is a thing to be deplored ; 
but, during the lifetime of Richard Gillow, 
or at least that part of it when he was 
presumably at his best, it would seem, as 
far as the evidence goes, that they were not 
followers of any particular man or school, 
but actually pioneers. 

In the books of the firm several of the 
designs appear under names by which they 
would not now be recognized. A ' fiddle- 
back chair ' is the description given to what 
we now know as ' ladder-back,' and the 
name would seem to have originated from 
a fancied resemblance between the open 
spaces in the lateral bars and the sound 
holes of a violin. The ' shield back,' too, 
began life as the ' camel back,' presumably 
from its central hump, while the chairs 
with a rounded stay rail and straight up- 
rights are described as ' pan-back.' 

With much that is new there is also in 
these books much that is old ; in fact, as 
far as my knowledge goes, they give almost 
the only historical data of the resuscitation, 
so common in the furniture of the con- 
cluding years of the eighteenth century, of 
antiquated forms. Corner chairs we find 
revived in the eighties, the only difference 
between them and their predecessors of fifty 
years before being that all the legs are 
square. This shape is by no means un- 
common, and must have been produced in 
very considerable quantities. 

It was not, however, solely by the de- 
signs of the middle Chippendale period 
that the Gillows and other workers of their 

] . KARL'. CARD I \ I I I 






English Furniture Makers — The Gil lows 

time were affected, though with regard to 
this it is difficult to say if the later pieces 
which suggest Ince's and sometimes Man- 
waring's work of the sixties might not 
rather be called survivals. One of the most 
interesting of such designs given in the 
Gillows' cost books is of a table with a 
fretwork gallery, which, except that the 
legs bend outwards in the manner known 
as ' turned-out toes,' is scarcely distinguish- 
able from Ince. 

The Gillows seem to have avoided the 
Chinese influence, though having a strong 
leaning to the ' Gothic,' which would tend 
to show that their productions were not 
entirely dependent on the popular taste of 
the moment. There is indeed the evidence 
of a strong personality, usually leaning to 
artistic restraint, throughout their work. 
This is all the more remarkable when we 
remember that much of Robert Adam's 
later and more gorgeous work was executed 
by them, and we should expect to find his 
influence paramount. 

Though the Gillows did not, to quote 
a phrase from a well-known writer on other 

matters, l arrogate to themselves a person- 
ality,' they showed their pride in the work 
they produced by stamping most of it with 
the name of the firm. If all other makers 
had been careful to do the same, the fur- 
niture of the eighteenth century would not 
only have been rendered more interesting, 
as including more of the personal element, 
but its study would have been vastly easier 
than it now is. 

The Gillows were one of the few firms 
of furniture makers who took a foremost 
place both in the eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries ; and it is unfortunate, though 
easily understood, that their name should 
have come to be chiefly connected in the 
minds of most people with early and middle 
Victorian designs. 9 If Richard Gillow had 
thought it worth his while to publish a 
book of designs about the same time as 
Hepplewhite produced the ' Guide,' there 
might well be two opinions as to whose 
name we should now use in describing the 

9 It need hardly be said that, at the present day, the firm is 
no longer in the Victorian era of household decoration. 



[OME months ago a picture 
)of St. Christopher attri- 
buted to Solario from the 
collection of Mr. W. J. 
Davies of Hereford was re- 
produced in The Burling- 
ton Magazine. 1 One or two other pic- 
tures in the same collection also deserve 
detailed study, and among them a painting 
of St. Jerome in a landscape attributed to 
Titian. This painting, which measures 
2 feet i\ inches by 3 feet 3J inches, came 
from the collection of a country clergyman, 
and its previous history is unknown. 

A glance shows that the picture has suf- 
fered considerably from over-cleaning and 
restoration. The whole of the sky has 
been worked over until the original design 
and colour can be traced but dimly. This 
cleaning was so drastic that it has falsified 
or even obliterated the original tree forms 
where they strike across the sky, and the 
damage has been repaired by clumsy and 
awkward repainting. The treatment of 
the foreground and middle distance was 
rather less cruel, but the lighter portions 
have been rubbed away until little more 
than the underpaint is visible. The figure 
of the saint also has obviously been re- 
touched. The quality of the picture in 
consequence must not be judged from its 
general effect, especially since the repro- 
duction is much heavier in tone than the 
original painting. 

The design of the piece must first be con- 
sidered. This is obviously identical with 
the large woodcut of the subject 2 which 
Morelli ('Italian Painters,' II, p. 94), when 
discussing Campagnola's work, mentions as 
either actually executed by Titian himself 
or, at all events, engraved from a design 
by him, calling it ' a splendid composition 
which would not be unworthy of Rubens.' 

1 Vol. V, page 573 (September 1904). 

8 Generally recognized as belonging to the series executed by 
Nicolo Boldrini after Titian. 


The painting can hardly be a copy from 
the print. It is only necessary to compare 
the uninjured portions of the foliage on 
the right for this to be clear. There is a 
resemblance in the arrangement of the 
masses, but the painting is far more free, 
more natural, and more intricate. The 
obvious conclusion is that the picture is 
prior to the print, and the original of which 
the print is a simplified version. This view 
is rather confirmed by other changes in de- 
tail necessitated by the current technique 
of engraving, such as the omission of com- 
plicated passages of foliage all over the 
picture. The exact date of the print is un- 
known, but it cannot be much later than 
the middle of the sixteenth century. Un- 
less then we are to assume that both print 
and picture are copies of some lost original 
(a convenientsolution,but one which should 
not be adopted unless no other is possible), 
we must admit that the picture was painted 
in Titian's lifetime. 

We may now consider what evidence 
there is for connecting the work with Titian 
himself. The execution of the upper por- 
tion of the trees on the left, the texture of 
the ground, and the saint's figure cannot be 
used as arguments againt Titian's author- 
ship, since they are plainly retouched. On 
the other hand, the sleeping lion in the fore- 
ground is exceedingly like Titian's work 
in the Brera St. Jerome, and the sparkle and 
decision with which the stream is painted 
both in its fall and eddying course are 
characteristic of Titian. It deserves to be 
compared with the stream in the background 
of the St. John in the Venice Academy. 

The dark rocks on the right with part 
of the fringe of foliage above them have 
escaped the restorer's hand. These boughs 
and slender trees are swept in with an easy 
vigorous certainty (which would be im- 
possible for a copyist) and with a knowledge 
of growth and fibrous structure unknown 





I- _1 

e -- 

Z _ 

! c 

- r 

b z 

*A Picture of St. Jerome Attributed to "Titian 

to Venetian painting except in the work 
of Titian. The modelling of the rocks be- 
low (e.g., the stone in front of the cross) 
shows a similar feeling for structure, and 
it is difficult to connect this portion of 
the picture with any mere imitator. It 
should be added that the photograph gives 
too hard and mechanical a version of the 
painting of the retouched foliage on the 
left, which far more nearly resembles 
Titian's work in the Noli Me Tangere 
than the reproduction suggests. The mo- 
tive of the running deer will be remem- 
bered as occurring in the Titian drawing 
once in the possession of Professor Legros 
and now in that of Mr. Warren of Lewes. 

As Mr. Claude Phillips pointed out in 
his ' Later Work of Titian ' (pp. 1 3 and 1 4), 
a picture of St. Jerome was painted in 
1 53 1, which cannot be identified with 
that in the Louvre or that in the Brera, 
since these are both much later in style. 
Dr. Gronau ('Titian,' p. 1 66) is of the same 
opinion. 3 The design of our picture is 
clearly much earlier than these. The 
brownish semi-transparent painting, the 
' conceit ' of the two lions and the lioness 
recall a period when Titian had not for- 
gotten Giorgione. At the same time the 
delightful freshness of the stream and the 
massive tree trunks on the left suggest an 
art that is mature. The date of 1 53 1 might 
thus be possible if we supposed that Titian 
in this case was completing a composition 
begun much earlier. 

Now this St. Jerome of 1531 was com- 
missioned, together with a St. Mary Mag- 
dalene, by Federigo Gonzaga for Vittoria 
Colonna. Gonzaga writes to her that he 
is putting pressure on Titian, ' ricercando- 
lo con grande instantia a volerne fare una 
bella lagrimosa piu che si so puo, e farmela 
haver presto.' Gonzaga we see was specially 
anxious about the Magdalene, and it is 

8 Other versions of the subject, not from Titian's hand, are 
mentioned by Crowe and Cavalcaselle, ' Titian,' vol. i, p. 352. 

possible that Titian, being hurried, worked 
up a St. Jerome designed much earlier, and 
put hiswholestrength into the other subject. 
It is the Magdalene to which the letters 
refer and with which Gonzaga is delighted. 
We have thus no reason for supposing that 
the St. Jerome was one of Titian's most 
striking and important works. 

More experienced students of Titian 
must decide whether Mr. Davies's painting 
may not be identified with this vanished 
St. Jerome of 1 5 3 1 . The execution ought, 
I think, to be judged by the unrestored 
portion on the right-hand side of the pic- 
ture. There the free and easy treatment 
of the foliage at the top, the sense of 
structure, weight and texture in the rocks, 
the delightful sharpness and truth of the 
foaming eddies and ripples in the brook, 
with certain touches of extreme delicacy, 
the slender cross, the creases between the 
leaves of the book (invisible in the plate), 
and the rosary by the side of the kneeling 
saint have the true Titianesque note, con- 
tradicting the heaviness introduced by the 
restorer into the more conspicuous portions 
of the work. 

To sum up : these masterly passages have 
a freedom and an instinct for natural struc- 
ture which was Titian's unique gift, and 
was not possessed either by his companions 
or by the skilful admirers and copyists who 
followed him. It is to draw attention to 
these qualities, and to prevent too hasty 
judgement being passed on the general 
appearance of the reproduction, that almost 
unfair stress has been laid upon the resto- 
rations. These do not in reality interfere 
very much with the effect of the original, 
yet to them doubtless it has hitherto owed 
its obscurity. Otherwise it is incredible 
that so interesting a composition, identical 
with one of the famous woodcuts asso- 
ciated with Titian's name, should have 
been overlooked so long. 




/* < THERE is a startling con- 

^ trast between the cope of 
the Popes and the Pienza 
cope, the one reserved 
and fastidiously simple, 
the other full of move- 
ment, and full of detail of 
incident and of ornament. This cope, said 
to have been given to the cathedral of 
Pienza by Pius II (1498), is a complete and 
very splendid piece of early fourteenth- 
century English work of the ' tabernacle ' 
type, and one of the few pieces that remain 
intact. 2 There is not in it the strong indi- 
vidual note that is found in the Ascoli 
Cope, but the drawing is crisp and in- 
ventive. The composition of the groups 
is much the same as in contemporary 
manuscripts. The cope has its broad 
orphrey, its narrow encircling border, and 
its curious triangular pendant, the remains 
of the hood. The design of the body 
of the cope consists of three concentric 
rows of niches or tabernacles fantastically 
drawn, but reflecting the characteristics of 
contemporary architecture, i.e. the earliest 
days of the fourteenth century. The lowest 
row is devoted to the history of two saints, 
Katharine of Alexandria and Margaret ot 
Antioch. I give a list of the subjects, be- 
ginning on the left at the bottom : — 

1. St. Margaret, with a distaff, tending 
sheep, to whom comes a king, smitten with 
her love. 3 

2. She is brought before him. 3 

3. She is in prison, and issues from the 
dragon who had devoured her. 3 

4. She is tempted of the devil and over- 
comes him, and ' a dove descended from 
heaven and set a golden crown upon her 
head.' 3 

5. She is tortured in the presence of the 

1 For Articles I and II see Vol. VI, pp. 278 and 440 (January 
and March, 1905). 

2 See plate I, page 55. » Plate II, page 58. 



king (or provost), beaten with rods and torn 
with iron combs. (On this subject there 
is a patch showing a beautiful scrap of 
fourteenth-century figured stuff.) 4 

6. St. Margaret appears twice. She is 
boiled in a great vessel of water (with a 
singularly irritating and sanctimonious up- 
ward look), and from this trial she issues 
unhurt. In the Golden Legend, it is here 
that the dove descends and crowns her. The 
executioner pours water over her in a ladle. 
Her final beheading is also shown here, and 
an angel hovers, receiving her spirit in a 
fair cloth. 4 

7. St. Katharine of Alexandria, a stately 
figure crowned and attended by her court, 
comes before the Emperor Maxentius, to 
protest against the sacrifice to false idols 
and the killing of Christians in the streets. 4 

8. She argues with the rhetoricians and 
grammarians sent by the emperor to con- 
found her. 4 

9. The learned men, who are converted, 
suffer martyrdom, being burnt in the midst 
of the city. Their torturers are a black 
man and a Scythian, the latter with the 
feathered cap which appears in the Ascoli 
cope. Their spirits fly upwards as a flock 
of doves. 4 

10. Katharine being cast into prison, the 
empress comes by night to visit her, ac- 
companied by Porphyry, ' the prince of 
knightes.' Within the prison an angel is 
solacing the saint with music. 5 

1 1 . Katharine is brought before the 
emperor, a truculent person, finely dressed 
in a jewelled mantle. He is ' wode for 
anger,' and threatens her with a sword. 5 

12. Katharine being set among the 
wheels, they are broken asunder by two 
angels from heaven, slaying 2,000 paynims, 
who may here be seen in fragments. 5 

13. This presents the beheading of the 

4 Plate I, page 55. 6 Plate III, page 61. 




Opus Anglican um — The r Pienza Cope 

saint, her body being carried to Mount 
Sinai by two angels. 6 

An interesting feature about this cope is 
the row of twelve Apostles in the span- 
drils above this lowest series. They are 
all named and bear scrolls inscribed with 
the Creed, thus laying stress on the tradi- 
tion that each of the Twelve contributed 
his word thereto. It begins with Peter, 
the sixth figure, reads onwards, and thence 
starts on the left with Bartholomew. 7 These 
figures are drawn in crouching attitudes, 
curiously realistic and intense in expression. 

It will be noted that the ' roofs' of the 
spandrils and the ' floors ' of the next panels 
are formed of wreaths of fanciful variety. 
The ' ties ' of the net (being the bases of 
the columns) are beasts, demons, and en- 
twined dragons. The next row presents 
the life of Our Lady : — 

i. The angels appear to the Apostles 
after the Resurrection. Peter only bears 
his attribute. 8 

2. The Presentation of the Virgin in the 
Temple by Joachim and Anna. The cross 
on the breast of the priest and on the altar 
is very much insisted on. Mr. Mickle- 
thwaite's notes on this subject should be 
referred to. 9 

3. The Marriage of Joseph and Mary. — 
Joseph leaning on a staff holds the ring in 
his finger; and the High Priest, fully vested 
as a bishop, takes his hand. A tonsured 
chaplain carries the crozier. 8 

4. The Annunciation. 8 

5. The Nativity. 10 

6. The Angel appearing to the Shepherds 
on a flowery, wooded hill. He bears a scroll 
inscribed with 'Gloria in excelsis Deo.' One 
shepherd in the distance blows a horn, and 
his dog bays in sympathy. The mediaeval 
artist always strikes a charmingly intimate 

6 Plate III, page 61. 

7 See a paper on this cope by J. T. Micklethwaite in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Society of Antiquaries. London, April 5, 1883 ; 
also another paper by him on May 12, 1887. 

8 Plate II, page 58. 

9 Plate II, page 58. See Micklethwaite, of. cit. 

10 Plate I, page 55. 

note in this subject, insisting on the home- 
liness of the labourers to whom the mes- 
sage of wonder comes. The foremost 
shepherd here is warmly dressed for winter 
night watching, with nice chausses or boot- 
stockings, kept up by a cord triply run in 
and out. 11 

7. The Adoration of the Three Kings. — 
The babe bends towards the crown that the 
kneeling old man offers. The second king 
points to the star. 11 

8. The Presentation in the Temple. — 
The High Priest has his hands, which are 
outstretched to receive the babe, veiled in 
an offertory cloth. 11 

9. The Burial of the Virgin, with Peter 
at the head. — The Jew who had laid hands 
upon the bier is stuck fast, and is about to 
be released by Peter. 11 

In the spandrils above are David and 
Solomon in the middle, and prophets either 
side ; at one end is a realistic peacock in 
the half-spandril, at the other end a phea- 
sant. This is a reminiscence of a Jesse 
Tree scheme, in which the Prophets often 
accompany the Ancestors of the Virgin. 

The subjects in the highest series are: — 

1. Angel announcing the approaching 
death of Our Lady. Gabriel stands ficing 
her, bearing ' a bough of palm, sente from 
the plante of paradise.' 12 

2. The Death of Our Lady. 12 

3. The Coronation. — Uninteresting. 13 

4. The Assumption. — Our Lord, stand- 
ing in the blue, bears the soul of the 
Blessed Virgin to heaven. Seraphim sup- 
port the body in a cloth, and in front two 
beautiful little angels kneel, one playing a 
vielle, the other a harp. 13 

5. The same subject continued. — A com- 
pact crowd of the Apostles, dramatically 
conceived. St. Peter and St. John and the 
other Apostles look down into the bier 
and find itempty. At the back the Virgin's 
girdle comes down from heaven into the 
outstretched hands of Thomas, and above 

11 Plate III. »» Plate II " Plate I. 


Opus Anglicanum — The Tienza Cop 

are the feet of Our Lady disappearing in 
the clouds. 14 

The top of the cope is occupied by- 
censing angels, and the pointed hood con- 
tains two delightful seraphs holding crowns 
and standing on globes. 

The orphrey is a magnificent piece of 
pattern-work, dexterously simple and richly 
effective. It presents one or two points of 
special interest. It has been worked with 
heraldic animals in the complete quatrefoils 
(also, I think, in the half-quatrefoils) : 
griffin, lion, stag, unicorn, etc.; over these 
have been worked various birds, which, as 
Mr. Micklethwaite observes, can hardly be 
surpassed for truth to nature. On each side 
of the centre are placed the phoenix and 
the pelican in her nest. Then there is a 
cock crowing on one side, and on the other 
stands a peacock. Then comes a procession 
of familiar birds, in the complete squares 
mostly of the moorland and sea. There is 
a falcon and another bird of the hawk 
family, above a nest of young ones; a heron, 
a partridge, a pheasant, and the like ; while 
in the half-squares are boughs with song- 
birds in the midst : thrushes, finches, a 
magpie, and a pair of swallows. The narrow 
border is treated in the same way, the super- 
imposed creatures being alternately birds 
and bright little quadrupeds, like pet-dogs, 
with their tails up and barking fussily. The 
eastern character of the ornament in the 
interlacent of the quatrefoils should be 
noted. The ground of this superb vest- 
ment is wrought in gold in a diapered 
pattern, differing in every panel. 

I can call to mind some nine or ten of 
these ' tabernacle ' copes, and there are 
doubtless others. The invention in all of 
them is of the same type, the admirable 
invention, namely, of an organic pattern 
covering the half-circle in a romantic 
shadowing of the architecture of the time. 
The fact that there exist nine or ten or 
even more examples of a strongly-marked 

u Plate III, page6i. 

design, not only showing the same dex- 
terity in filling the half-circle, but the 
same fantasy of detail, the same twisted 
leaf-columns, the same supporting beasts — 
all this points to a special area, if not to a 
special place, of origin. And the fact that 
there were so many of these copes, all pro- 
duced within a comparatively short time 
— the work on them being of such a labo- 
rious nature as necessarily to employ a great 
many hands — points to some industrial and 
commercial centre. This, as Mr. W. R. 
Lethaby has observed to me, will have been 
London itself, the fountain-head of all 
activities. Some London workshop, it is 
extremely likely, had the monopoly of 
these specialized embroideries, which were 
ordered and sent out all over the conti- 
nent. 15 

Another thing that favours this assump- 
tion is the comparative sameness in choice 
and treatment of subject in the 'tabernacle' 
copes. Beautiful as these embroideries are, 
we do not get in them the variety or free- 
dom nor the imaginative touch that illu- 
minates the finest of the copes based on the 
circle pattern. Many of the artists who 
designed these latter wander over a wider 
field and show a richer, more active inven- 
tion. Thus the Daroca and the Anagni 
copes and the cope of St. Louis Eveque 
are full of subjects handled with freshness 
and originality. In the cope of St. Louis 
there is a certain largeness and seriousness 
about the design that has a decided French 
stamp on it. Note especially a beautiful 
angel at the Tomb, who sits with solemn 
brooding wings shadowing the whole of 
the little picture ; also some delightful pic- 
tures from the Girlhood of Our Lady. 
Everything, therefore, seems to suggest 
that the architectural copes that show so 
marked a similarity in all essentials may 

15 He suggests that the cope under consideration may be the 
very one for which Queen Isabella in 1317 paid 100 marks (= at 
least £1,000) to ' Rose the wife of John de Bureford, citizen and 
merchant of London, for an embroidered cope for the choir, 
lately purchased from her to make a present to the Lord High 
Pontiff from the Queen.' Issue of the Exchequer, 10 Ed. H. 
See Archisological Journal, Vol. I, p. 322. 


1'L.V! 1 

Opus Arigli 

have been produced in some big centre, 
while the more notable and individual of 
those of the circle-pattern may have been 
the work of some of the great monastic 
workshops, in France, I venture to think, 
as well as in England. No record/ 6 how- 
ever, throws any light upon the subject so 
tar, which is the more disappointing, as 
Paris, whose trades were organized by the 
end of the thirteenth century, has plentiful 
records and details of all her crafts, and 
among them of the workshops of brodeurs 
and broderesses,Jeseresses (Taufroix, etc. Their 
rules are duly registered, and they come 
before the Provost of Paris with their 
claims and complaints ; they quarrel and 
make friends, and are sent back to their 
workshops comforted and refreshed, till the 
next bout. Some of the names set down 
might be taken from the pages of a 
romance : among the hanks of silk and 
sticks of gold (woe to the mditresse-broderesse 
if her gold be counterfeit, for she shall be 
whipped) wander Peronelle des Jardins, 
Ermengarde the Lombard, with delicate 
fingers and eyes intent ; there are men, too, 
Lorenz the Englishman, Thevenot the 
Little, and Simon the Embroiderer, who 
lives with Madame Blanche. A companion- 
able little fraternity they are, all living under 
the wing of the Provost, in their green- 
girt city, gay with its closes and gardens. 
The mystery which surrounds those who 
produced the English masterpieces is the 
more tantalizing for these wide-open pages 
from the lives of their French confreres. 
Were any of these copes of a recognized 
set design produced by the Paris workers ? 
I venture, though with hesitation and de- 
ference to other opinions, to think it doubt- 
ful, at least unproven. As far as my know- 
ledge goes, there are no specimens of the 
tabernacle type, nor of the circle type, 
that one can confidently assert, bv docu- 
mentary evidence, to be of French origin. 

16 In England the Broderers were not incorporated by charter 
until 1561. 

'icanum — The l^ienza Cope 

The evidence that the pieces themselves 
present, as in the case of the Ascoli cope, 
is conflicting ; again, there is the cope 
of St. Louis Eveque, referred to above, 
which must have been designed by a 
French hand, wherever it was worked. 
Yet there exist certain copes of variously 
evolved circle and tabernacle types which 
are most certainly German. Then what 
are the French craftsmen and women 
doing ? They are busy enough, of course, 
busy in mid-fourteenth century, over 
orphreyed chasubles of astonishing verve 
and finish, busy over frontals, mitres, etc., 
aumonieres of a strangely minute and indi- 
vidual art, over a crowd of delightful 
things ; but I confess that at present I 
should be at a loss, if asked to put my 
finger on a French cope I7 of these types 
' signed all over,' as most of the English 
ones are, though I am longing to be able 
to do so. M. de Farcy has some interest- 
ing notes on English characteristics, and 
his work should be consulted. I myself 
have perhaps a little overstepped my 
limits in raising the question in these 

The arrangement of the subjects in this 
embroidery bears a due relation to the 
hang of the vestment when in use. The 
Coronation of the Blessed Virgin (nearly 
always), the Crucifixion, the Annunciation, 
or the Nativity will generally occupy the 
middle of the cope. In the Daroca cope, 
which illustrates the Creation, the first 
subject is the Eternal Father resting from 
his labours, with an unconventionally 
designed crowd of adoring angels ; below 
is the Crucifixion. The subjects are 
necessarily from the same source as those 
in contemporarv manuscripts. The same 
grouping in the subjects themselves recurs 
again and again. The Three Kings ador- 
ing, one pointing to the Star, the Kings 

'" The St. Louis cope at St. Maximin (Var) I have not seen, 
and know only by a poor ' key ' drawing, and also by some recent 
drawings kindly shown me by the artist Mrs. McClure. These 
latter make me keenly anxious to see the cope itself, which is a 
noble piece of the circle type. 


Opus Anglicanum — 'The T^ienza Cope 

asleep in their bed with their crowns on ; 
the Angel appearing to the Shepherds, 
one of whom pipes, and his sheep skip on 
a flowery hill, while the little dog sings 
with sentiment ; the mild joke becomes 
stale by repetition. Then we have con- 
stantly the same Death of the Blessed 
Virgin, the Apostles assembled round the 
bed ; and her Burial, where Peter releases 
the impious Jew's hand, which had stuck 
to the bier : surely the artist could draw 
them all with his eyes shut ! But some- 
times, and especially as aforesaid in the 
' circle ' pattern, we come upon greater 
freedom and a more individual invention, 
and we hail the variety with relief. 

In a former paper I said a few words 
about the treatment of flesh in the Opus 
Anglicanum ; the treatment of drapery and 
of gold (the latter material always requir- 
ing special handling) will now require our 
attention. Both in silk and gold draperies, 
but more especially in the use of gold, it 
would seem as though the further back 
one searches the more highly finished 
and the more intelligent the work is found 
to be. Certain precious scraps of early 
gold-work, with which we are not con- 
cerned here, show this in their accurately 
delicate, almost fairy-like texture ; and, to 
come to the subject immediately before 
us, in comparing the silk draperies of the 
Ascoli cope with those in needlework 
only a hundred years 
later, a quite startling 
change is noted in the 
quality of the technique, 
so mechanical has the 
stitch become. 

Fig. i is a note of 

some detail from the 

FlG - '• Syon cope, a piece 

which, as I have said before, is full of a 

bold and charming convention, and there- 


fore a clearly marked type of its time 
and school. The system of working silk 
drapery was this : The principal lines 
being designed broadly and simply, the 
folds were worked from a 'core,' as it 
were, of the darkest colour, shading gra- 
dually to the light general tone of the 
drapery. And not so very gradually either, 
for, having gone over every inch of this 
piece, I find few figures which show 
more than three shades — the dark core, a 
middle, and a light shade. A little mix- 
ing is sometimes done ; thus, the core may 
be purple, the lines following round this 
a full middle blue, and finally the filling 
done with palest blue or toned white. A 
practical worker will at once see the little 
technical difficulties that occur in this bold 
convention : the triangular bits that have 
to be filled in, the lines in opposition that 
have to be coaxed and softened, or left 
frankly opposed. For all that, as in the 
strange treatment of flesh, the freedom of 
it is very pleasant and amusing, and gives 
a certain vivacity to the texture, which is 
rarely met with in the smooth and highly 
finished work of the modern schools. In 
this latter work the stitches usually present 
a sort of simulation of tapestry — I mean in 
so far as that they do not follow the lines of 
the drapery, but are arranged as though 
the textile were built up on vertical warp- 
threads. Tapestry by its nature demands 
this restraint ; embroidery revolts against 
it, and the admirable artistic common-sense 
of the twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth 
centuries rejected such a simulation of a 
different art in their embroideries. At 
the same time it must be noted that the 
grave simplicity of the Italian treatment 
of drapery is really nearer the perfection 
of interpretation in this art. As far as I 
have had opportunity of close observation 
of these far-scattered pieces I am inclined 
to think that the finest of the English 
work and the finest French (though here 
one treads on uncertain ground) more 

Opus Anglican urn— 'The 'Pienza Cope 

nearly approach this breadth and sim- 
plicity ; the convention is less strongly 
marked, the individuality more insistent. 
Notably is this the case in the Ascoli 

The gold-work also presents interesting 
peculiarities. Here again I am forced to 
the somewhat ungracious contrasting of 
the earlier treatment with the later, going, 
it may be, no further on than the fifteenth 
century. In some of the most delicious 
and flowery pieces of fifteenth-century work 
we find, when we come to personnages, that 
the serious knowledge and accomplishment 
is gone, though the naive figures have their 
own charm of childlike clumsiness. Here 
it is enough for the worker to pass the 
golden threads backwards and forwards 
across the figure, as the weaver throws the 
shuttle, laying them down with minute 
points of pale colour, or with strongly 
marked drapery lines. This is always a 
good straightforward method when simply 
employed, but susceptible of much abuse, 
as the still later times show. In the early 
Opus Anglicanum, in the Syon cope, for 
instance (which I take to show the simplest 
rendering of gold-work at the time), the 
gold is laid in zig-zags or chevrons, the 
stitches themselves not showing, but pulled 
through to the back, which is strengthened 
by cords sewn with the work. 18 This 
method, not confined to England, was a 
happy invention ; it has really been the 
means of preserving for us much magnifi- 
cent, work that would else have vanished, 
as the little silk points on ' surface-couched ' 
gold are susceptible to the least rubbing, 
while the gold drawn through is so even on 
its face that it will probably last as long as 
the materials themselves will hold together. 
So much for the plainer laying of gold ; 

18 On this subject see De Farcy : La Broderie, etc. ; also a 
photograph hanging on the case of the Syon cope at the Vic- 
toria and Albert Museum, which shows the reverse of the work. 

upon this surface the lines of drapery would 
be traced in fine black or brown stitches. 
A golden figure thus treated, so flat and 
grey and exquisitely simple, has a strangely 
diaphanous look, which is heightened, no 
doubt, by the slender lines of dark. 

But this simplicity had to be elaborated 
sometimes, and in golden backgrounds we 
get wonderful subtle cloud effects, rich 
scroll and flower work, all sorts of dainty 
fancies, wrought with the most sensitive 
fingers, while in the draperies a curious 
and original disposition of lines relieves the 
simplicity presented by a breadth of chev- 
roned gold. Fig. 2 is taken from the 
Steeple Aston cope, which is a study of 
gold-work. Here the 
chevroned surface is 
interrupted by broad 
drapery lines, which 
are represented by 
the gold being stitch- 
ed in a different direc- 
tion. In this example 
the gold is laid verti- 
cally, but the stitches 
which hold it down 
are so placed as to give 
an impression of slant- 
ing lines ; a much pleasanter effect is 
thus produced than if the verticality 
were allowed to be insistent. These 
broad indications of folds supplement the 
few principal lines of fine black silk, 
and the combination forms an interpreta- 
tion of drapery design cleverly adapted to 
the limitations of gold. The texture of 
this early gold-work is indeed most beauti- 
ful, and though of often miraculous minute- 
ness, the sense of breadth and dignity is 
never wanting. These artists had conquered 
their material, entirely rejecting the me- 
tallic glitter which puts all colour out of 

Fig. 2. 




F the vast contribution 
which Milanesi made to 
the historical criticism of 
Vasari, nothing, perhaps, 
came as a greater dis- 
covery, or carried with it 
a keener sense of historical justice, than his 
exposure of the legend of the murder of 
Domenico Veneziano by Andrea dal Cas- 
tagno. We now know that Vasari retold 
the story in all good faith, as he had found 
it recorded in the lost ' Libro di Antonio 
Billi,' or in some kindred source ; and that 
within fifty years of Andrea's death, a tissue 
of falsehood touching his moral character 
had been gradually evolved, which for 
nearly four centuries served, in the view ot 
nearly every writer upon Florentine art, to 
distort his character as a painter. In the 
commentary in which Milanesi exposed 
this legend, he also adduced for the first 
time, a series of notices relating to the 
origin and early life of Andrea. This com- 
mentary first appeared in 1862, and was 
afterwards twice reprinted ; the second 
time in the edition of Vasari, with which 
Milanesi's name is chiefly associated. 1 

In the course of this essay, Milanesi 
states that ' Andrea dal Castagno, so-called 
either because he had come into the world 
in that obscure village of the Mugello ' 
(meaning San Martino a Castagno), 'or 
because he had lived there as a child, was 
the son of one Bartolommeo di Simone, a 
peasant and the owner of a small property 
in the popolo of Sant' Andrea a Linari, in 
the contado of Florence. Andrea was born 
about the year 1390, as he himself states 
in his return to the Officials of the Taxes 
in 1430. In that document he says, 
among other things, that he was in great 

1 In the ' Giornale Storico degli Archivi Toscani ' for 1862, 
Gennajo-Marzo, p. 1 ; in the volume entitled, ' Sulla Storia dell' 
Arte Toscana, Scritti varj,' Siena, 1873, p. 291 ; and in the edi- 
tion of Vasari, published at Florence in 1878, by G. C Sansoni, 
vol. ii, p. 683. 


poverty ; that he had passed more than 
four months of the year in sickness, be- 
tween the hospital of Santa Maria Nuova 
and that of the Pinzocheri ; that he pos- 
sessed a small house and two parcels of 
land in the popolo of Sant' Andrea a Linari; 
and lastly, that he had neither house, nor 
bed, nor household goods whatsoever, in 
Florence, so that when he was ill he was 
obliged to go into the hospital.' 

I long felt a certain difficulty in recon- 
ciling this statement with what we know 
of the painter from other sources. If 
Andrea dal Castagno was so called from 
having been born, or from having passed 
his youth, in the village of that name in 
the Mugello, how did he, the son of a 
peasant, come to possess property situated 
on the other side of Tuscany ? Or, again, if 
he were really born c. 1390, there is ex- 
tant not the slightest notice of the first 
forty-four years of his life ; nor does any 
painting exist to which we might point 
with any show of probability, as a work 
executed by him during that period. The 
earliest work by him, of which the date is 
to be ascertained, was the lost frescoes of 
the Albizzi conspirators, executed in 1434. 

With the help of the indications given 
by Milanesi in the footnotes to his com- 
mentary, I have been able to trace the 
original document on which he had 
founded these assertions. The document 
in question is a denunzia returned by one 
Andrea di Bartolommeo to the officials of 
the Catasto, and is contained in the Filza 
of the year 1430, for the Gonfalone Scala, 
in the Quarter of Santo Spirito in Florence. . 
It states, much as Milanesi says, that this 
Andrea possessed a small house and two 
small pieces of vineyard, along the road- 
side, in the popolo of Sant' Andrea a Linari, 
in Val d'Elsa ; and also a piece of vine- 
yard, with a piece of wooded land, and a 

small house, in the popolo of San Paolo a 
Ema, on the slopes of Monte Scalari, near 
the source of that stream. The land at 
Sant' Andrea a Linari was apparently cul- 
tivated hy himself when in health, hut 
that at San Paolo a Ema was farmed by 
one Santi del Greggio, and yielded one 
year with another, seven barrels of wine 
and half an orcio of oil. This Andrea is 
further stated to have been in great poverty, 
and to have been recently sick for more 
than four months in hospital. His taxes 
were unpaid, he had debts to the amount 
of seven gold florins odd, and possessed 
neither house nor goods in Florence. 
Lastly, he is said to have been ' forty 
years of age, or more.' 2 

This Denunzia, which from the wording 
of its contents, is evidently not in the hand- 
writing of the person who makes the re- 
turn, is written on the first page of a folio 
sheet ; the last page of which bears the 
endorsement : — 

' Andrea di Bartolommeo, called Barbanza 

[taxed in the sum of] 3 soldi. 
' Deposited by Bernardo di Ser Salvestro, on 
the 29th day of January [1430-1] .' 

This endorsement had apparently been 
overlooked by Milanesi. On turning to 
the official copy of this same Demorzia, 
contained in the Campione for 1430, Gon- 
falone Scala, we find it entered in the name 
of ' Andrea dj Bartolomeo dt'c/o bur- 
banza.' 3 The name alone might well make 
us pause, and ask ourselves whether this 
Andrea could really have been Andrea the 
painter ? Nor is this all : the scribe adds 
to the copy the significant comment of his 
own 'pare chesiascimonito ' — ' he appears 
to be a half-witted fellow.' Surely this 
comment in itself is a sufficient proof that 
this person here referred to cannot have 
been the painter ? 4 There have been various 
opinions as to the character of Andrea ; 
but nobody has as yet suspected that he 
was an idiot. 

In an earlier Denunzia of the year 1 427, 

» Doc. I. »Doc II. * Doc. III. 

Andrea dal Castagno 

returned in the same Gonfalone, the name 

is again given as ' Andrea dj bartolomeo 
detto burbanza.' And neither in this 
Denunzia, nor in the two copies of that 
of 1430, is there the slightest indica- 
tion to show that this Andrea was the 
same person as ' Andrea di Bartolommeo 
di Simone, painter, of the popolo of Santa 
Maria del Fiore,' (as Andrea dal Castagno is 
described in the register of his matricula- 
tion, in the Arte di Medici e Speziali,) 
beyond the fact that his own name was 
Andrea, and his father's, Bartolommeo. 
But such a concatenation of names was by 
no means an uncommon one at Florence, 
in the fifteenth century. In the books of 
the Catasto for the Quarter of San Gio- 
vanni alone, (the quarter in which an in- 
habitant of the popolo of Santa Maria del 
Fiore would, in the ordinary course of 
things, be inscribed,) I have come by 
chance upon the names of ' Andrea di 
Bartolomeo dimanno,' ' Andrea di Bartolo 
vapettinando,' and ' Andrea di Bartolo detto 
Tregenda ' ; all of whom were contem- 
poraries of Andrea dal Castagno. 5 

It is clear, that this Andrea di Bartolom- 
meo, called 'Burbanza,' apparently from his 
clownish ostentation of manner, was a half- 
witted peasant, who hailed from the Val 
d'Elsa, and a wholly different person from 
Andrea, the painter, who, according to all 
tradition, was born at II Castagno, in the 
Mugello. In short, the account which 
Milanesi gave of the early life of the master 
was founded upon a misconception, and 
must be dismissed, once and for all, to that 
limbo to which the legend of his murder 
of Domenico Veneziano has already been 
consigned. Such a conclusion leads us to 
reconsider the date of Andrea's birth, and 
such notices of his early life as have come 
down to us. Of the date of his birth, I 
have hitherto been unable to discover any 

' Firenze: R. Archiviodi Stato ; Arch, delle Decime, Cjuartiere 
San Giovanni. Gonfalone Chiave, 1442, N° verde 626, fol. 94 and 
fol. 39; Quartiere id. Gonfalone Leon d'Oro, 1427, N° verde 78, 
fol. 206. 


Andrea dal Castaqno 


evidence. Vasari, our only authority on this 
point, says that Andrea diedat the ageof7i ; 
but then, by an extravagant error, he makes 
him paint the effigies of the Pazzi con- 
spirators, on the face of the Bargello, in 
1478. Vasari, therefore, believed Andrea to 
have been born subsequently to 1407. 6 

As to the place of his origin, we know- 
that during his lifetime the painter was 
known as Andrea dal Castagno. His assis- 
tant, Alesso Baldovinetti, in an entry in his 
'Ricordi, Libro A,' of the year 1454, calls 
him 'Andrea di Bartolo, da Castagno, di- 
pintore'; and his patron, Giovanni Ruc- 
cellai, who employed him upon the deco- 
ration of his palace in the Via della Vigna 
Nuova,at Florence, calls him, in his 'Zibal- 
done,' begun in 1459 and continued down 
to the time of his death in 1477, ' Andre- 
ino dal Castagno, detto degli impichati.' 7 
Here, then, we have two of Andrea's 
contemporaries indirectly alluding to the 
place or his origin. Before we turn to 
Vasari, let us glance at the commentators 
upon Florentine art, who preceded him. 
Notices of the early life of Andrea have 
comedown to us both in two partial copies, 
or versions, of the lost ' Libro di Antonio 
Billi,' and among the collections of the 
' Anonimo Gaddiano.' In the Codice Petrei 
the story runs thus : ' Andreino da Cas- 
tagno, brought up from his boyhood in 
Florence, was taken from keeping the flocks 
by a Florentine master, who found him as 
he was drawing a sheep on a stone, and 
brought him to Florence.' Now this story, 
as Herr Frey has pointed out, is plainly a 
reminiscence of the earlier legend, that 
Cimabue, passing one day through the 
Mugello on his way to Bologna, found 
Giotto as a boy ' drawing a sheep on a 
stone.' If Andrea was really born in the 
Mugello, it is easy to understand how this 
legend became attached to him. According 

6 Vasari, ed. 1568, vol. i, p. 399. 

' G. Pierotti, 'Ricordi di Alesso Baldovinetti,' Lucca, 1868, p. 10. 
G. Marcotti, ' Un Merchante Fiorentino e la sua Famiglia nel 
secolo xv,' Firenze, 1881, pp. 67-68 


to the version of the story contained in 
the Codice Strozziano, Andrea was found 
not by a Florentine painter, but ' by a citi- 
zen.' 'The Anonimo Gaddiano,' in retell- 
ing the story, does not particularize the 
person. 8 

Vasari, however, in the first edition of 
the ' Lives,' gives a different and very cir- 
cumstantial account of how Andrea became 
a painter, which possesses on the face of it, 
a far greater show of probability than these 
earlier notices. Andrea, he relates, 'by 
reason of his having been born not far from 
Scarperia in the Mugello, in the contado of 
Florence, at a little farm commonly called 
II Castagno, took it for his surname, when 
he came to live in the city, which hap- 
pened on this wise. Having been left in 
his early childhood without a father, he 
was taken by an uncle of his, who kept him 
many years to watch the herds, seeing him 
ready and active and so formidable, that he 
was able to keep from harm not only his 
cattle, but the pastures and every other 
thing which attached to his interest. 
Following then this calling, it happened 
one day that, in order to avoid the rain, 
he took shelter by chance in a place, 
where one of those country painters who 
work at a small price, was painting the 
tabernacle of a peasant, a matter, naturally, 
of no great moment. Andrea, who had 
never before seen the like, taken by a sudden 
wonder, began to observe and consider 
most attentively the nature of the work ; 
and immediately, the greatest longing pos- 
sessed him, and so passionate and eager a 
love of that art, that without losing more 
time, he began to scratch and draw on the 
walls and stones in charcoal, or with the 
point of his knife, animals and figures, in 
such a manner that he aroused great astonish- 
ment in those that saw them. The report 
of this new study of Andrea's began to get 
abroad among the peasants ; and as chance 

8 C. Frey, ' II Libro di Antonio Billi,' Berlin, 1892, pp. 21- 
22. C. Frey, ' II Codice Magliabechiano, cl. xvii. 17,' Berlin, 
1892, p. 97. 

would have it, having come to the ears of 
a Florentine gentleman, called Bernardetto 
de' Medici, whose estates lay there, he 
formed the desire to know the boy ; and 
at length having seen him, and heard him 
talk with great readiness, he asked him if 
he would like to follow the craft of a 
painter. And Andrea having answered 
him, that nothing more acceptable could 
possibly happen to him, nor could any- 
thing ever please him as much as that, he 
carried him with him to Florence, and 
placed him to work with one of those 
masters, which were then held to be among 
the best.'9 

Let us now endeavour to test, in so far 
as we may, the truth of this story of 
Vasari's ; for unless we are able to credit 
it, we must confess our entire ignorance of 
all the circumstances of Andrea's early 
life. Bernardetto de' Medici, who here 
figures as the early patron of Andrea, be- 
longed to an elder branch of the family 
than the more illustrious one of Cosimo, 
Pater Patriae ; both he and Cosimo being 
descended in the fourth degree from Aver- 
ardo di Averardo di Chiarissimo. 10 

Bernadetto was born in i 395, according 
to the ' Denunzia al Catasto,' which he 
and his brothers returned in 1430. 11 He 
took an active part all his life in public 
affairs, and his name constantly occurs in 
the pages of Florentine history, after his 
relative, the great Cosimo, returned from 
exile. In 1436 Bernadetto was elected to 
the office of prior ; and in 1438 he was 

» Vasari, ed. 1550, vol. i, p. 409. 

10 P. Litta ; ' Famiglie Celebri Italiane,' Milano, 1819 n., Fam. 
Medici. Tav. XVIII. 

11 According to Litta, I.e., Bernadetto was born in 1393. 

[The documents referred to will be printed 

Andrea dal Castagno 

sent into Lombardy as the 'commissario' 
attached to Francesco Sforza, who com- 
manded the Venetians, the allies of the 
Florentines, in the war against the Duke of 
Milan. In 1447 he was elected to the 
supreme office of ' Gonfaloniere di Gius- 
titia,' an honour which he again enjoyed 
in 1455 ; and the occasions on which lie 
acted, either as ' commissario ' of the 
Florentine forces or as the ambassador of 
the republic are too numerous to be men- 
tioned. By his will, dated 1465, he founded 
the chapel of San Bernardo, afterwards 
commonlv called of Sant' Anna, in San 
Lorenzo. He appears to have died shortly 
after this. 12 

According to the ' Denunzia' of Bernar- 
detto, and his brothers, Giovenco and 
Antonio, returned in the vear 1430, with 
the exception of one small property in 
Florence the whole of their joint estates 
lav in the valley of the Mugello. They 
are returned under eight heads, and in- 
clude : ' vna chaxa di signiore,' or villa, 
with its fiirmhouse and vineyard, together 
with two 'poderi ' or firms in the parish 
of San Piero a Sieve ; a house in the neigh- 
bouring town of Scarperia ; and four other 
properties, variously situated within the 
commune of Scarperia. The villa of Ber- 
nardetto is still a conspicuous object on the 
rising ground above the little town of San 
Piero a Sieve. 13 

12 P. Litta, I.e. ; S. Ammirato: ' Istorie Florentine,' Firenze 
1638-1641, Vol. III. p. 20, etc. 

13 Firenze: R. Archivio di Stato : Arch. delleDecime; Quar- 
tiere, San Giovanni; Gcnfalone, Leon d'Oro; Campione 1430, 
No. verde407, fol. 297 tergo. 

(To be continued.) 

as an appendix to a future number.] 




Y the kind permission of its 
owner, Mr. Stogden, of Har- 
row, we publish on Plate I a re- 
production of a large altarpiece 
of the Florentine school. It is 
in many ways a peculiar and 
puzzling picture, about which 
those connoisseurs who have 
seen it have for the most part come to no definite 
conclusion. Subject, composition, and treatment 
are all unfamiliar in this picture. The Virgin 
with the infant John the Baptist, surrounded by 
St. Louis and two other saints, kneel in adora- 
tion before the Infant Saviour, while on either 
side appear the figures of the donor and his wife. 
Just behind the donor is a figure that we may 
suppose to be his son. The background is un- 
usually large and full of incident; the ruined 
stable at Bethlehem fills the centre ; to the left is 
seen a free rendering of the Arno valley with 
St. Christopher; to the right the execution of 
St. Sebastian ; and at the end of a long, straight 
alley the walls and towers of Florence. The town 
is represented as seen from the north-east, and 
the relative positions of the chief buildings, the 
Palazzo Vecchio, the Duomo, the Campanile, the 
Baptistery, and the tower of Sta. Maria Novella, 
are truly rendered. It is certainly rare at this 
period to find so literal and exact a representation 
of the city. 

Nothing is known of the history of the picture 
which would lead to the identification either of the 
artist, of the donor, or of the church for which it 
was intended. We are therefore left to the in- 
ternal evidences of style, and these are by no 
means easy to read. The main influence is clearly 
that of Baldovinetti. The grouping of the figures 
and the treatment of the foreground with schematic 
flowers painted upon a dark green ground remind 
one of his Madonna enthroned in the Uffizi, while 
the ruined stable with the elaborately displayed 
ivy refers doubtless to his fresco in the courtyard 
of the Annunziata. Vasari specially commends 
the realistic drawing of the ivy in this composi- 
tion. Baldovinettian, too, is the Arno valley, 
with its dark tufts of foliage, its clear-cut cypress 
forms; even the peculiar foliation of the tree 
may be traced to the fresco by Baldovinetti 
already referred to. Like Baldovinetti, again, are 
the rounded outlines and compact poses of the 
hands, and the blunt severity of drawing in the 
portraits of the donor's family. 

On the other hand, the draperies already show 
an involution, a complication in the design of the 
folds, which belongs to a later art than Baldo- 
vinetti's; the Virgin's headdress in particular 
points to the school of Verrocchio, and from 
Verrocchio our artist may have learned to mark 


the tendons on the back of the hand, as he has 
done so conspicuously in the St. Anthony. 

A certain non-Florentine influence also makes 
itself apparent in the group of the execution of 
St. Sebastian, where we are reminded of Signorelli. 
But on the whole we find our artist to have 
been one of Baldovinetti's pupils, who afterwards 
migrated into Verrocchio's circle. Such a career 
s not unknown : the as yet nameless painter of 
the Madonna and Child with two angels in the 
National Gallery, formerly ascribed to Verrocchio, 
and now wisely labelled Florentine school, affords 
an instance ; and our artist shows, with far less 
accomplishment, a certain likeness to him. That 
artist comes so near to Botticini that Mr. Beren- 
son has actually ascribed to Botticini another 
painting by him — the little Tobias of the National 

The artist of our Nativity is certainly near to 
Botticini, and it is not impossible that this might 
be an early work of his. It has, indeed, a close 
similarity with a Madonna adoring the Infant 
Christ in the gallery at Modena, which may, per- 
haps, be by Botticini. On the other hand, we do 
not find elsewhere in Botticini such strong evi- 
dence of Baldovinetti's influence. 

I think, indeed, that it is more likely that our 
artist may some day be identified as the author of 
another picture of the Verrocchian school, the 
much-disputed Madonna and Child — No. 104A of 
the Berlin Gallery — there ascribed to Verrocchio 
himself. This attribution was vigorously contested 
by Morelli, who pointed out the vulgarity of the 
drawing and the tastelessness of the design, 
especially shown in the spiral convolution of the 

Precisely similar faults are to be found in Mr. 
Stogden's picture, where the peculiar tendency to 
involve the folds in meaningless spiral twists is 
very noticeable. Even the drawing of the rocks 
with parallel perpendicular grooves finds its 
counterpart in the Berlin picture. It must be re- 
membered, however, that there is a considerable 
difference in date between the two paintings. 
Mr. Stogden's work shows every sign of being an 
early effort. It has the conscientious care, the 
struggle to go to the utmost limits of his power, 
which befit a young painter working on his 
first large commission. He shows himself here as a 
conscientious and well-trained craftsman, who has 
a clumsy but determined grasp of structural form, 
but who is singularly without taste or a sense of 
beauty. Such an artist was doomed to decline in 
proportion as he relied more and more on his own 
resources, and it is not unlikely that this naive and 
curious work is the best that he has left us. 
There is nothing here to indicate that we have the 
first humble utterance of a great master : the ut- 
most one could expect of our artist later on would 
be work on the level of a Botticini or a Sellajo. 
For all that, the picture is not without the charm 

- X 




of sincere work done at a time when the merest 
craftsman had the gifts of expressive invention ; 
moreover, its possible relationship with other 
Florentine paintings of the period seems to justify 
its being made known to connoisseurs. 

Roger E. Fry. 



HE Image of Pity was one 
of the subjects most fre- 
quently represented during 
the middle ages by sculptors, 
painters, miniaturists, and 
engravers. The earliest and 
simplest examples that I have 
met with date from the four- 
teenth century, and reprc- 
in an open tomb with 
: outstretched showing the 


sent our Lord 
his hands crossed 
wounds, and with the crown of thorns on his head 
and a cruciform nimbus. Then a little later, in 
Florentine and Sienese pictures, the tomb is repre- 
sented at the foot of the cross, and figures of the 
Virgin Mother and Saint John are introduced 
seated in the foreground at the corners of the 
tomb, or standing at each end of it and supporting 
the Saviour's arms ; the spear and the reed with 
the sponge are occasionally added in the back- 
ground. In the fifteenth century other symbols 
of Christ's sufferings are introduced either in the 
background or in the compartments of a border 
enclosing the figures. 

Another series of works generally known as Our 
Lady of Pity picture the Virgin Mother seated at 
the foot of the cross mourning over the body of 
her Son laid on her lap, an arrangement which 
never seems natural, and often impossible. The 
unknown author of the beautiful painting 1 here 
reproduced by the kind permission of its owner, 
M. Grivau, of Connerre, has treated the subject 
in a manner of which I know no other example, 
and which strikes me as exceedingly happy. The 
figure of Christ is noble, and that of His mother 
full of tenderness and compassion. They stand 
out well on the gold background, the brightness of 
which is ably modified by the symbols of the 
Passion scattered all around. Against the right 
arm of the tau or Calvary cross are the spear and 
reed with the sponge, and on the extreme right 
of the panel the pillar with the cords, the scourge 
of three thongs, a bunch of twigs, and at the top 
the board with the title I.N. R.I. ; above it, the 
bust of Judas with a rope round his neck, to which 
his purse is attached ; higher up are the heads of 
Peter and the maidservant face to face. In the 
space between these and the central group are the 
heads of Annas and Caiaphas, and three hands — 
one an open right hand striking (St. John xviii. 

1 Oak. H.o m . 28 ; B.o">. 206. See Plate II, page 74. 

The Image of Pity 

22) ; another, probably Judas grasping the purse. 
I fail to see what the third is meant to represent. 
On the left side are the heads of Pilate and 
Herod, a closed right hand, the head of a man 
mocking, a right hand holding the hair, a foot 
kicking, and the three nails. 

Nothing is known of the history of the picture 
which is in all probability the work of a master of 
the school of Tournay. 

\V. H. James Weale. 


'HEN, in an early number 
of The Burlington- 
Magazine, 1 I con- 
tributed a note on a 
picture of the Madonna 
and Child, ascribed to 
Andrea da Solario, and 
then in the possession of 
Mr. Asher Wertheimer, I called attention to the 
evident genuineness of the signature, which runs 
' Antonius da Solario Venet us f.' and, while admit ting 
the extreme likeness of the picture to those painted 
by the well-known Lombardo- Venetian painter, 
Andrea da Solario, urged caution in rejecting on 
purely internal evidence the testimony of a signa- 
ture which bore every trace of authenticity. I also 
agreed that, while the signature of a well-known 
artist might, even if original, be legitimately sus- 
pected, the temptation to have it affixed to a work 
of art falsely, when the name was little or hardly 
known, did not exist. The only Antonio Solario 
known to art historians was one who painted at 
Naples, and whose characteristics in no way 
answered those of the author of the picture in 
question. Mr. Berenson, in a reply to my article,' 2 
declared his unshaken belief that the Madonna 
and Child was by Andrea Solario. He proceeded 
to explain the signature by supposing that Andrea 
Solario left the cartellino blank, and that an 
owner who bought it wished to record the name 
of the artist and the fact that it was executed in 
Venice ; but, having only a confused recollection 
of the painter's Christian name, hit upon Antonio, 
and had that inscribed on the cartellino. The 
ingenuity of this theory certainly provokes one's 
admiration, but I confess it scarcely brought con- 
viction to my mind, willing as I was on internal 
evidence to ascribe the picture to Andrea in spite 
of certain slight differences in handling and manner 
of conception which tended to confirm my doubts. 
Now, however, these doubts have increased to a 
practical certainty that another and hitherto un- 
known artist, Antonio Solario, existed and painted 
the Madonna and Child belonging to Mr. Wert- 
heimer. For yet another picture has turned up 

1 Vol. I, p. 353 (May 1903). Picture reproduced on p. 352. 
' Burlington, Vol. II, p. 114 (June 1903). 


On a Painting by Antonio da Solario 

which bears his signature. It is the painting of 
the Head of John the Baptist belonging to Mr. 
Humphry Ward, and reproduced by his kind 
permission on Plate I. It is signed antonius 
solarius venetus MDVin. This time the 
signature is in Roman capitals such as Andrea 
used, and not in gothic script as in the Wertheimer 
picture. The picture was done some time, perhaps 
ten years, later than the Wertheimer Madonna, 
and in the interval the two artists, at first so like, 
are now visibly disparate. It so happens, indeed, 
that an exact comparison between the two can be 
made, for in this very year, 1508, Andrea da Solario 
painted this very subject. His version of it is 
now in the Louvre. It is decidedly superior 
to our picture, and has just that energy and pre- 
cision of touch which are so conspicuously lacking 
in Antonio's rendering. Mr. Humphry Ward's 
picture is indeed fine only in its accessories. The 
pearl inlaid golden chalice which supports the 
saint's head is painted with considerable skill, but 
the head itself is weak and indeterminate in 
modelling, and the attempt at pathos verges on 
sentimental weakness. It serves to show, how- 
ever, that our unknown artist followed in the 
footsteps of his greater namesake, and having 
learned his art from the Vivarini in Venice, became 
a member of the Leonardesque Lombard school ; 
of this the treatment of the hair and the attempted 
sfumato of the flesh are sufficient proof. But, 
though he followed in Andrea's footsteps as far as 
style was concerned, his lesser talent caused him 
to lag behind until, in the two pictures of 1508, the 
superiority of Andrea is so manifest that no one 
would think of attributing Mr. Humphry Ward's 
picture to him. 

Who this Antonio was that shadowed Andrea 
Solario throughout his career still remains a ques- 
tion to be solved, perhaps by some lucky find in the 
archives of Milan. In the meanwhile it is natural 
to conclude that he was Andrea's brother. It is 
partly in the hope that it may lead to his further 
identification that we give publicity to this curious 
work. Roger E. Fry. 


The portrait of Mr. and Mrs. Edwards by Fantin- 
Latour in the National Gallery was reproduced in 
The Burlington Magazine last month. In the 
note upon it reference was made to a portrait in 
Messrs. Obach's Exhibition. That portrait we 
are now permitted to reproduce. 3 

In itself it is not perhaps so important as several 
other portraits by that master, yet it possesses an 
interest of its own apart from its intrinsic charm. 
Fantin started life as a realist under the shadow 
of Courbet in company with painters like Ricard 
Bonvin and Ribot. His early portrait groups are 
5 Plate III, page 77. 


all realistic. His aims are truth of lighting, truth 
of 'space composition,' and truth of substance, 
expressed by a technique founded on the old 
Dutch masters. After a time Fantin began to 
exhibit, side by side with these masterpieces of 
severe fact, the masterpieces of delicate romance 
by which in this country he is better known. 

This study of a girl's head painted in the sixties 
is a connecting link between these two phases. 
It shows that even while Fantin was painting the 
Hommage a Delacroix, and several years before 
he produced the National Gallery portrait, he was 
already turning his mind to the suave tender form 
of art in which he was to prove himself the succes- 
sor of Prudhon and Correggio. 


OST students and collectors 
of English earthe nware have 
had their attention drawn to 
a certain class of small en- 
amelled earthenware vessels 
I which are constantly being 
discovered in various parts 
_j3f London where excavations 
are being made for the foundations of new buildings 
or for drainage purposes. The small vessels were 
no doubt used for containing drugs and ointments, 
and as much discussion has been raised concern- 
ing their provenance, the time appears to have 
arrived when some attempt should be made to 
come to a definite decision on this point. 

Mr. Henry Wallis, in his latest work, ' The 
Albarello,' boldly and unhesitatingly claims for 
them an Italian origin, only questioning whether 
they were imported as pottery or filled with cos- 
metics or drugs. He further goes on to say : — 
'The Italian writers on maiolica will smile when 
they hear that these particular albarclli were 
labelled in English museums and collections 
"Lambeth Delft.'" 

Let us now proceed to examine the grounds for 
and against Mr. Wallis's verdict, arguing succes- 
sively from the evidence of size, form, and deco- 
ration. The first curious feature common to all 
these drug-pots which are Italian in form is their 
diminutive size ; very rarely do they exceed 3$ in. 
in height. No. 25 of the pieces illustrated is one 
of the few exceptions ; yet even this specimen, 
although very much larger than any of its class 
known to the writer, is still a great deal smaller 
than the ordinary Italian albarello, which averages 
at least from 7 in. to 8 in ; occasionally specimens 
are met with measuring only 5^ in., but vases of the 
small dimensions of those which are comparatively 
common in London are never found in Italy. 
This is a very strong point, for if they had been, 
* See Plate IV, page 80. 



2 H. 4} IN. 



4 5 


t> H. 5i IN. 





24 -25 H. .(J IN. 26 






Old English Drug and Unguent Pots 

made in Italy for export it is almost absolutely 
certain that some would have remained in that 
country ; but we find no trace either of complete 
vessels, wasters, or fragments. 

The next points for consideration are their form 
and decoration. No student of English delft-ware 
is ignorant of the fact that the English potters 
were well acquainted with the products of their 
foreign rivals ; owing, as they did, the knowledge 
of this particular branch of their handicraft to the 
teaching of workmen from abroad, it would have 
been a most extraordinary circumstance if the 
early English delft did not bear a very strong 
resemblance to the models from which the potters 
borrowed their ideas. The well-known Ann 
Chapman mug in the Victoria and Albert Museum 
and other examples in the British Museum show 
how very strongly the Lambeth decorators were 
influenced by the designs on Italian maiolica. 
Bearing in mind this habitual use of Italian and 
other foreign decoration by the London potters, it 
is quite obvious that the English craftsman would 
not limit his borrowing propensities to the decora- 
tion alone, but would certainly adopt ideas of form 
from his competitors ; for we must recollect that 
in the early days of English delft the native fac- 
tories were carrying on a keen competition for the 
home market with goods imported from the Con- 
tinent, and the familiar Italian albarello had been 
for centuries the accepted form for a pharmacy 
jar, a shape which was not originated in Italy, 
but borrowed by that country from the Hispano- 
Moresque lustre-ware, whose makers in their turn 
had adopted it from the East. Another peculiarity 
of the small London jars is the bevelled edge of 
the rim, which in the Italian examples is almost 
invariably flat ; they would seem to have been 
made thus to facilitate tying a parchment cover 
over the mouth to preserve the contents. The 
general outline of the form is also somewhat 
clumsy as compared with the Italian, and the 
walls very much thicker in proportion to the 
height. Yet another interesting feature is the for- 
mation of the base, usually much more hollowed 
out underneath in the London pots than in the 
Italian, which have an almost perfectly flat 
bottom. An interesting proof of the albarello form 
being known and copied in this country during 
the Tudor period, long before the introduction 
of enamelled wares, are the two green-glazed 
albarello-shzped vases in the British Museum, 
one of which, found in London, is figured in 
Mr. Wallis's book and admitted by him to be 
probably of English origin. 

We have so far shown that the mere partial 
coincidence in form is no evidence for the theory 
of an Italian origin for our little London drug- 
pots. It remains, therefore, for us to consider the 
motifs of the decoration, upon which, indeed, the 
whole of Mr. Wallis's case rests, and it must be 
admitted that these motifs have a decidedly Italian 

character, many of them being probably, in the 
first instance, copied directly from an Italian 

Now let us turn to our illustrations ; the first 
point which strikes us is the fact that the vessels 
on the two plates consist, roughly, of two shapes, 
namely, the jars of the familiar Italian albarello 
form, and the remainder of a low and somewhat 
squat pattern. Now this latter form (cf. Nos. I, 
2, 3) is one quite unknown in Italy; we never see 
it in earthenware or in any other material, a form 
so wanting in artistic grace being hardly likely 
even to suggest itself to an Italian mind. On the 
other hand, it is quite a common shape in Eng- 
land ; decorated and undecorated, it occurs in 
glazed and unglazed earthenware, in Fulham 
stoneware and in delft-ware. Now if we compare 
the albarello-shaped vases with the squat-shaped 
specimens it will be noticed that there is no 
decoration on the former that is not also shown 
on the latter, and also that both shapes have the 
bevelled rims and the bases hollowed out under- 
neath ; these coincidences justify us in accepting 
the probability that the same hands made and 
painted both shapes. 

The next step is to analyse the decoration. 

The feature common to all the painted pots is 
the prevalence of a series of horizontal bands. 
It is true that these bands are also found on 
Italian jars ; but on these they merely serve to 
separate the various schemes of ornament and to 
emphasize the outline of the form of the vessel, 
whereas on the London pots they form in many 
cases the principal if not the sole decoration. 2 
Another noticeable feature is the frequent use of 
rows of small discs. These discs, when used on 
Italian jars, are almost invariably accompanied 
by some other small ornament, such as a trefoil 
or a little wavy line, very rarely indeed are they 
left by themselves. On English vessels, however, 
they have always been used as a leading motif, 
both on slip-decorated and on painted wares 
(cf. No. 16). 

We may now turn our attention to the vase in 
our illustrations which has the most marked 
Italian features, namely No. 25. We see here 
again the same combination of blue bands and 
discs which decorates the squat-shaped pots (Nos. 
2, 9, 11, 13), and we find the same ornament 
between the chevrons as on the vessels, Nos. 3 
and 5 ; only one single feature remains which is 
not depicted on both shapes in our illustrations, 
namely the curved outline of the chevrons, which 
is, after all, a very obvious variation from the 
common straight form (cf. Nos. 2, 5). The little 
devices between the chevrons are not so Italian 

■ Amongst Mr. Wallis's drawings ('The Albarello,' fig. 93, p. 99) 
a vessel copied from a painting by Ghirlandajo appears in this 
respect to resemble the English examples, but a careful examina- 
tion of a photograph of this picture reveals the fact that other 
more elaborate decoration, not shown in the drawing, gives quite 
a different character to the design. 


Old English Drug and Unguent Pots 

as at first sight they appear to be 3 ; for whereas 
on the English vessels they consist simply of 
superimposed straight lines, on the albarclli they 
are usually painted in one continuous serpentine 
line, a device never seen on a London pot. 

On No. 24 the little conventional flower, cer- 
tainly of Italian origin, is again seen as a feature 
of the little English-shaped vessel (No. 12), and it 
also forms the principal decoration of a little 
ointment-pot in the Liverpool Museum, similar in 
shape to No. 16. Numerous examples of this 
shape are also to be seen in the Guildhall Museum, 
inscribed with the names of English apothecaries 
and English ointments. 

A fine specimen of the squat-shaped type, of 
unimpeachable Lambeth origin, in the writer's 
collection, is particularly interesting, as it is deco- 
rated in blue with a combination of the chevrons, 
bands, and discs, thus showing that this style of 
ornament was being used on English vessels in the 
seventeenth century, a date at least one hundred 
years later than that to which Mr. Wallis would 
assign them. 

The evidence thus appears to point very clearly 
against Mr. Wallis's theory of an Italian origin for 
these pots, and to give every justification for 
collectors to continue to label them ' English 
Delft,' although not necessarily Lambeth. The 
shape has been shown to be familiar to the Eng- 
lish potters, and all the motifs of the decoration to 
be commonly used by them. We can therefore 

8 In this connexion it may be pointed out that in Mr. Wallis's 
drawings (' The Albarello,' figs. 60, 61, 62) the devices in question 
hardly give a correct impression of their nature ; they appear 
there as leaf-shaped designs drawn in outline and hatched in ; as 
will be clearly seen in the photographs (PI. I, figs. 15, 16, 17), 
they consist of a series of broad brush strokes placed horizontally 
to form a pyramid. 

adopt the only reasonable conclusion, which is 
that they were made somewhere near where they 
are most usually found, namely, in London, and 
not where no traces of them ever occur, that is to 
say, in Italy. C. H. Wylde. 

In the description of these fine figures, which are 
so well illustrated in the last number of the 
Magazine, I am kindly referred to as having 
suggested the identification of Fig. 2 in Plate I 
with Maitreya Buddha, and would like to be 
allowed to add a note of explanation. He would 
be posed here, I am inclined to think, as a member 
of the group of eighteen Arhats (' Lohan '), not as 
an isolated figure. Although Maitreya is never 
seen among the sixteen arhats of Japan or Korea, 
nor in the group of sixteen sthaviras of Tibetan 
shrines, he is often found represented in the ranks 
of eighteen Lohan which line the eastern and 
western walls of a Chinese Buddhist temple (cf. 
J. Watters's article on the eighteen Lohan in the 
R. Asiatic Soc. Jour., April 1898). He may either 
be, as here, enthroned in the Tushita heaven, or 
figured as Putai Hoshang, the ' Monk with the 
Hempen Bag.' Putai, transliterated Hotei in 
Japanese, the well-known smiling obese figure of a 
monk with a rosary in his hand, is supposed to be 
the last incarnation on earth of the future Buddha. 
In a finely carved ivory hand-rest illustrated in 
the museum handbook of Chinese art (Vol. I, 
Fig. 78), Maitreya is also included in the glyptic 
group of eighteen Lohan, seated aloft upon a throne 
upheld by three demons. S. W. Bushell. 



M. Bouchot in his letter in the March 
number of The Burlington Magazine (Vol. VI, 
p. 497), instead of retracting or accounting for the 
mis-statements which he put forth in the Bulletin 
de VArt Ancien et Modeme of December 24, has 
indulged in accusations of want of politeness on 
my part, accompanied by fresh mis-statements. 
He seems to think that my letters were an answer 
to his recently published volume on the French 
' Primitifs.' He is quite mistaken. I had not 
even heard of the book until February 18, when 
I at once ordered it of my bookseller. On the very 
first page I find the astounding statement that 
French was in the middle ages the language 
spoken by the people of Ghent and Bruges. 
Yet history tells us that on May 25, 1302 the 
burghers of Bruges rose against their tyrannical 
foreign rulers, and that every Frenchman who 
could not pronounce correctly the words Schilt 
ende vriendt was put to death. The communal 


and parochial accounts and all business docu- 
ments in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, 
thousands of which are preserved in the archives, 
are drawn up in Flemish. But that your readers 
may judge for themselves and form a fair estimate 
of the value of M. Bouchot's most positive state- 
ments I will now lay before them a few specimens 
of the innumerable mis-statements in that volume, 
with the real facts in parallel columns. 

M. BoncHOT's Assertions. 

The real Facts. 

1. Van Eyck is a modem 1. Philip, duke of Burgundy, 

translation of de Eyck, the in a letter dated 12 March, 
ancient form everywhere em- 1434, writes thus : Notre bien 
ployed in the fifteenth century. 1 am6 varlet de chambre et 

peintre Jehan van Eyck} The 
form Van Eyck occurs in three 
other French documents of the 
years 1434, 1439, and 1441, and 
in a number of Latin docu- 
ments 3 ; it is exclusively used 
in Flemish documents. 

1 Bulletin de V Art, vi, 319. 

3 Archives of the Department of the North, Lille. 
3 I have given references to these, and to works in which they 
are printed, in the Bulletin, vii, 29. 

The Van Eycks and M. "Bouchot 


2. It will be as well to re- 
mind our readers that James 
Cone 4 was both architect and 
painter, that the people of 
Milan sent for him from France 
to design the flan of their cathe- 
dral, to build it, and finally to 
decorate it with paintings.* 

3. When we first meet with 
Van Eyck he is at Cambrai 
decorating a Paschal candle. 
A forger of our own time in- 
scribed with bitumen of Judea 
on a picture of the consecra- 
tion of St. Thomas a Becket, 
' Johannes de Eyck fecit ano 
M cccc 21 Octobris ' ; 1421 
written in this manner is in it- 
self a poem, but the inscrip- 
tion really runs thus: 1400, 
21 Octobris, and this is better. 
John de Eyck was then a babe 
in his cradle, but forgers do 
not think of everything. Bitu- 
men of Judea only came into 
use in 1804. ' 

2. The plan of Milan cathe- 
dral was made in 1356 and the 
work commenced on the iSth 
of March of that year. James 
Coene did not arrive in Milan 
until the 7th of August, 1399; 
it was through French influ- 
ence that he was invited thither 
with two assistants and engaged 
to make drawings of the cathe- 
dral ; they were, however, very 
soon dismissed ;eranofresto con- 

3. In the household accounts 
of John of Bavaria we find 
that John van Eyck was en- 
gaged in decorating the Palace 
at the Hague at a weekly wage 
from October 25, 1422, until 
September, 1424. In the ac- 
counts of the fabric of Cam- 
brai cathedral we find that a 
certain John de Yeke was em- 
ployed in 1422, 1423, 1424, and 
following years, in painting 
candles and clocks and crosses 
on the outer wall of the cathe- 
dral to prevent the commission 
of nuisances. 8 

A panel in the possession of 
the duke of Devonshire bears 
the perfectly authentic inscrip- 

ano Mxccczr. 3o = octobris. 
The panel, with the excep- 
tion of this inscription, has 
unfortunately been entirely 
overpainted. It is said to have 
been given in Van Eyck's life- 
time by the duke of Bedford to 
his nephew, Henry V. It was 
in the possession of the earl 
of Arundel ; on his death in 
1646 it passed to Henry, duke 
of Norfolk, and later on was 
purchased by the duke of De- 
vonshire. The inscription was 
copied and published by Wal- 
pole in 1762 and by Raspe in 
178 1. 

4. Any inscription can be 
made to appear incomprehen- 
sible if incorrectly copied as in 
this case by M. Bouchot, who 
insinuates that it is a forgery. 

5. This is quite untrue. M. 
Bouchot knows perfectly well 
that in Flanders the painters 
and saddlers were members of 
the same gild, and he asserts 
that it was to such gilds that 
the really great masters be- 
longed, and not to those in 
which they were associated 
with sculptors and gold- 
smiths. 11 

* I have (p. 413) said enough about the orthography and 
meaning of the name Coene, and I think my word as a member 
of the Royal Flemish Academy will be generally accepted. 

• Les ' Primitifs,' pp. 19, 223. 

6 ' Designare ecclesiam a fundamento usque ad summitatem.' 
■ Annalis della fabrica del Duomo di Milano, ann. 1399 e 1400.' 
M. Bouchot's statement (p. 19) that Coene returned to Paris be- 
cause he liked that town better than Milan is really amusing. 

7 Les ' Primitifs,' pp. 235, 238. 

8 These have been repeatedly printed in works which M. Bou- 
chot professes to have read. 

' Les ' Primitifs,' p. 229. 

10 Les " Primitifs,' p. 14. 

11 Les ' Primitifs,' pp. 48, 49, 69. 

4. The last line (of the in- 
scription on the frame of the 
Ghent altarpiece) is incompre- 
hensible, 9 

5. In the two Flanders the 
painters formed part of the 
gild of dealers in old clothes. 10 

After these specimens our readers will probably 
not be astonished to learn that in M. Bouchot's 
opinion there is not a single picture for which 
there is the slightest evidence of its having been 
painted by either of the Van Eycks (pp. 25, 26) ; 
that the Richmond, Rothschild, and Hermannstadt 
pictures, the Louvre Madonna with the ' pre- 
tended portrait of chancellor Rolin/and the Paele 
altarpiece at Bruges are not by either of them 
(pp. 240, 241) ; that the inscription on the last 
(corroborated by a contemporary entry in the acts 
of the chapter of St. Donatian) is a forgery (pp. 
221-223), as a l so triat on the National Gallery 
portrait, which does not represent Arnolfini, but 
some Fleming, probably John van Eyck himself 
(p. 239) ; (this last idea, by the way, is not original, 
but borrowed from Laborde) and finally that the 
Van Eycks never invented nor improved anything. 

We should like to know how M. Bouchot 
accounts for the fact that paintings by the 
Van Eycks and their followers were in great de- 
mand during the fifteenth century not only in the 
Netherlands, but also in France, Italy, Sicily, 
Spain, Portugal, England and Scotland, while 
there is not the slightest evidence of any such 
demand for French paintings. The real truth is 
that the pictures produced in France in the fif- 
teenth century were really executed by or under 
the influence of Netherlanders, and that it was 
mainly by Netherlanders such as the Clouets, 
Cornelius Van der Capelle, Pourbus, and Watteau 
that the art of painting was kept alive. 

M. Bouchot must have a very poor opinion of 
his countrymen if he thinks that they will swallow 
these appeals to national vanity. The learned and 
intelligent will only laugh at assertions generally 
put forth without the shadow of a proof. 

We have felt it our duty to write thus at length 
to put our readers on their guard. We have been 
so long accustomed to erudition, sound criticism, 
and accuracy in works published by officers of 
the Bibliotheque Nationale that we greatly regret 
the issue of such a book as this. 

W. H. J. Weale. 




I have studied Mr. Max Rooses' admirable 
and learned letter on this picture with the greatest 
interest, and it would give me the greatest pos- 
sible pleasure to agree with him. I recognize his 
authority in the handling of the documents con- 
cerning its antecedents, yet even there I am 
inclined to disagree with the conclusions he has 
drawn from them, or to dismiss the tradition that 
Van Dyck painted Isabella Brant because such a 
picture did not occur in the inventory of Rubens' 
possessions after death. There might have been 
several reasons to account for its absence when we 


The Portrait of Isabella 'Brant 

realize his ' widowerhood ' and his second mar- 
riage, circumstances under which a portrait of the 
first wife might drift into the hands of relatives — 
but we are in these matters in the field of 

The proof of the authorship of the picture 
should be found in the technical characteristics 
which it presents, and had it not passed (possibly 
on some tradition) as the work of Van Dyck when 
it was formerly in the Crozat collection, its style, 
in my opinion, would be sufficient to invalidate 
it? subsequent attribution to Rubens by the autho- 
rities of the St. Petersburg Gallery ; in this I am 
glad to find myself at one with so eminent and 
successful a judge of painting as Dr. Bode. Be- 
sides his scholarly interpretation of documents 
and tradition, Mr. Kooses adduces several stylistic 
reasons for discarding Van Dyck's authorship of 
this masterpiece. He states that the portrait 
represents the sitter (' at home ' as it were) in the 
courtyard near the Wapper, and that in so doing 
the artist has conformed to a habit of design 
common to Rubens but not to Van Dyck. This, 
I feel, exaggerates the case, for surely the mere 
vista beyond the pillar and curtain is far from 
representing those more ample and realistic cir- 
cumstances affected by Rubens in such works as 
' Lipsius and Friends' in the Pitti, the Lady 
Arundel (Munich), and the admirable portraits of 
Helene Fourment, mentioned by Mr. Rooses. 
But do not let us forget that the picture at the 
Hermitage is also less ample in its circumstances 
than several typical works by Van Dyck repre- 
senting sitters ' at home ' both early and late, 
such as the Nobleman with two Attendants, for- 
merly called Rubens and a Sculptor (National 
Gallery), the Puito Bianco (Genoa), the famous 
Charles and Henrietta, etc., with the vista of 
Windsor Castle, and the Strafford and his Secre- 
tary (Earl Fitzwilliam), to mention only a few 
pictures by Van Dyck which depart from his more 
restricted and habitual pattern for portraits with 
the curtain and vista or arch and landscape. 

The Hermitage picture is therefore quite as 
much in the scheme of one master as of the 
other ; it presents also several characteristics 
which give the balance of evidence in favour of 
Van Dyck. The contour of the face is sharper, 
the scheme of form less rounded, more abrupt, 
more ' clean ' than is the case with Rubens. The 
sweeping line of the arm terminating in a long, 
tapering hand is in the manner of the pupil; 
Rubens poses his hands differently, he parts and 
curves the fingers. 

Finally, the technique reveals throughout the 
sharper accent, the tendency to emphasize the 
high lights with a more ' written ' impasto, and 
this is typical of Van Dyck's early manner, and 
is not like the practice of Rubens, whose touch is 
more smooth and broken. 

Mr. Rooses considers the superb drawing of 


Isabella in the British Museum a preparatory 
sketch for the Hermitage picture. This must be 
a slip of memory, for it is reproduced in his book, 
and though he allows that the view represented is 
slightly more full face, he omits to state that it is 
turned the other way, and that it corresponds in 
every essential of form and pose to the portrait of 
Isabella Brant in the Uffizi, which is one of 
Rubens' masterpieces, for which it is obviously a 
preparatory study. 

In conclusion we should not be surprised if we 
find in the pictures a survival of the teaching of 
Rubens in the young Van Dyck, but the presence 
of a body of characteristics belonging to the 
younger man is improbable in a mature work of 
the master. Charles Ricketts. 


Allow me to call attention to an oversight 
on page 303 of 'Albert Durer,' recently published 
by Messrs. Duckworth and Co., where it is stated 
that the 'admirable translations' in Sir Martin 
Conway's ' Literary Remains of Albrecht Durer ' 
were made by Miss Eckenstein. They were really 
made by Sir Martin himself; Miss Eckenstein 
only did the transcripts from the MSS. printed in 
the Appendices, as is clearly stated in the preface 
of that work. T. Sturge Moore. 


As the interesting article by Miss May Morris 
on the Ascoli cope, in the last (March) number of 
The Burlington Magazine, is likely to be 
referred to as the most authoritative account of 
its design and workmanship, it may be worth 
while to point out that the sixth subject in the 
first row does not represent the martyrdom of 
St. Cornelius, but that of St. Stephen. The 
name Sus stephanms may be distinguished (in 
the uppermost lobe of the medallion) even in a 
large photograph, although M. Bertaux, in his 
article in the Melanges d'ArchSologie, 1897, states 
that ' on distingue seulement les quatres dernieres 
lettres de son nom — [S. Corne] lius.' l The repre- 
sentation of his martyrdom is exactly in accord- 
ance with his legend as given, for example, in 
Petrus de Natalibus, De sancto Stephano papa prima 
et martyre. ' Valerianus milites ... ad eum 
occidendum misit : qui venientes ipsum celebran- 
tem missam invenerunt : et stantem intrepidum 
accepta jugiter perficientem in sua sede decolla- 

It may also be of interest to note, with regard 
to the origin cf the cope, that when M. Bertaux 
pronounces so decidedly in favour of the design 

1 M. Bertaux also pronounces that, in the first medallion of 
the same row, ■ l'inscription a disparu avec la bordure : ce pape 
peut etre Saint Alexandre.' But the name Sus iohannes may be 
made out even in the plate that accompanies Miss Morris's 
article, in which this name is, of course, correctly stated. 

being French, he is discussing the alternative of 
its being Byzantine or Italian, and the idea of its 
being English is not brought under consideration 
at all. Eric Maclagan. 



To the very interesting article on Francoise 
Duparc, of Marseilles, by M. Philippe Auquier, in 
the March number of The Burlington Magazine, 
you add a footnote to the effect that you have 
been unable to find any evidence that this artist 
ever lived in England. 

There are, however, two entries in Mr. Algernon 
Graves's ' Dictionary of Artists who have exhibited 
works in the principal London Exhibitions from 
1760 to 1893,' which, I believe, refer to her. A 
' Mrs. Dupart ' exhibited three pictures (figures) 
with the Free Society in 1763, and a ' — Du 
Pare ' exhibited three portraits with the Society 
of Artists in 1766. 

Francoise Duparc 

Mr. Graves has kindly given me a few more par- 
ticulars, taken from his manuscript lists, from which 
it appears that Mrs. Dupart's address was ' at Mr. 
Gosset's, Berwick Street,' and that she exhibited 
(1763) No. 69, An Old Woman; No. 70, A 
Young Woman ; and No 71, A Black Boy with 
a Basket of Flowers. Three years later (1766), 
— Du Pare, 'at Mr. Williamson's, Prince's Street,' 
exhibited No. 112, Portrait of a Lady; No. 113, 
Portrait of a Gentleman; and No. 114, Portrait 
of a Child — all three in crayons. I think it very 
probable that in each of these instances the exhibi- 
tor was Franchise Duparc. 

Arthur B. Chamberlain, 
Assistant-Keeper of the City of Birmingham 
Art Gallery. 

[%* This information is most interesting, and 
we hope that English owners of eighteenth century 
pictures will, as M. Auquier suggested, send par- 
ticulars of any picture in their possession that may 
possibly be a work of Francoise Duparc] 


Catalogue of the Morgan Collection of 
Chinese Porcelains. Privately printed by 
order of Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan. New York, 
mcmiv. (Limited to 250 copies.) 

This sumptuous volume, beautifully printed on 
thick hand-made paper with deckle edges, richly 
bound in covers and fly-leaves of dark green 
morocco, cleverly tooled with gold, and lined with 
watered silk of harmonizing tint, and copiously 
illustrated with seventy-seven lithographic coloured 
plates, is a catalogue worthy of a collection of 
Chinese porcelain which bids fair presently to 
rival, if not to surpass, any of the older collec- 
tions in Europe. The nucleus of the collection 
consists of the select array of specimens brought 
together by the late James A. Garland, of which 
a small handbook, illustrated with half-tone blocks, 
was compiled by John Getz, and published by the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art at New York in 1895. 
The present catalogue reveals many important 
additions to the old nucleus ; and at the same time 
records a striking advance in exact knowledge of the 
subject, due mainly to recent studies in Chinese 
ceramic literature, which are generously referred 
to in the text. 

For the appreciative and comprehensive notes, 
printed as an introduction to the formal catalogue 
and signed 'W. M. L.', we are indebted, there is 
reason to believe, to Mr. Laffan, the eminent critic of 
Chinese ceramic art. He describes with a trenchant 
pen how all the superb pieces characterized in the 
former handbook as ' examples of the high technical 
skill attained during the Ming dynasty, in the fif- 
teenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries,' ought 
properly to be attributed to the reign of K'ang-hsi 
of the reigning dynasty, and how this last is really 

the halcyon period of the ceramic art in China: — 
' Modern research and study have dispelled many 
of the illusions and trade traditions that obscured 
the whole history of Chinese porcelains. In fact, 
at the end of the nineteenth century it has been 
found necessary to adopt an entirely different 
classification. In all the European collections 
where there has been any systematic attempt at 
classification, the most important of the decorated 
porcelains and the best of the monochromes were 
ascribed to the dynasty of the Mings, that is to 
say, they must have been made in or prior to the 
reign of Wan-li, the Ming emperor with whom 
the industry perished in the Tartar invasion. All 
the important blue and white pieces were parcelled 
out as far back as the Emperor Yung-lo (1403- 
1424), with a distinct partiality for Ch'eng-hua 
(1465-1487), and a leaning towards Hsuan-te (1426- 
1435). The fine rare reds, the sang de bceit/s, were 
all Ming pieces, and by a curious fatuity were 
called Lang-yao ; a family of potters named Lang 
being created spontaneously for them. These last 
were really K'ang-hsi porcelains (1662-1722), and 
were Lang pieces in good faith, having been pro- 
duced at King-te-chen under the prefecture of the 
great Lang, who gave so wonderful an impetus to 
the art under the protection of the peaceful Tartar 
monarch. The black pieces, the so-called haw- 
thorns, with varied decorations supported on a 
black ground, were all relegated to the dynasty of 
the Mings, and it is only at the beginning of the 
twentieth century that we are able definitely to 
dispel all these errors and straighten out in some 
degree the sadly involved chronology of Chinese 

The above conclusions are hardly to be gain- 
said, but a word of deprecation must be hazarded 



on the constant use of the term ' hawthorn ' in 
the catalogue. It is applied here not only to the 
familiar blue and white ginger jars which are well 
represented in the- collection — notably by the bril- 
liant ' Blenheim vase ' from the Marlborough col- 
lection figured in Plate XI — but also, still less 
appropriately, to the stately K'ang-hsi vases of 
varied form decorated in colours with floral designs 
relieved by enamelled grounds of lustrous black, 
bright apple-green, or softer yellow. The so-called 
hawthorn is actually the early-blossoming wild 
plum, the Chinese floral emblem of winter, which 
is a species of prunus, allied to the blackthorn of 
our hedges, that flowers in the valleys of northern 
China before the ice melts. Neither, by the same 
token, should sprays of white magnolia reserved 
on a background of pulsating blue ever be called 
' tiger lilies ' ; nor, still less, should trellised vines 
of the pilgrim's gourd, another favourite floral 
motive, become known to china-maniacs as the 
' hop decoration,' the hop not being cultivated 
anywhere in China. 

The Morgan collection is especially strong in the 
superbly-decorated porcelain of the K'ang-hsi 
period in all its branches. A large black-ground 
vase of almost unique interest is displayed in Plate 
LIV, with the petals of the primus blossoms 
effectively touched with coral red, while a tiny 
spray of the same flower is painted within a circle 
underneath in lieu of ' mark.' There are several 
examples in which the blue, always a difficult 
colour to reproduce, is unusually well rendered in 
its many varied shades, and Plate XIII may be 
instanced as a realistic representation of a large 
ovoid jar with cover, of the K'ang-hsi period, 
painted under the glaze in graded blues. The 
attractive series of powder-blue grounds is well 
represented here by garnitures of vases, plain, 
heightened by pencilling of gold, or interrupted 
by foliated panels, which are either painted under 
the glaze with cobalt blue, or decorated over the 
white glaze with enamel colours. The earliest mark 
in the catalogue, with the exception of those stig- 
matized as ' apocryphal,' is that of the reign of 
Chia-ching (1522-1566) ; the latest mark is that 
of the reign of Chia-ch'ing (1796-1820), repre- 
sented by a striking set of three vases (Plate XXII), 
the productions evidently of the imperial manu- 
factory of the period, with finely chiselled casings 
of pierced open-work, parcel-gilt in panels, sepa- 
rated by diapered bands of soft enamel colours 
touched with gold encircling the vases. 

In the series of blue and white some character- 
istic early pieces of the reigns of Chia-ching and 
Wan-li of the Ming dynasty are illustrated in 
appropriate tints. On the other hand no sym- 
pathy is evinced by Mr. Morgan for the pretended 
pate tendre variety which has lately had such vogue 
in America, so that only one specimen of this 
'illusory "soft paste" of the dealers ' is figured 
in this volume (Plate XVII). A word of attention 


may be directed by the way to a row of spherical 
bottles shown in Plate VIII, decorated in brilliant 
cobalt, which are supposed to be old Chinese 
copies of delft, and are marked with a mis-shapen 
D underneath, which is plausibly presumed to 
suggest the locality of the original model. The 
pieces illustrated in the catalogue all belong to 
the decorated class of Chinese porcelain, with a 
solitary exception in the case of the remarkable 
Wan-li vase with dragon handles of archaic form 
projecting from its slender neck, which is figured 
in Plate LXI. This is invested with a mono- 
chrome glaze of brilliant iridescent green, brushed 
over the white glaze as a wash, so as to leave 
underneath the spreading lip a reserve containing 
the six-character mark of the period, previously 
pencilled horizontally in under-glaze blue. An 
elaborate design of dragons, birds, and flowers 
incised in the paste under the glaze is described 
as appearing like gold when seen in sunlight. It 
is an old piece, and yet a survival of older methods 
of toning single glazes by modifying their depth, the 
body being tooled with a graver, or modelled with 
patterns in sinuous relief, before the application 
of the glaze. 

The illustrations are chromo-lithographs, and 
are finished examples of a craft which has been 
highly cultivated in the United States. The 
colours of the original schemes of decoration are 
generally harmoniously reproduced and provided 
with effectively tinted backgrounds ; the fine gold 
is carefully toned after its original quality, although 
it occasionally isolates itself almost too brilliantly 
in the midst of the enamel colours in the picture. 
Chinese porcelain has always attracted artists, 
such as Jules Jacquemart, the prince of etchers, 
and Whistler, who has conveyed with the free 
stroke of his brush the very touch and spirit of 
the Chinese ceramic craftsman working in blue. 
It must be confessed that the three-colour process 
adopted by Cosmo Monkhouse in his 'Chinese 
Porcelain ' and by Mr. Dillon in his more recent 
scholarly 'Porcelain,' appeals to me individually 
as giving a touch of actuality hitherto wanting. 
However, Cosmo Monkhouse has described Mr. 
Louis Prang's chromo-lithographs of the Walters 
collection at Baltimore as ' almost perfect,' and 
one is inclined to apply the same epithet to the 
charming pictures before us, the smaller scale of 
which seems to give additional delicacy and refine- 

The title-page bears the imprint of the Grier 
Cooke press which has issued so many treasures 
for book lovers in America. Each page of the 
book is watermarked RG C, the plates are printed 
on paper coated on one side, but corresponding in 
texture and colour to the paper at the back, and 
in short the perfect finish of every detail, under 
the personal supervision of Mr. Cooke, is worthy 
of praise. 

S. W. B. 



Dutch Pottery and Porcelain. By W. Pit- 
cairn Knowles. George Newnes. 

In this volume the publishers have done their 
work better than the author. The work is taste- 
fully bound, very well printed, profusely illustrated 
with some fifty plates (almost all of them good), 
and issued at a moderate price. The author, on 
the other hand, having only a limited space at his 
disposal, has wasted a great deal of it in discuss- 
ing general and personal matters which have only 
a remote connexion with his subject. His his- 
torical sketch is thus often wordy and superficial, 
while he has not even taken the trouble to arrange 
the plates to correspond with his text, or to make 
a single reference to any of them. It is needless 
to refer to other slips and omissions. A popular 
book need not be profound, but it ought at least 
to be clearly arranged and clearly written. Mr. 
Knowles cannot be congratulated on fulfilling even 
these modest conditions, in spite of the practical 
knowledge which he possesses. 


Selected Drawings by Old Masters in the 
University Galleries and the Library of 
Christ Church, Oxford. Part III. Chosen 
and described by Sidney Colvin, M.A. Ox- 
ford and London : Henry Frowde. £3 3s. 

We have already attempted to do justice to the 
previous parts of this magnificent and scholarly 
publication, so that to say that the third issue 
almost surpasses the former ones in interest may 
sound extravagant. The Oxford collections of 
drawings, however, are so full of surprises that it 
is amazing that no one should have attempted a 
complete survey of them before Mr. Colvin under- 
took the task. 

The present series starts with a magnificent 
study of a Woman's Head in black chalk, which 
Mr. Colvin, after an admirable summary of pre- 
vious discussions, ascribes to Verrocchio himself. 
Mr. Colvin's discovery is particularly interesting 
for the additional light which it casts on one of 
the most perplexing problems of Renaissance art. 
Posterity, we think, is sure to agree with the dis- 
tinction he draws between the work of Verrocchio 
and that of the pupil who painted the Madonnas 
in the National Gallery and at Berlin, a distinc- 
tion which becomes clearer and clearer as the 
documents increase in number. 

This sane and sensible judgement is again exer- 
cised over another problem of the greatest interest 
— the Two Battle Scenes hitherto given to Raphael 
in the University Galleries. Mr. Colvin has re- 
produced the replica of the second battle scene in 
the collection of the Rev. W. H. Wayne, which 
is the cause of all the difficulty, and decides de- 
finitely in its favour against the Oxford version. 

It is just possible that in this case he has been 
almost too cautious in his summing-up of the evi- 
dence, and while making allowance for the superior 
swiftness and calligraphic vigour of the Oxford 
drawing, has overlooked its superiority in suggest- 
ing the solidity and weight of the struggling figures. 
Mr. Wayne's drawing is sensitive in detail, and far 
more able than its appearance at first suggests, 
but it does just lack the substance and vitality of 
the other, while several passages, such as the 
muscles of the calf of the bearded bending figure, 
might well be argued against its being the original 

The Italian masters are represented by fourteen 
reproductions, all of them good ; Leonardo, 
Filippino, Michelangelo, Campagnola, and Tin- 
toret being among the examples chosen. An in- 
teresting water-colour landscape by Diirer, and 
two characteristic specimens of Altdorfer (in- 
cluding a superb design of a shipwreck) repre- 
sent Germany. The striking portrait of Rem- 
brandt's father in the University Galleries which 
follows is better known than the admirable portrait 
by Rubens, or than the group of Three Musicians 
by Watteau. Indeed, the most striking feature 
of the series is the variety of these two Oxford 
collections, which have hitherto been famous on 
the strength of the tithe of the treasures which 
they have had the space to exhibit. 

Drawings by Old Masters of the Dutch and 
Flemish Schools in the Royal Collec- 
tion at Amsterdam. Part III. Williams 
and Norgate. £1 14s. net. 

In a previous issue we have mentioned the 
sumptuousness and accuracy of these reproduc- 
tions, and the third part in this respect is not 
inferior to its predecessors. The introduction by 
Mr. Lionel Cust, on the absence of which we 
commented, was, we find, omitted in error from 
the previous instalments. It is an admirable plea 
for the more serious study of drawings by the great 
masters, and incidentally faces with considerable 
frankness the disadvantages of modern academic 

Of the ten facsimiles in the present part none 
represent masters of quite the first rank, though 
several, such as that by Bega, will come as a 
surprise to those who know the Dutch artists only 
by their paintings. The drawing by Backhuysen 
of the Montalbanstor at Amsterdam suggests 
that building (before the spire was added), and the 
old house under it, as the subject of one of Rem- 
brandt's finest drawings. The charming Study of 
a Young Lady by Jan de Bray is an interesting 
example of the work of one of a talented family of 
painters, whose history is obscure. They are 
best known in England by the large portrait group 
by Jacob de Bray at Hampton Court. 

C.J. H. 




Outlines of the History of Art. By Dr. 

Wilhelm Liibke. Revised by Russell Sturgis. 

2 volumes. Smith Elder. 36s. net. 
A new edition of Dr. Liibke's well-known work. 
The old woodcuts unfortunately make but a poor 
show, and if the numerous full-page illustrations 
which have been added had appeared alone the 
general effect would have been better. We wish 
we could speak more highly of the revision. The 
architectural sections are tolerably good, but in 
the other portions of the book far more accurate 
scholarship was needed. It is unfair to expect too 
much from any work which covers so wide a field, 
yet had the proofs been read by two or three 
competent critics the result could have been vastly 
improved, although the book might not even then 
have become as trustworthy as it is cheap and 

The Collectors' Annual for 1904. Edited by 

George E. East. Elliot Stock. 7s. 6d. net. 
The idea of this book is good, but it will have 
to be carried out more thoroughly to be of any 
real use. The prospectus states that the work 
' includes representative examples only.' We turn 
to the name of Titian and find four pictures men- 
tioned which fetched 165, 130, 40, and 24 guineas 
respectively ! The untrustworthiness of such a 
guide is manifest. The book may be of some 
service to those who already possess knowledge. 
To those who do not, it cannot fail to be mis- 

leading until some attempt is made to eliminate 
copies and forgeries. 

Through Isle and Empire. By the Vicomte 
Robert d'Humieres. Translated by A. Teix- 
eira de Mattos. Heinemann. 6s. 
To see ourselves as others see us, when the others 
have the kindly philosophic spirit of the Vicomte 
d'Humieres is not unpleasant. The author's 
good sense, tact, and humour make even his stric- 
tures palatable, and the translator has caught his 
spirit well. The first half of the book dealing 
with England is of particular interest, and should 
do much to foster the good understanding between 
French and English, which seems at last to have 
taken root in both countries. 

We have received from Messrs. P. and D. Colnaghi 
a proof of a new mezzotint by Mr. H. Scott 
Bridgwater after Gainsborough's superb Mrs. Elliot 
at Welbeck. The use of a black ink as in the 
older mezzotints would have perhaps emphasized 
the skilful treatment of the hair and accessories 
better than the fashionable brown employed, but 
the translation has caught admirably the languor 
of the adventuress, and the contrast of dark eye- 
brows, coquettish patch, and velvet ribbon with 
the creamy paleness of her complexion. 

We also received, too late for notice in our 
March number, an illustrated catalogue of the sale 
of objets d'ari, including some interesting ex- 
amples of antique and mediaeval sculpture, which 
took place at the Hotel Drouot on March 13-17. 


It has happened now and then in former times 
that great inauguration festivities were celebrated 
with pomp long before the object to be inaugurated 
was finished and ready for the occasion ; to-day 
this state of affairs is the common thing. It is a 
significant mark of our own age that we can never 
get up enough patience to wait until a building or 
monument is really completed before we rush into 
the midst of a showy celebration about it. 

The inauguration of the new Berlin ' cathedral ' 
took place a couple of weeks ago, but it will be 
months still before the last artisan packs up his 
tools and bids the site farewell. 

New York and Berlin are the two upstarts 
among our huge metropoles ; both lack the ven- 
erable charm of historic associations. The erec- 
tion of the huge cathedral at Berlin is a bold 
attempt to make up for the deficiency. It is in- 
deed a bold attempt to supply something within 
a decade which, in the regular course of things, 
generations upon generations have been slow to 
build up. The new cathedral is meant primarily 
to furnish evidence of the splendour of the new 
empire, now just a generation old ; to erect a place 
of religious worship was not the leading motive, 


least of all a place for Protestant worship. So 
far, nothing is to be held up against it ; for why 
should not new eras call for new ideas and even 
force old forms of life into new channels ! But 
the building as a work of art has nothing new, 
nothing of vitality in it. It is a conglomeration 
of single correct details, forming an incorrect 
whole. While he was keenly intent upon avoid- 
ing faults in detail, the designer forgot to intro- 
duce true virtues. Its greatest weakness is con- 
nected with the question of its size, for it is not 
impressively large, but awkwardly overgrown. 
Like many other modern buildings, for example 
the Ministry of Finance at Dresden, it appears as 
a small thing that you look at through an opera 
glass with one eye. The old museum at its side, 
only a pigmy compared with the cathedral, gives 
you a much stronger impression of magnitude if 
you shut the cathedral out of your field of vision. 
Instead of basing the proportions of his structure 
upon those of the surrounding buildings, and in- 
creasing upon them, as Christopher Wren did, 
Raschdorf based them on an absolutely different 
scale, and has widely missed the mark by aiming 
far above it. For us at the present day, this 
effort which has cost us half a million pounds 

sterling, is scarcely satisfactory. Perhaps later 
centuries will not be able to look upon it, as we 
do, abstractedly, but will consider it as an inter- 
esting and valuable document for the spirit of the 

The Kaiser-Friedrich Museum received the 
gift of two English portraits, a Gainsborough 
(presented by Mr. Alfred Beit), and the botanist 
William Lenley, painted by Sir Thomas Lawrence 
(presented by Count Seckendorf). 

Canon, a painter whose real name was Stras- 
chiripka, and who tried to emulate the bold col- 
oration of Rubens in his portraits, was living at 
Karlsruhe during the years i860 to 1869. The 
gallery there recently acquired his portrait of the 
landscape painter J. \V. Schirmer and two alle- 
gorical designs, Steam and Telegraphy, cartoons 
for mural designs which Canon carried out in the 
Karlsruhe railway station. The same gallery 
has received a number of further valuable addi- 
tions, among them Hans Thoma : View from 
Mount Pilatus in Switzerland, three Italian views 
by E. Kanoldt, Memento Mori by the late W. 
Leibl (a gift of the painter Thoma), Schloss 
Gutenstein by K. Weysser, and a portrait of the 
quondam gallery director at Karlsruhe, the painter 
K. F. Lessing, done by his son. 

Probably a number of Menzel's works will be 
placed in German galleries at the expiration of 
the memorial show which was opened at Berlin 
upon March 19. One of his best known smaller 
pictures, the Promenade at Kissingen, had 
already found its way into the Dresden gallery 
since the death of Menzel and before the show 
was opened. 

The picture gallery at Munich has come into 
possession of six interesting pictures of the school 
of Mantegna. They represent the ' Trionfi ' of 
Petrarch, and were formerly in the collection of 
Count Colloredo at Mantua. H. W. S. 

M. Franz Cumont has just presented the section 
of antiquities in the Royal Museum of the 
Cinquantenaire with a series of ten terra-cotta 
tablets and a seal of the same material covered 
with cuneiform inscriptions. The tablets came 
from Tello, and belong to the repository of clay 
tablets which was discovered in 1S94 by Sarzec, 
and constitute a fund of archives and deeds relating 
to one of those temples which, in the fact that 
they were great landed proprietors, resemble the 
mediaeval abbeys and the modern lamasseries of 
the east. From this collection, which was ex- 
ploited by the Arabs in Sarzec's absence, come 
the tablets that have now been presented to the 
Museum of the Cinquantenaire. At a first reading 
they appear to furnish lists of the personnel of the 
harem, animals, grain, wine, fish, and, possibly, 
1 Translated by Harold Child. 

Foreign Correspondence 

vestments. The seal was probably used to seal a 
rush basket of fish. 

The museum has also lately acquired a stove in 
polychromatic Brussels faience. It consists of a 
column of faience decorated in white and pale 
yellow. The ornament consists of fluting inter- 
rupted by courses of small foliage. To the upper 
part are attached graceful garlands of flowers and 
fruit. Above the stove is a vase treated like the 
column, in the style of the Louis XVI period, and 
made of rose-coloured terra-cotta. The pipe to 
carry off the smoke was fitted, in these stoves, into 
the protector, consisting of a hollow cushion nine 
centimetres high which was found at the bottom 
of the column. The column was fitted to a hearth 
of cast iron or strong sheet iron. The stove in 
question seems to have originated, like that 
already in the museum, in the factory of Artoisenet 
at Brussels. 

The municipal museum of the city of Brussels 
has just acquired a magnificent piece of tapestry 
of Brussels manufacture, representing Bathsheba 
at the fountain. It dates from the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and is woven of wool and silk, measuring 
twelve feet high and a little over twenty feet 


An exhibition is being organized at Antwerp of 
the works of the painters Leys and Braeckeleer; 
it will be open from May 15 to June 15, in the 
rooms where the Vandyck Exhibition was held 
and the Jordaens Exhibition is to be held this 
year. These two painters have left some particu- 
larly remarkable work. Leys succeeded in a 
happy revival of the gothic painters, and by 
seeking his inspiration in the masters of the 
fifteenth century painted a series of frescoes and 
easel pictures of grave and sober composition and 
very marked originality. Braeckeleer, summoning 
the spirits of the old Flemish interiors and courts, 
preserved in modern art the vision of the small 
masters of Holland. The works of both artists 
are particularly remarkable from the point of view 
of the history of art in Belgium, and cannot fail 
to arouse the liveliest interest. 


News comes of the recent discovery in the 
church at Lubeck of a very curious baptismal font 
of Roman date. The bowl is cut into a thick 
square stone, the corners of which have been 
carved by the artist into human faces. The four 
faces are surrounded and ornamented with leaves, 
grapes, and fantastic animals in the most primitive 
style. The lower part bears traces of a large 
cylindrical pedestal and four bases of small 
columns of wide circumference, with feet in the 
form of a single leaf. The font lacks its supports — 
that is, the central pillar and the small columns 
which surrounded it ; but since these parts were 
simple unsculptured cylinders, there will be no 


Foreign Correspondence 

difficulty in restoring them. It is to be hoped 
that this interesting piece of antiquity will be 
accorded the position it deserves, either in the 
church or in a museum. 

R. Petrucci. 


The new room of Egyptian antiquities has been 
opened at the Louvre, and in it the public may see 
the famous Mastaba, or tomb, of the fifth dynasty, 
which was brought from Egypt in 1903 by 
M. Georges Benedite, keeper of the Louvre. The 
tomb, which is built of hard limestone, is covered 
from top to bottom with admirable sculpture in 
relief, heightened with colour. The interior of 
the mortuary chapel is also sculptured in relief. 
Among the scenes represented we may mention the 
following : first, the statue of the deceased being 
lowered by men down an inclined plane into the 
tomb, while round it are dancers circling in 
rhythmic evolutions. There is, further, a series of 
scenes of life in the country ; a hippopotamus 
hunt through the reeds ; netting fish in the Nile; 
a herd of oxen crossing a ford ; the birth of a calf 
which the farmer is carrying to the cowshed. 
Then there are scenes of harvest, with the corn 
being made into sheaves, and so carried on the 
backs of donkeys, which, further on, are being 
taken to water. Elsewhere we see the mummy 
carried down the river in boats, which are rowed 
down stream and come up again under sail. 
Finally, on the two lateral faces, the artist has 
represented the funeral banquet, to the accom- 
paniment of singing, instrumental music, and 
dancing, and the conveyance of the offerings, 
cattle, antelopes, wild geese, etc. The sculptor 
would seem to have worked about 3500 B.C., and 
may have been the same whose hand may be seen 
in the famous tomb of Ptah-Hotep. These pic- 
tures of country life in Egypt and representations 
of domestic animals are quite remarkable for their 
naturalness, truth, and artistic merit, and their 
delicacy is really wonderful. The considerable 
scientific interest offered by the Mastaba is rein- 
forced by an artistic interest quite as great, and 
the Louvre is to be congratulated on a recon- 
struction carried out with equal taste and method. 
Near the Mastaba, among a number of other fine 
things, may be seen the stele of King Serpent and 
the statues of Sepa. 

Two other rooms will shortly be opened, one 
devoted to the discoveries at Susa, and containing 
the code of Hammonrabi, the other forming a re- 
construction of a Christian monastery of the third 
century, the materials having been supplied by the 
1 Translated by Harold Child. 

Archaeological Institution of Cairo. We must 
mention also the collection of antiquities from 
Asia Minor, presented by M. Paul Gaudin, which 
have recently been on exhibition. 

The Museum of Versailles has acquired a picture 
by Van Der Meulen, representing Louis XIV and 
his Court hunting in the forest of Meudon. There 
we may see what the village, the terraces, and the 
castle of Meudon were like before the work of 

Mansart - Th. Beauchesne. 

Note. — Owing to the pressure on our space the notes on French 
exhibitions will be found on the page devoted to exhibitions open in 


Auguste Rodin. By Camille Mauclair. Duckworth & Co. 

10s. 6d. net. 
Chats on Old Furniture. By Arthur Hayden. T. Fisher 

Unwin. 5s. net. 
Florence. Painted by Col. R. C. Goff; described by Mrs. Goff. 

A. & C. Black. 20s. net. 
Studies in Ancient Furniture. By Caroline L. Ransom. 

The University Press, Chicago. 40 dol. 50 net. 
Little Books on Art — Millet. By Netta Peacock. Methuen 

& Co. 2s. 6d. net. 
General Descriptions of Sir John Soane's Museum. By 

Walter L. Spiers (Curator). Printed by Horace Hart at 

Selected Drawings from Old Masters in the University 

Galleries and in the Library at Christ Church, 

Oxford. Part 3. Chosen and described by Sidney Colvin, 

M.A. The Clarendon Press, Oxford. £3 3s. 
Through Isle and Empire. By Vicomte Robert D'Hu- 

mieres, translated by Alexander Teixeira de Mattos. William 

Heinemann. 6s. 
The Renaissance of Sculpture in Belgium. By Oliver 

Georges Destree. Seeley & Co., Ltd. 3s. 6d. net. 
The Collectors' Annual, 1904. Compiled by George E. East. 

Elliot Stock. 7s. 6d. net. 
Albert Durer. By T. Sturge Moore. Duckworth & Co. 

7s. 6d. net. 
Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers. Illustrated. 

Vol. V. S-Z. Algernon Graves, F.S.A. George Bell & Sons. 

21s. net. 
Drawings by Old Masters of the Dutch and Flemish 

Schools in the Royal Collection at Amsterdam. 

Part III. Williams & Norgate. £1 14s. net. 

Le Correspondant (Paris). La Rassegna Nazionale (Florence). 
La Federation Artistique (Brussels). The Kokka (Tokyo). 
Revue de l'Art Chretien (Lille). Gazette des Beaux-Arts 
(Paris). La Chronique des Arts et de la Curiosite (Paris). 
L'Arte (Rome). Onze Kunst (Amsterdam). Repertorium 
fiir Kunstwissenschaft (Berlin). La Revue de l'Art Ancien 
et Moderne (Paris). The Independent Review (London). 
The Fortnightly Review. The Nineteenth Century and 
After. The Edinburgh Review. The Monthly Review. 
The National Review. The Gentleman's Magazine. 


Collection Theoph. de Bock. Tableaux, Anciens et Modernes. 
Porcelaines, Vieux Delft, Meubles, Sculptures, Livres, Tapis 
Persans. Frederik Miiller & Cie., Amsterdam. 

Bijoux, Diamants, Argenterie, Tapisseries, Etoffes, Cuivre 
Bronzes, Sculptures, Estamps Livres. Deuxieme Partie du 
Catalogue. Frederik Miiller & Cie., Amsterdam. 

Objets d'Art et de Haute Curiosite de l'Antiquite du Moyen 
Age et de la Renaissance. Morau & Cie., Paris. 


.y/ lt (,„/,, »■*//> //"■/•' >;/ <«<i<- 


., ,... t t. r i,,„ ,/M // ''""- 1 " '/""'■' 


"E are justly proud of 
a good deal of our 
modern architecture. 
It is a long time since 
so much thought and 
talent have been ap- 
plied throughout the 
country to the designing of private houses 
and churches, as any architectural paper, 
or the designs annually shown at the Royal 
Academy, will indicate. Public buildings, 
too, have sprung up all over the country 
in considerable numbers, but it is impossi- 
ble to contemplate them with the same 
satisfaction. Very few indeed of these 
more elaborate structures, these town halls, 
public libraries, and art galleries can be 
counted even respectable specimens of 
architecture. When such a building is 
erected we have cause to be grateful if it 
does not turn out to be a positive eyesore. 
Architecture, in fact, like the other arts, 
flourishes in England, so far as it flourishes 
at all, in virtue of private patronage and in 
spite of officialdom. 

The chief reason why our modern public 
buildings are so far from what they ought 
to be is indicated in the memorial which 
the Royal Institute of British Architects, 
and the various architectural societies in 
alliance with it, have recently addressed to 
the county, town, and district councils of 
the United Kingdom. It is the general 
practice of municipal authorities to entrust 
the design of such buildings to their own 
permanent officials ; and the memorial 
justly declares that this practice is ' a matter 
involving grave interests of an artistic, 
practical, and financial nature.' The per- 
manent official to whom it falls to execute 
the architectural work required by a muni- 
cipal authority is most frequently an engi- 
gineer or surveyor who has had no proper 
architectural training. 

' Non-expert planning,' says the memorial, 
'entails unscientific distribution and consequent 

The Burlington M40«inf, No. 16. Vol. VII— May tjos. 


expense in construction, often leading to subse- 
quent alterations which involve waste of public 
money, the amount of which is impossible to 
be ascertained owing to the complicated nature 
of official departments.' 

On so technical a point one can but 
take the best expert opinion available. But 
it needs no technical training in archi- 
tecture to see that from an artistic point of 
view the practice of entrusting important 
architectural work to anyone but a trained 
architect can only be disastrous. How 
disastrous it is our public buildings bear 
permanent witness. 

In these circumstances the architectural 
societies urge upon the municipal authori- 
ties that the practice of placing architectural 
work in the hands of engineers or surveyors 
should be abandoned ; that, if architectural 
work is carried out by a permanent official, 
such an official shall be required to have 
passed the qualifying examination of the 
Royal Institute of British Architects ; and 
that the work of an official architect should 
be restricted to structures of secondary im- 
portance, and really important buildings 
entrusted to independent architects. 

The wisdom of these recommendations 
is so obvious that it is only surprising that 
it should be necessary to make them at all. 
There has been no lack of expenditure on 
the hideous buildings which all over the 
country stand as monuments of well- 
meaning but mis-guided municipal zeal. 
It would not have cost a single farthing 
more to make them works of art ; indeed it 
might have cost a great deal less. This must 
not be looked upon as a question of profes- 
sional etiquette or interest. Undoubtedly 
architects suffer pecuniarily from the em- 
ployment of those who are not architects to 
do architectural work; and on that ground 
they have every right to protest against 
the practice. But this is not the aspect of 
the case that concerns the public. What 
does concern the public is that, in regard to 


The Reform of ^Municipal Architecture 

architectural works, they should have proper 
value for their money, and they will only 
have proper value for their money if such 
works are entrusted to the best available 
talent. After all, we live in the generation 
which has produced the new cathedral at 
Westminster, the Institute of Chartered 
Accountants in the City, and the new 
municipal buildings at Cardiff, so we need 
not despair. 

The matter has an immediate interest for 
Londoners. A million of their money will 
shortly be spent in housing the London 

County Council. Will the Council see that 
the best possible architect is chosen ? To 
entrust the vast plans which they now have 
in hand to any makeshift official arrange- 
ment will be to court disaster ; as anyone 
will know who has seen the plan lately ex- 
hibited, and published in the Daily Chroni- 
cle, with the meaningless dome towering 
above it. An open competition, judged by 
some impartial body, such as the Govern- 
ment advisory board, is the obvious method 
of procedure, and we appeal to the rate- 
payers to insist on its adoption. 


The annual report of the Museum of Fine 
Arts at Boston suggests some remarkable 
and not very encouraging comparisons. 
Here we have a museum maintained with- 
out any state or municipal subsidy relying 
wholly upon private subscriptions for its 
support, which within a comparatively short 
period has become a collection of the first im- 
portance. The portrait of Philip IV which 
was discussed and reproduced in the April 
number of The Burlington Magazine is 
only^one of the notable additions recently 
made to its department of paintings. Its 
department of Classical Antiquities has been 
well known in Europe during the last few 
years for its energy and enterprise, which in 
1904 resulted in more than £35,000 being 
spent upon purchases. Its collection of 
oriental paintings is the largest in the 
world, and in wealth of masterpieces is 
second only to the Imperial Japanese 
collections of Nara and Kioto. Its 
Egyptian Department appears also to be 

making enormous progress, thanks to the 
help of the Egypt Exploration Fund, and 
to the energy of that most fortunate of 
Egyptologists Mr. Theodore M. Davis. 

We may well feel a pang of envy on 
reading the account of this section when 
we think of the miserable show that the 
sculpture of predynastic and protodynastic 
Egypt makes in the British Museum, 
although from a national point of view 
this weakness is redeemed by such collec- 
tions as those at Eton, and more especially 
that in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. 
Nevertheless the astonishing advance made 
by the Boston Museum in a comparatively 
short time indicates how much public 
spirit may do when happily blended with 
private enterprise, and should be an 
encouragement to the intelligent section of 
the public in this country who are com- 
bining in so many directions to amend the 
state of things brought about by official 
sloth and municipal ignorance. 


Almost everywhere we see a change in the 
attitude of private individuals towards the 
State. Instead of clamouring for the re- 
dress of grievances which they know can 
only be got at the expense of tedious wire- 
pulling, men of intelligence are taking the 


law into their own hands and doing what 
the State is always too busy to do. The 
movement is an entirely healthy one, and 
its many manifestations in England at 
least tend to show that the nation is not so 
wholly inert as pessimists believe. 

Private Enterprise in l J ublic Affairs 

In the matter of our National Art this 
tendency has done excellent service of re- 
cent years. We have only to remember 
the inquiry into the defective administration 
of the Chantrey Trust to understand the 
power of public spirited effort. Even if 
that inquiry should have no practical result 
at the moment, and the recommendations 
of the Committee should be disregarded, 
the inquiry would at least have pointed a 
way to a permanent remedy. 

The same spirit applied to local enterprise 
has given to Aberdeen its new Gallery of 
Sculpture. Mr. James Murray, in securing 
the co-operation of his fellow citizens in 
his scheme, acted more magnanimously 
and far more wisely than if he had been the 
only giver of the gallery and its contents. 

The Report of the National Art Collec- 
tions Fund upon the work done during 
the first year of its existence is another 
encouraging sign. The fine picture by 
Watteau handed over to the National 
Gallery of Ireland, and the exquisite Greek 
bronze relief added to the British Museum, 
will be familiar to all readers of The 
Burlington Magazine, but these im- 
portant acquisitions were but a portion of 
the good things preserved for the nation 
by the fund. The extent of its operations 
in the future must depend upon the financial 
support it receives from the public, but its 
first year's record is so good that the sub- 
scribers may well be proud of it. The 
National Art Collections Fund, in fact, may 
be said to represent the educated opinion 
of the country so far as our galleries and 
museums are concerned, and considering 
thesize of the Treasury grants forpurchases, 
and the rate at which valuable works of art 
are leaving England, we have every reason 
to be grateful for its existence and for the 
admirable connoisseurship it has hitherto 

The prospectus of another society just 
formed indicates another attempt to make 
amends for the absence of official support 

in the publication of reproductions of 
original drawings by the great masters. 
The newly-formed society, aptly named 
the Vasari Society, 1 proposes to reproduce 
annually for its subscribers some twenty 
famous drawings by the great artists of the 
Renaissance. Since the first year's pro- 
gramme includes a number of works by 
Pisanello, Leonardo, Holbein and others, 
and the facsimiles will be made by the 
Oxford Press, already famous in connexion 
with Mr. Colvin's splendid publication, we 
can wish the scheme all the success it 
appears to deserve. 

In laying stress upon these examples ot 
private enterprise it must not be thought 
that we would propose to substitute private 
enterprise for official action. Nothing 
is further from our intention. There can 
however be no doubt that in many respects 
official action and official opinion are 
wofully deficient, and blind to the obvious 
requirements of the time. We cannot 
therefore be too thankful that private 
activity should be doing so much, and 
thereby stimulating the State to take a more 
lively interest in art and its administration. 

The vacant directorship of the National 
Gallery might serve as an instance of the 
gulf that separates the information at the 
service of the State from that which is 
possessed by all private persons who follow 
art affairs with any care. It is a matter 
of common knowledge that there are per- 
haps three men who are qualified by 
scholarship and ripe judgement to do credit 
to the post ; yet there is a general fear that 
these may all be passed over in favour of 
someone who is fortunate enough to possess 
friends at court. 

Unfortunately it is difficult for those 
who are interested in artistic matters to feel 
confident that an appointment of this kind 
can be made by an already overburdened 
Prime Minister, however intelligent, in 

i The Hon. Secretary is Mr. G. F. Hill, 10 Kensington 
Mansions, Earl's Court, S.W., and the annual subscription is 
one guinea. 


'Private Enterprise in Public ^Affairs 

accordance with personal merit and na- 
tional requirements. What everyone fears 
in the case alike of the National Gallery 
and of the Victoria and Albert Museum, is 
a job, to put the matter quite plainly. The 
directorship of the Victoria and Albert 
Museum is a far more difficult post to fill 
than that of the National Gallery, since 
there are not, as in the case of the National 
Gallery, two or three men obviously marked 
out as the suitable candidates. South Ken- 
sington demands a combination of admini- 
strative, artistic, and purchasing ability 
which are very rarely to be found in one 
individual. It is quite certain that the 
difficulty cannot be solved in the way in 
which, according to report, the Board of 
Education would like to solve it, namely 
by appointing no Director at all and hand- 

ing over the control of the Museum to its 
own clerks. It is on the contrary vitally 
important that the Victoria and Albert 
Museum should be rescued from the grasp 
of the Board of Education. 

As we said last month, matters of this 
kind cannot be dealt with satisfactorily 
until we have a Ministry of the Fine 
Arts in this country. We recognize the 
difficulty of making such a change just now 
when the hands of the Government are 
fully occupied. Yet the growth of private 
enterprise in England is the best possible 
safeguard against the disadvantages of such 
a Ministry, while the possibilities of minis- 
terial co-operation with the good work that 
is already being done are so great, that we 
are bound to ask that the subject may be 
properly considered. 


In Meunier the world has lost a more 
considerable artist than it appears to recog- 
nize, if we may judge by the scanty notices 
of him which have appeared hitherto. At 
first a sculptor, next, in the sixties, a realistic 
painter of singular force, then a sculptor 
once more, and. the draughtsman par excel- 
lence of the Belgian Black Country, Meunier 
gained at the last a place in the one art 
second only to Rodin, and in the other a 
place almost comparable to that of Millet. 

No touch of the flamboyant, inherent 
in the Flemish genius since the days of 
Rubens, makes Meunier's sculpture seem 
in the least theatrical. Thus he sets to 
work almost austerely to immortalize 
the modern iron-worker — his dignity, 
his slavery, and his revolt from that 

From that fault Meunier's drawings too 
are free. In them he is disdainful of all 
show to the verge of uncouthness. His 
rendering of human labour has none 
of that serene Virgilian divinity which 
makes the peasants of Millet seem godlike 


even in their suffering. The workmen of 
Meunier are no gods, but oppressed Titans 
cast down to darkness and sullen hopeless 

The attempts of Menzel and others to 
deal with the artistic aspect of modern 
labour are only scientific snap-shots, or 
technical experiments by men who view 
these things from the outside. Meunier's 
blast furnaces, cinder-paths, canals, and 
sulphurous twilight are seen by one who 
has lived and suffered in their midst, as 
Millet did among the labourers on the 
plains of Barbizon. To this sincerity of 
vision Meunier owes his power and his 
rank among the modern artists who have 
sought new worlds to conquer and have 
found them. Yet though he had mas- 
tered his subject he had not the time to 
exhaust its possibilities. Thus the day may 
come when a generation of painters of the 
labours of commerce will look back to 
Meunier as a generation of painters of 
field labour now look back to their master 


HIS winter has provided 
material of extraordinary 
interest in four exhibi- 
tions of contemporary 
art, not only for the 
general public which 
was enabled to discuss 
the intrinsic value of the pictures in them- 
selves, but also for those connoisseurs who 
are interested in the most recent develop- 
ments of painting, and who have thus had 
a unique opportunity of studying the in- 
fluences which have been paramount in 
producing them. 

First we had the Watts Exhibition at 
Burlington House, then the Whistler 
Memorial Exhibition at the New Gallery, 
the Durand-Ruel Exhibition at the 
Grafton, and finally the Victorian Exhibi- 
tion at Whitechapel. The first two have 
been already dealt with in this magazine, 
but the Whitechapel Exhibition affords 
in the most interesting section, that of the 
Pre-Raphaelites, which is extremely repre- 
sentative, an instructive contrast to that 
at the Grafton. Mr. Aitken and those 
who were responsible for the hanging, 
assisted by the veteran painter Mr. Arthur 
Hughes, are to be congratulated on an 
exhibition which is the most complete of 
its kind that has ever been held, since it 
includes not only the most representative 
examples of the actual brotherhood, but 
also of those who were the immediate suc- 
cessors — like Arthur Hughes, R. B. Mar- 
tineau, W. S. Burton, Frederick Sandys, 
besides the affiliated schools, branching off 
on the one hand in the eclectic school 
headed by Edward Burne-Jones, and on 
the other in the Academic painters, John 
Brett, Val Prinsep, etc., and finally the 
Liverpool school, headed by W. L. Windus, 
who indeed is so pre-eminent that he 
deserves a place apart. 

It would be impossible in a magazine 
article to examine critically all these 

schools and their affiliations, but it may be 
interesting to attempt a larger view, and 
especially to contrast the most significant 
movement in England, what we roughly 
call the Pre-Raphaelite, with the most 
significant movement in France, generally 
known as Impressionist, exemplified in the 
Grafton Gallery. 

This would appear on the face of it 
rather fantastic, yet the aims and intentions 
of both schools may be almost stated in the 
same terms, namely, to represent nature as 
she is, unhampered by prejudice and tra- 
dition, with the help of modern science. 

We need not be misled by the term 
Pre-Raphaelite, which did not at the in- 
ception of the movement, at the period 
of its greatest worth and vigour, involve 
the study or the influence of the actual 
painters before Raphael, of whom indeed 
the English painters knew almost nothing, 
but rather of the spirit that was conceived 
as predominant in these precursors — the 
earnest study of nature, intensity of feeling, 
contempt of formulas. 

The immediate divergence of the two 
schools arose from the fundamental differ- 
ence of temperament between the painters 
of the period, a difference much less 
marked at present between their descen- 

The English painter considered beauty 
to be attainable by a conglomeration of 
things intrinsically beautiful. A poet's 
idea is beautiful, a woman is beautiful, 
mediaeval costume is beautiful, sunshine 
and spring and roses are beautiful. Put 
all these beautiful ingredients together and 
the result must be beautiful. It is similar 
to the English notion of gastronomic per- 
fection, of which the most typical instance 
is a Christmas pudding, a mince pie, or a 

To the French painter on the other 
hand only two things are beautiful, nay, 
only two things exist — Time and Place. 


The Pre-Raphaelite and Impressionist Heresies 

colour chiefly by Holman Hunt and 
Madox Brown, whilst they show amazing 
application in the class'ificatioii of phe- 

The young impressionist, having abo- 
lished formulas when he started on his 
quest, discovered that the moment was 
of paramount importance, and that during 
this moment the interdependence of the 
various elements was so intimate and pro- 
found that if he were to lose it by attempts 
to rely on memory or classification of simi- 
lar phenomena the whole raison d'etre of 
his picture would be destroyed. 

The attempt he made seemed to most 
persons foredoomed to failure, and even 
now is spoken of as an experiment, but the 
exhibition at the Grafton seems to show 
that he did occasionally succeed in snatch- 
ing veritable shreds of the flying nymph's 
iridescent veil. 

That nine times out of ten the drapery 
so brutally wrenched off turned into a 
dead rag in the painter's hands was in- 
evitable, but such a picture as Monet's 
The Walk on the Cliffs is a triumphant 
vindication of the whole school in its 
superb achievement. 

On the other hand, the two ambitions 
of the Pre-Raphaelite school, to represent 
nature exactly as she is and at the same 
time illustrate some story of human passion, 
were incompatible. The painters whom 
they superseded had always realized that, 
in illustrative or imaginative work, some 
generalization is necessary if the component 
parts are to retain any sort of harmonious 
relation. Hence the basis of all previous 
work was traditional, and innovations 
of colour and tone were very tentatively 
introduced. The Pre-Raphaelite would 
have none of this ; grass was green, and the 
sky was blue, and a young girl's lips were 
red, and so down it all went, uncompromis- 
ing, assertive, childlike in its naive charm, 
childish in its incompetence. Indeed it is 
difficult to see where was the gain to the 
Pre-Raphaelites in the assertion of isolated 
phenomena which by their lack of syn- 
thesis obscured the main issue. 

The innovations introduced in light and 

9 3 

nomena, are merely interesting and 
valuable to us now as pioneer work, 
but the intensity of feeling is a thing 
eternal, because it was carried to perfec- 
tion, and it is on this ground that their 
justification is chiefly to be found. In 
comparison with Millais's Carpenter's 
Shop, Rossetti's Found, Madox Brown's 
The Last of England, Holman Hunt's 
Claudio and Isabella, W. Windus's Too 
Late, how cold and rhetorical as regards 
expression and gesture appear even the 
greatest masterpieces of Raphael, Cor- 
reggio, Rubens, and the painters against 
whom the movement was mainly in revolt. 
Millais's instinct for natural gesture was al- 
most uncanny, and contains the very breath 
of life and passion, and even amongst their 
exemplars Giotto alone has this look of 
unexpected yet inevitable gesture, since 
Mantegna, Botticelli, and the rest were 
much influenced by the Greek renascence. 
Without belittling this very valuable gift, 
it must be admitted that from a merely 
aesthetic point of view the achievements 
seldom resulted in a beautiful whole. 

To paint with whatsoever care and love 
a beautiful subject does not necessarily 
produce a beautiful object, which can only 
be effected by a beautiful interpretation ; 
and it is a strange irony or Nemesis that 
this eternal truth, conceived with un- 
erring taste by the boor and drunkard 
George Morland, and by the down- 
right and unaffected Hogarth, to speak 
only of our own painters, should have been 
ignored by the exquisite Rossetti, the 
learned Madox Brown, the accomplished 

The Pre-Raphaelites were indifferent to 
this essential truth, and although the im- 
pressionists in their earlier work had not 
quite forgotten the exquisite technique of 
the great classics and of their immediate 


The Pre-Raphaelite and Impressionist Heresies 

precursors, Corot and Daubigny and 
Millet, as witness the adorable quality of 
Boudin, which excuses a rather ordinary 
vision, and the severer beauty of the pate 
of Manet, yet towards the end in the later 
work of Monet, Pissarro, Sisley, and Re- 
noir there is no remnant of a beautiful 
style left. Pissarro especially affected a 
quality like pulled bread, which is ex- 


Degas on the other hand stands quite 
apart like Whistler. His vision is founded 
on nature, but his technique on the great 
classics. The little canvas Carriage at the 
Races is by a Gerard Terborch who hap- 
pened to live in 1873, and the pastels 
are models of style. 

The impressionist too often violated his 
material, it is true, but the Pre-Raphaelite 
approached it with such timidity and 
reverence that a divorce might well be 
instituted frigiditatis causa as Master Cut- 
beard hath it. 

I think the world has not yet realized 
what a loss it sustained by the early 
death of Walter Howell Deverell. His 
picture of The Lady with the Bird-cage, 
reproduced here, 1 stands alone among the 
Pre-Raphaelites as showing, not only an 
appreciation of a beautiful subject, but a 
faculty for interpreting it into a beautiful 

The canvas of W. Windus in his picture 
Too Late, which stands opposite, a marvel 
of achievement, is as consumptive as the 
lady ; the colours are as raw and hectic. 
Compare with this the beautiful full 
quality, the mellow tone, the sober and 
tasteful handling of Deverell's work. It is 
surely significant too that the picture has 
no subject, it is merely a lady feeding her 
bird ! Shade of Ruskin ! Only a sub- 
ject, that is, in which Terborch might have 
delighted, and before which Reynolds 
might have gone on his knees. 

But by attending only to the visible 

1 Frontispiece, page 92. 

beauty of the thing actually before him 
Deverell showed himself not only a worthy 
descendant of the great painters, but added 
that something new which is always 
attainable by a sincere and single-minded 
vision. The lighting especially is admirably 
modern, the conflicting cold and warm 
lights, as in the transparent sleeve for in- 
stance, are stated with a realism and at the 
same time with a taste which is unique in 
this gallery, and which has not been sur- 
passed, though it has been equalled, by 
painters of the present day. The common 
ground on which the various schools meet 
is the point where they are greatest, and if 
we compare this picture with Renoir's 
La Loge, 2 we can only find in the choice 
of subject and type, a choice which looms 
larger now than with the perspective of 
time, any really fundamental difference of 
selection. The Frenchman's work has less 
severity and nobility ; it shows already the 
weakness of structure which grew upon 
him, but the simple sincere painter's vision 
is the same, and seems to show that in 
genre at least the difference between the 
two schools was not necessarily so pro- 
found as it appeared subsequently. 

We have been taught to admire the 
finish of the Pre-Raphaelites, and no doubt 
it is admirable, but it is seldom great like 
the finish of Terborch or van der Heyden. 
" It is a matter of no great difficulty to 
draw a chain every link of which can be 
counted, this being merely a matter of time 
and patience. But nature is never obliging, 
and what she presents to us, taking a chain 
to be the system of the construction of each 
object, is not one chain or twenty, but 
twenty thousand, some large, some small, 
some apparently irregular, crossing and 
recrossing each other, and returning on 
themselves, thereby interfering (in the scien- 
tific sense), making an inextricable web. 
Add to this the freaks of light, colour, 
and atmosphere which suppress, alter, or 

2 Reproduced, page 99. 


The Pre-Raphaelite and Impressionist Heresies 

emphasize every link, and the task of un- 
ravelling the whole is obviously imprac- 

Confronted with such an aspect as this, 
the impressionist realizes at once that if he 
began to ask himself whether such and 
such links are rendered invisible through 
the interference of other links of another 
chain, and if so of which, or whether they 
are rendered invisible by the suppressive 
action of light or shade or colour or atmo- 
sphere or all of them, he would soon 
throw his brushes down in despair. His 
only chance is to ignore the catenary 
principle altogether and pick up the links 
as they emerge. In so doing he is bound 
to miss some of the links or indeed to 
lose the connexion altogether, and it is 
only by the goodwill of the spectator 
that the constructive sense is not entirely 

Or to use another illustration we may 
say that any aspect in nature is con- 
structed in the form of a limited number 
of pegs or steps with gaps between, 
which the artist, like an athlete or al- 
pinist, has to cross with what security he 
can. The gaps are not, of course, vacuums ; 
they are indeed the most interesting parts, 
but they act like a repoussoir as it were, and 
are only in that sense constructively useful. 

When the artist-athlete comes to a very 
wide gap he must leap it, and it is hardly 
probable that he will alight on the next 
step or eminence with the same precision 
as in a short step. But it must be done at 
once and boldly. If he stands shivering on 
his last eminence, or vainly trying to get a 
precarious foothold on smaller subsidiary 
steps, he may reach the next point, but 
with no more precision in the event, and 
with considerable scarification, perspiration, 
and loss of time in the process. The 
Pre-Raphaelite, by multiplying his steps 

and diminishing his gaps to an uncon- 
scionable extent, gave the untrained ob- 
server a sense of great security and con- 
fidence ; but the method is quite unnatural. 
He could thereby render the complication, 
not the mystery of nature, whilst the im- 
pressionist could and did render this mys- 
tery. But goodwill, as I said, is necessary 
on behalf of the spectator. If he sulks 
and won't play because the game is a new 
and complicated one, the two must part 
company, but the spectator is the loser 

Nature's three ministers — light, colour, 
and atmosphere — indifferent to our pre- 
occupations, will each point an arbitrary 
finger at her own selection, and the im- 
pressionist, having no moral axes to grind, 
will follow their indications unswervingly. 
Often, it is true, he will succeed in dehu- 
manizing himself without thereby becom- 
ing god-like, but he is in the company of the 
gods, of Shakespeare, Balzac, Tourgen- 
ieff, Bach, Beethoven, with those that offer 
no apology for the exercise of their art, and 
whose message seems not to mean any one 
thing, because, like life itself, it means 
everything. This detachment, which was 
so characteristic of the Dutch masters and of 
the French painters, would seem, to judge 
from the Victorian Exhibition, to be utterly 
repugnant to the English temperament, but 
there were signs of it in English painting 
of the previous century, and the French 
influence has certainly caused a tendency 
to recur to it in recent years. 

The romance of the Pre-Raphaelites 
degenerated in the bands of the Acade- 
micians, as it was bound to do, into 
mere Wardour Street studio painting, but 
the intense humanity of the Pre-Raphaelite 
outlook while it lasted makes the inter- 
lude the most interesting movement of 
modern times. 


No. 7. 1710. 

No. 6. LONDON, l682. 

Plate iv. English silver wine-coolers 
of the charles ii. period in the 
collection of the duke of portland, 




PART II {Conclusion) 

E have seen that arti- 
cles intended purely 
tor decoration were 
made of thin sheet 
silver, effectively but 
probably rapidly em- 
bossed. When articles for use were in 
question it was otherwise. Perhaps the 
most massive pieces of plate that have come 
down to us are the enormous wine-coolers 
of which a superb specimen (Plate IV, 
No. 6), weighing i,i6ooz., is preserved 
at Welbeck. The body is fluted and rests 
upon lions' feet, and is provided at either 
end with ring handles depending from 
lions' masks. The length of this wine- 
cooler is 3 feet 6 inches, and the width 

2 feet 8 inches, and it stands 13 inches in 
height. It was made in London in 1682, 
the maker using a crowned S for mark ; 
and the arms of Robert Harley, first earl 
of Oxford and Mortimer, are engraved up- 
on it. Only such families as have been 
exempt from the common ups and downs 
of fortune that all but the few have been 
liable to have retained plate which must 
when produced have been regarded as 
more or less reserves of specie. An even 
larger wine-cooler was made the previous 
year for the Manners family, and is now 
at Belvoir. Their crest (a peacock in its 
pride upon a cap of maintenance) forms 
appropriate handles. It resembles the Wel- 
beck specimen, but stands higher, and is en- 
riched inside and out with borders of acan- 
thus, its weight being 2,000 oz., and the 
maker R. L., probably Ralph Leeke. Lord 
Chesterfield has a third example, even 
larger and higher, but weighing much less 
(1,084 oz.), made by I. C. Earl Spencer 
owns a fourth, 1,920 oz. in weight, and 

3 feet 8 inches in length, made by Peter 
Harrache in 1701. 

Large wine-coolers of metal, by Italian 

artists of the later Renaissance, are fre- 
quently represented as standing on the 
floors during feasts, filled with vessels for 
wine. One very nearly identical with the 
Welbeck specimen is shown in the fore- 
ground of Van Barren's picture of Charles I 
Dining in Public State, now at Hampton 
Court. It is shown as gilt, and the lion's 
head and ring handle is in front instead of 
at the ends ; two old rectangular wine-flasks 
stand in it. Wine-coolers were used in 
the same manner in Holland and Germany. 

A second cistern of smaller dimensions 
and later date (1710) is also illustrated. 1 
It is of somewhat more artistic form, shaped 
like an oval tazza, richly gadrooned, and 
on a low foot. The handles are graceful 
and excellently modelled as terminal female 
recurved figures. The weight is 365 oz. 
Gabriel Sleath, well known in his day, 
produced it and engraved it with the arms 
of Edward Harley, afterwards second earl 
of Oxford. 

These capacious wine-coolers which 
stood upon the floor were supplemented 
later by others equally massive, for the 
buffet, urn-like vessels, provided internally 
with removable ice chambers, through 
which the wine percolated to be drawn 
off by a tap. These, known as wine-foun- 
tains, were made as companion pieces to 
the wine-coolers, which they did not super- 
sede. One of the same date and by the 
same maker as the cooler last described is 
fortunately preserved at Welbeck. 2 It 
weighs 450 oz., and is upwards of 2 feet 
6 inches high. The cover is tall, of many 
members, gadrooned, and surmounted by 
a pine cone. The body is widest under 
the lip, where there are four salient lion 
masks, two of which hold ring-handles ; 
the spaces between being filled with finely- 
chased strapwork, interrupted by medallions 

1 Plate IV, No. 7. 2 Plate V, p. 107, No. 9. 


£harles II Silver at Ji^elbecJ^ 

enclosing shaped escutcheons bearing 
the arms of William Baron Ogle, duke of 
Newcastle. Under this is a cylindrical 
region, divided by four applied acanthus 
console brackets supporting the lions' heads 
above, the remainder being decorated with 
fine arabesqued foliated work in low relief. 
The lower part is cup-shaped and fluted, 
and rests upon a low and massive foot en- 
riched with a salient laurel band and an 
acanthus border. The tap is formed of a 
grotesque head, and is actuated by a minia- 
ture dolphin. The earl of Chesterfield's 
wine-cooler has also its companion foun- 
tain, 4 ieet 4 inches in height, and weigh- 
ing 2,462 oz., spirally fluted, and surmounted 
by a tower and the earl's crest. Earl 
Spencer's wine-cooler has also the com- 
panion fountain, spirally fluted, and made 
in 1 70 1 by Peter Harrache. Two other 
remarkable specimens are illustrated in 
' Old Silver Work ' ; one made by Joseph 
Ward in 1702, belonging to the duke of 
Newcastle, and the other to the duke of 
Rutland, made by David Willaume in 1728, 
the decoration possibly suggested by the 
Manners crest. 

Perfectly unique is the splendid pair of 
large wine-fountains, 2 ft. 10 in. in height 
and weighing 435 oz. each, of Charles II 
date. 3 The bodiesare oval with spirally-fluted 
necks, egg-and-tongue mouldings, and an 
applied border of richly-chased acanthus 
leaves on the shoulder, separated by a plain 
region from the arching-strap and acanthus 
pattern below. The relatively small feet 
have gadroon, acanthus, and egg-and-tongue 
decorations. In front is an applied escut- 
cheon engraved with the arms of Robert 
Harley, earl of Oxford, quartering Bramp- 
ton. The taps are ingeniously designed, 
the head and arms of a nude child holding 
a dolphin, which forms the spout. The 
gadrooned covers are surmounted with bold 
stags'-heads, the crest of the Cavendishes, 
and they are also provided with immense 

Plate V, p. 107, No. 8. 

scrolled handles, permitting them to be 
carried either like pails, or from the sides, 
like pitchers. These are chased with 
acanthus leaves, and the lateral scrolls end 
in dragons' heads. 

Of similar outline, but without the large 
scrolled handles, the taps, and the stags'- 
heads, are the vases, 17J inches high, with 
double covers, made in 1666 by a maker 
using a cross for mark on a shield. 4 The 
arms engraved upon the escutcheons are 
those of the earl of Portland. They are 
fluted and gadrooned with festoons of 
flowers in high relief, and have salient 
handles, consisting of the heads and necks 
of lions boldly modelled. They weigh 
265 oz. and are perfectly unique. 

Our illustrations of the Welbeck plate 
of the second half of the seventeenth 
century conclude with a massive pair of 
richly worked and fluted flagons, weighing 
344 oz. (No. 1 1 ), made by William Denny 
in 1700. They are engraved with the arms 
of Edward, second earl of Oxford. They 
measure no less than 20 inches in height. 

Tapering cylindrical flagons first appear 
in the time of Elizabeth, borrowed no doubt 
from the German canettes, vessels of 
pottery in form of a truncated cone with 
bowed handle, which in Elizabethan times 
were richly decorated. A few English 
examples in silver of this period have sur- 
vived, many of them highly decorated with 
fine embossing and borders. They were 
lighter and more elegant, but fell somewhat 
suddenly into disuse. Soon after they 
were revived, but in a perfectly plain and 
more massive type that remained in vogue 
from about 1640 until the end of the cen- 
tury. The duke of Portland possesses a 
pair of these also, a foot in height, made 
by W. S. in 1677. Towards the close of 
the century they are found embellished with 
applied coats of arms and acanthus and 
gadrooned borders, in the same way that 
the tankards, which must often have been 

* Plate VI, p. no, No. jo. 





- - 

3 « 


K > 

H 3 S 







No. 10. Vases, 1666. 

Plate vi. English silver of the ciiafles ii. 
period i\ the collection of the duke of 
portland, i 

used with them, were treated. The superb 
pair at Welbeck is richly fluted and gad- 
rooned, and must also be perfectly unique, 
and probably the finest in existence. 

In addition to the plate illustrated, the 
vast stores at Welbeck comprise a superb 
pair of Pilgrim bottles of 1692 illustrated 
in ' Old Silver Plate,' i8§ inches high; a 
large silver bell of 1685 ; a pair of baluster 
candlesticks, 1686 ; toilet services; boxes; 
a table ; fire-dogs ; salvers, one of 1667; 
beakers ; tankards ; porringers, etc. — form- 
ing an absolutely unrivalled collection of 
this particular period. 

The silversmiths under Charles II flou- 
rished for a time. They were useful at 
first in supplying the King with money, 
and as he became more wealthy his dealings 
with them increased, and his commissions 
for their wares were lavish. He became 
on familiar terms with several, and created 
them knights and even baronets, and they 
founded several of the still-existing noble 
families. However, already in 1663 the 
' Russia Resident,' Sir John Hibden, 
thought the King dealt over much with 
goldsmiths, ' suffering himself to have his 
purse kept and commanded by them.' 
Defoe, in the ' Compleat Tradesman,' pic- 
tures one in the height of his prosperity, 

Qharles II Silver at Welbecl^ 

living near the Monument, who had 
£200,000 clear, a prodigious sum in those 
days. He was clothed with embroideries 
and cloth-of-gold waistcoat, rode in a 
coach and six, with three or four footmen 
waiting for him at the Exchange Gate ; 
his lady, in her gilt coach which cost £400, 
dressed in the richest habit imaginable, 
'■tout brillant as the French call it, covered 
with diamonds and jewels without price.' 
But ' put not your trust in princes,' for in 
less than twenty years the man of the cloth- 
of-gold waistcoat paid one penny in the 
pound. Closing the Exchequer brought 
these magnificent goldsmiths, knights, 
aldermen, lord mayors, from immense 
wealth to the lowest misery and poverty. 
Among the ruined known to Defoe were 
Sir Robert Vyner, Alderman Backwell, Sir 
Thomas Vyner, Sir John Sweetapple, Sir 
Matthew Kirwood, Sir Thomas Cook, 
Sir Basil Firebrass, Sir Justus Beck, and 
Alderman Forth and his two brothers, so 
rich that one of them undertook to farm 
the revenues of Ireland ; of whom when 
they failed the King facetiously said three- 
fourths of the city were broke. Defoe 
remarks that there were hundreds of others 
equal to those in wealth, though not 
honoured with the ' Sir' and gold chain. 



'HE New York Water- 
Color Club is holding its 
first Exhibition inLondon 
and the event coincides 
with shows of the most 
eminent living English 
water-colourists and of 
deceased masters of the art at Messrs. 
Agnew's and at Whitechapel. 

For seriousness and nobility nothing in 
Messrs. Agnew's Exhibition could be com- 
pared with the examples of Girtin, and of 
one or two men like Varley and De Wint, 
who now and then caught something of the 
majesty of Girtin's style — a style which is 
in its essence only a development of the 
magnificent pen-and-bistre work of Rem- 
brandt. Turner occupied another solitary 
pinnacle with his dreamy blending of 
splendour and delicacy. All the rest of the 
work seemed trivial in comparison with 
Girtin, clumsy and prosaic in comparison 
with Turner. 

How would our modern water-colourists 
emerge from a similar ordeal ? Let us 
consider first the drawings by Mr. Sargent 
at the Carfax Gallery. It is evident at a 
glance that brilliancy and accomplishment 
can go no further. A century ago men 
spoke of the ' swordplay ' of Girtin's 
brush, and the phrase might be applied to 
Mr. Sargent with equal truth. Yet in Mr. 
Sargent's case one cannot help feeling that 
the sword is flashed and flourished as if the 
swordsman were bent more on astonishing 
the spectator than on driving his point 
home. To match him with Girtin is to 
match a Porthos with a D'Artagnan. 

The show of the New York Water- 
Color Club suffers from the same defect. 
The level of technical skill displayed is 
singularly high, and examples of talent and 
keen observation may be seen on all sides ; 
yet the total effect of the collection is dis- 
appointing. Everything is cleverly seen 
and noted, but very little seems to be 
strongly felt. One or two of the less 


striking drawings, such as Mr. J. H. Moser's 
In the Adirondacks (57), for this reason 
remain in the memory when far more 
brilliant things are forgotten. Mr. Arthur 
I. Keller's The Sisters (58), for example, is 
a brilliant piece of accomplishment, but the 
accomplishment is out of all proportion to 
the dignity of the interests on which it is 
lavished, which are those of an illustration 
in a popular magazine. 

The fault, however, does not seem to lie 
with lack of subject matter so often as 
with some inherent defect in the medium 
as employed by modern artists. The blot 
of wet colour on white paper is un- 
doubtedly sparkling, luminous, and ad- 
mirably adapted to rendering things where 
freshness and brightness are essential, as in 
effects of mid-day sunlight, or in flower 
painting. 1 To limit the water-colour 
painter to such subjects, however, would be 
to cut him off from all the effects by which 
the landscape painters of the world have 
achieved greatness. Such a restriction is 
absurd, yet it is constantly being imposed 
upon modern water-colourists by mistaken 
veneration for the quality of their medium. 

Now the blot of wet colour on white 
paper, with all its luminous freshness, is 
undeniably poor and crude in quality. It 
cannot, for instance, stand a moment's 
comparison with the quality of hue which 
even a second-rate Japanese colour print 
possesses. The fault would appear to lie 
to some extent with the paper employed 
rather than with the pigments, since Mr. 
Conder working on silk with modern colours 
invariably gets quality of a delightful kind. 

The old practitioners certainly managed 
to avoid this rawness and poverty to some 
extent by the use of quiet and simple 
colours. Nothing, for instance, could be 
simpler than the tones in which Girtin 
conceived the majestic composition repro- 
duced. Much, however, should, I believe, 
be attributed to the use of a slightly 

1 As in Mr. Francis E. James's water-colours lately shown 
at the Dutch Gallery. 

■Z ai 

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The Failure of Our Water-Colour Tradition 

absorbent paper, not always dead white in 
hue, which modified and softened each 
wash of colour laid upon it. Yet the 
example of the Japanese seems to show 
that water-colour, even when applied to an 
absorbent paper with a brush, has not the 
richness or quality of the same colour 
applied by means of a wood block, or when 
used upon silk. The method of Girtin 
thus modifies the natural difficulty of 
water-colour painting, but does not wholly 
remove it. 

Turner, after mastering Girtin's manner, 
set himself to remedy its defects, by a free 
use of rubbing out, of stippling and of body 
colour. With this last, as in the Rivers of 
France series, he achieved fairly consistent 
success, but in later life he returned once 
more to transparent work, and by elimi- 
nating from his palette all colours but 
thoseof sunset, and by astonishing dexterity 
in their manipulation, he produced speci- 
mens of colour which are often unique of 
their kind. Nevertheless it is undeniable 
that Turner's success was achieved in spite 
of his medium rather than by means of it, 
and necessitated restrictions of subject of 
handling and of palette to which other 
artists could not be expected to submit. 

The experiment of a less conventional 
approach to nature with transparent colour 
was being made meanwhile both by men 
of strong talent like Cotman and Cox, and 
by a host of men of less power. 2 It resulted 
uniformly in failure either partial or com- 

2 The example of Cotman is specially instructive. In early 
life he worked like Girtin on semi-absorbent paper with a re- 
stricted palette, and his colour is uniformly fine. Later he took 
to drawing upon hard white paper, and using a full palette, with 
results far less uniformly harmonious than in his first period. 
Sometimes of course his great talent enables him to emerge 
successfully. More often, however, his remarkable power of 
conception, his mastery of deliberate arrangement, and his 
wonderful accuracy of touch are unable to save him from hot- 

plete. How many works of the so-called 
English School of Water-Colour could be 
hung by the side of an old Japanese print 
without looking either weak or garish ? 
Yet this fatal tradition has continued to the 
present day from the mistaken idea that it 
represents the natural capacity of the 

What then are its capacities ? Girtin 
has proved that transparent water-colour if 
restricted in hue and used on semi-absorb- 
ent paper is a noble and simple art. Turner 
and the Preraphaelites — the drawings of 
Rossetti, Madox Brown, and Burne-Jones 
at Whitechapel will serve as examples — 
have proved that water-colour if used 
solidly and masterfully, and if strengthened 
with body-colour and ' wiping-out,' can 
rival oil painting in strength and splen- 
dour. 3 The artists of China and Japan in 
the past, and in the present Mr. Conder, 
have illustrated its exquisite quality when 
used upon silk. The ' Rip Van Winkle ' 
drawings of Mr. Rackham, in which 
water-colour is blended with pen-and-ink 
work, indicate its possibilities in another 
direction, and the example of Rubens and 
Rowlandson might be quoted to show 
that Mr. Rackham's success is no accident. 
The record of so-called pure water-colour 
on the other hand is one of almost con- 
sistent mediocrity, and it is surely time 
that its tradition was thoroughly recon- 
sidered, p. A. 

ness and harshness. Towards the end of his life he seems to 
have recognized the cause of his difficulties as Turner did, and 
by free use of rubbing-out obtained quality and harmony once 
more. The fine collection of his drawings recently acquired by 
the British Museum admirably illustrates these changes. 

3 Mr. D. Y. Cameron's landscape at the Royal Society of 
Painters in Water Colours is another striking example of the 
superior force and richness of colour which may thus be 


^ BY M. L. SOLON J& 

T is no longer allowable to 
begin a casual paper on 
pottery with the time- 
honoured remark that ' the 
M origin of the ceramic art is 
^•— *f^wrappeH U p in mystery. 

Yet I have been tempted to make use of 
a very similar sentence as affording, in 
connexion with the history of the inven- 
tion of artificial porcelain, a befitting in- 
troduction to the study of the subject. 
The deeper our researches penetrate into 
the cloudy past, the more diffident one 
feels about the security of the very grounds 
on which rests our present knowledge. 
Experience has taught us that any notion 
universally accredited to day is liable to 
be bodily upset by the surprises that to- 
morrow has in store for us. This has been 
the case with all the previous theories bear- 
ing on the origin of European porcelain. 

When and where was the white and 
translucid ware — the most exalted pride 
of the potter — produced in Europe for 
the first time ? This seems a simple 
question which ought to have received by 
this time a definite answer. But if we call 
to mind the modified views which were 
successively entertained on this point by 
our forerunners in the field of historical 
investigation, we come to the conclusion 
that the problem is rather difficult to solve, 
and that the last word has yet to be said 
about it. That the artificial, or soft, por- 
celain was made to imitate the priceless 
vessels of which a few rare specimens were 
beginning to be imported from the far East, 
cannot be doubted. So different, however, 
are the constituent materials of the original 
examples from those of which the imita- 
tions were made that the relation of one 
ware to the other cannot extend farther 
than a certain likeness in their outward 
appearance. We may dismiss, therefore, 
all idea of oriental parentage, and consider 


European porcelain in the light of an un- 
questionably original creation. 

For long the curiosity of the passionate 
collector of old Sevres china has rested 
satisfied with the belief that the manufac- 
ture of the dainty objects of his predilection 
had originated at the place from which it 
derived its name. Only a very few of the 
most experienced amateurs admitted that a 
few trials, by no means negligeable, had 
previously been made at Vincennes. One 
day it came to be known that the secret of 
the much admired pastes and glazes had 
been brought over to Vincennes by two 
workmen coming from Chantilly, a small 
factory where the making of soft porcelain 
had attained, many years before, a high 
degree of perfection. Also, that the rapid 
development of the royal porcelain works 
at Sevres was partly due to the engagement 
of several skilful operatives whose practical 
experience had been gained at Mennecy- 
Villeroy, another minor establishment the 
productions of which were scarcely second 
to those of Chantilly. 

Once started on this course the retro- 
spective survey could not stop at that point. 
Many years elapsed, however, before a 
paragraph discovered in the ' Relation of a 
Journey to Paris,' by Dr. Martin Lister, 
printed in 1698, revealed the fact that at 
that time the manufacture of a fine porce- 
lain ' as white and translucid as the one 
that came from the East ' was in full opera- 
tion at Saint-Cloud. An immediate search 
was instituted by the collectors ; it pro- 
duced a large number of marked specimens 
the source of which was unmistakable. 
They are now represented in all the ceramic 
galleries. One may see that there is little 
in the nature of the paste, or in the quality 
of the glaze of the average examples, that 
is suggestive of a ware still in the experi- 
mental stage, while the choicest examples 
strike us as being very near technical ex- 

cellence. This was a sensational discovery ; 
it was decided that the birthplace of 
European porcelain should not be sought 
for anywhere else. Accordingly Saint- 
Cloud was henceforth to be considered as 
the main trunk from which the other 
factories had branched ofF, and full credit 
was to be given to its founder Chicanneau 
for a glorious invention. So implicitly was 
this opinion accepted by all china collectors, 
that when a Norman archaeologist, a noted 
authority on all matters of local history, 
ventured to assert, proofs in hand, that 
porcelain had been made at Rouen years 
before it was produced at Saint-Cloud, 
such an allegation could only be received 
with a polite smile of incredulity. In 
vain Andre Pottier unearthed from the 
civic archives the original documents 
which secured to the fai'encier Louis 
Poterat the right of calling himself the 
inventor of the translucid ware and of 
enjoying the fruit of his invention ; in vain 
he produced extracts from contemporary 
books establishing that the manufacture 
was steadily carried on in the town. It 
was only when a few specimens of the ware 
were duly identified, and after excavations 
made on the site of the old works had 
brought to light unimpeachable vouchers 
in the shape of fragments and imperfect 
pieces, that the existence of Rouen porce- 
lain became an accepted fact. 

Louis Poterat was the eldest son of a 
man to whose abilities and energy the chief 
city of Normandy owes the establishment 
of a mighty ceramic industry. Of the few 
abortive attempts that had been made at 
an earlier date to introduce faience painting 
in the Italian taste, it is needless to speak ; 
they had vanished without leaving any 
trace. At Nevers, on the contrary, the 
importation of the art of the Savona 
majolists, instigated and patronized by the 
duke of Gonzalve, had developed into a 
most prosperous trade. The whole king- 
dom was willingly tributary to the Nevers 

The Rouen 'Porcelain 

factories for the supply of a painted faience, 
of national origin, which was deemed to be 
as fine and pleasing as any that had so far 
been imported from foreign countries. In 
1 644, Edme Poterat, sieur de Saint-Etienne, 
a gentleman related to the nobility of 
Champagne, undertook to create in the 
busy and wealthy town of Rouen a centre 
of artistic pottery manufacture which would 
render the northern provinces of France 
independent of the products of all other 
sources. The invention of French porce- 
lain is so closely connected with the 
immense success of this earlier enterprise 
that I cannot refrain from briefly relating 
the favourable conditions under which it 
was accomplished. 

Two partners were associated in the 
foundation of the faience factory ; namely, 
the above-mentioned Edme Poterat, on 
whom devolved the installation and the 
practical management of the affair, and 
Nicholas Poirel, sieur de Grandval, who 
supplied the necessary funds and remained 
up to 1774 the sole proprietor, not only 
of the land and buildings, but also of the 
whole plant. This Poirel de Grandval 
was, by his position of usher to the Queen's 
bedchamber, a man of some influence at 
Court. He obtained a royal privilege of 
an unusual character, which was to protect 
the Rouen factory from any direct com- 
petition for a period of fifty years. To this 
advantage must be added the value of the 
high patronage that his constant attendance 
at the King's palace allowed him to secure 
from the courtiers. Finally, if we consider 
that the demand for painted faience was 
increasing from day to day, and that the 
ware manufactured by Poterat had sufficient 
merit and novelty to attract and please 
numerous purchasers, we shall understand 
that the partners had not to wait long 
before the concern was on its way to fame 
and prosperity. 

Brought up from early youth to the 
practice of the trade, Louis Poterat had 


The Rouen 'Porcelain 

soon mastered all that could be learned, 
from his fellow workers, of the regular 
manufacture of a fine faience. The ob- 
servations he was able to gather in the 
course of his travels abroad widely enlarged 
the scope of his technical knowledge, greatly 
superior to that of the average master- 
potter of the times. For several years the 
son served his father in the capacity of 
assistant manager, at an annual salary of 
1,000 livres. In 1673, seeing that there 
was no hope of his ever being taken into 
partnership, and anxious to improve his 
position, he determined to leave the paternal 
works and to establish close by a factory 
of his own. A man of superior abilities, 
as Louis Poterat undoubtedly was, could 
not have tied himself to a mere observance 
of the humdrum rules of a settled manu- 
facture. All the moments he could spare 
from the arduous management of his father's 
work had been spent in the retirement of 
the laboratory, proving recondite formulas, 
combining untried substances in his search 
for the unknown. Like many of his 
contemporaries, he was haunted by the 
frantic ambition of solving the mystery of 
the translucid ware ; more fortunate than 
any of them, he had succeeded in obtaining, 
if not the real body of the Chinese por- 
celain, at least an admirable substitute. 

On the production of trial pieces which 
for whiteness and translucency left nothing 
to be desired, Louis Poterat was granted 
letters patent which fixed to thirty years 
the term of his exclusive rights to the 
invention. The document, dated 1673, 
begins as follows : — 

' LOUIS, by the grace of God King of France 
and of Navarre, etc. 

' Our beloved Louis Poterat has very humbly 
remonstrated to us that during his journeys in 
foreign countries, and through unremitting appli- 
cation, he has discovered the secret of making the 
true Chinese porcelain and the faience of Holland. 
However, as the aforesaid porcelain can only be 
manufactured in conjunction with the making of 
the faience of Holland, because porcelain can only 
be safely baked when surrounded in the oven by 


a screen of coarser ware which protects it from 
the violence of the fire, it is indispensable for him 
to obtain our permission to manufacture conjointly 
faience and porcelain, and be allowed to erect 
such ovens, mills, and workshops as he may 
require, in the suburb of Saint-Sever, in the town- 
ship of Rouen, which he finds particularly con- 
venient for the purpose.' 

And it ends by saying : — 

' On that account ... we grant to the appli- 
cant the right of establishing the manufacture of 
all sort of vessels, similar to those of China, or to 
the painted faience of Holland, notwithstanding 
the previous prohibitions entered in our letters 
granted to Nicolas Poirel, sieur de Grandval, 
September 16th, 1646, from which we derogate on 
the present occasion. 

'Signed, Louis; and, By order of the King, 

That pretence — for it was nothing else — 
of porcelain having to be fired in the centre 
of an oven full of faience had provided 
the means of evading the effects of a pro- 
hibitive decree still in full force. Louis 
Poterat was well aware that it might be 
long before his newly-born invention could 
be carried on at a profit. By no means in 
affluent circumstances, he had arranged 
that the remunerative production of orna- 
mental faience should support him until a 
most complicated manufacture would have 
been safely regulated. Far from adhering 
to his projected imitation of Dutch ware 
he preferred to impart to the decorative 
work an essentially French character. It 
was he — if it is rightly conjectured — who 
introduced those scolloped and radiated 
patterns known as Lambrequins, Broderies, 
etc., which are the glory of the Rouen 
faience ; the same design is occasionally 
seen painted on his porcelain as well as on 
the faience. 

To conquer the obstacles which impeded 
the establishment of a normal manufacture 
of white porcelain was not, for a far-seeing 
master-potter, a mere question of satisfying 
his professional pride ; it meant fortune for 
the inventor, and salvation for the whole 
French trade, seriously threatened by the 
increase of foreign imports. Prospects of 

an alarming competition are disclosed in the 
custom-house returns for the later part of 
the seventeenth century. From that source 
we hear that in the very town of Rouen 
four ships arrived from Surrah, in 1683, 
with a cargo of 1 33,000 pieces of Japanese 
porcelain, which were to be landed and sold 
by auction in the course of a few days. 

But neither the urgency of getting fully 
prepared to meet the coming danger, nor 
the constant but fruitless practice of a process 
the shortcomings of which could not be 
overcome, appear ever to have brought 
Poterat nearer to the point where an ad- 
mirable technical achievement could be 
turned into a marketable commodity. Casual 
references to his translucid ware, found in- 
serted in the printed works of the period, 
warrant the belief that he never abandoned 
the hope of mastering the practical diffi- 
culties which had so far stood in the way 
of a financial success. As late as 1691, 
the Almanach des Adresses de Paris, by de 
Pradelles, contained the announcement 
that : ' Sieur de Saint-Etienne, a master- 
fai'encier of Rouen, has found the secret of 
making the true Chinese porcelain.' The 
absence of further particulars would induce 
us to infer that after eighteen years the 
Poterat porcelain, so tersely recommended, 
had not yet found a firm footing on the 

The inventor gave vent to his discontent 
in the considerationshe presented in support 
of an application made in 1694 for the ex- 
tension of his privilege. Since the death 
of his father, in 1687, the original faience 
factory had been successfully managed by 
the widow and the two younger sons. They 
held the old letters-patent granted in 1644, 
in the name of P. de Grandval, for the 
making of faience. As the term of fifty 
years was coming to an end, they solicited 
a renewal of their protecting clauses. The 
form of the application was so cunningly 
drawn out that had the demand been fully 
complied with, the privilege would have 

'The Rouen 'Porcelain 

carried with it the exclusive right of manu- 
facturing porcelain as well as faience. Louis 
Poterat could not allow a confusion so pre- 
judicial to his own interests to escape 
without protest. Speaking on his own be- 
half, he represented that he was the only 
discoverer of the true porcelain, and that 
his brothers, notwithstanding their preten- 
sions, were absolutely unacquainted with 
the processes. He also explained that up to 
that time he had not attempted to develop 
to a large extent the production of 'fine 
porcelain.' Every part of the work had, 
so far, been done with his own hands ; he 
did not care to call to his assistance in- 
quisitive workmen who might have robbed 
him of his precious secrets. So limited 
had, consequently, been the output that it 
never proved remunerative. Now, he went 
on to say, that illness and incipient para- 
lysis had rendered him unfit for manual 
labour, he was quite willing to instruct and 
train to the handicraft a number of work- 
men, on condition that he would have the 
exclusive right of making porcelain in the 
whole kingdom, during twenty years, after 
which time his processes would be disclosed 
and would become public property. He 
suggested that the manufacture could give 
employment to the old army pensioners, 
and thus be profitable to the State. Ulti- 
mately, and as soon as the enterprise had 
been put in good working order, he would 
retire, and ask for no other reward but a 
small annuity, to be paid to himself or his 

Poterat and his invention were held in 
high esteem by the minister's advisers, so 
his own application was favourably con- 
sidered, so far at least as it concerned the 
sole right of making porcelain for a further 
period of twenty years. His mother and 
brothers were refused the renewal of the 
faience privilege, and warned not to inter- 
fere with his patent. Sharp litigations be- 
tween the members of his family embittered 
the last years of Louis Poterat's life. He 


The Rouen 'Porcelain 

had long been in shattered health, when, in 
1696, he died, being only fifty-five years 
of age. The business passed into the hands 
of his widow, Madeleine de Laval, who 
continued with success the manufacture 
of faience, but gave up completely the un- 
profitable making of porcelain. Thisvolun- 
tary abandonment of an important portion 
of her husband's legacy was to be, years 
after, taken advantage of by the heirs of 
Pierre Chicanneau, of Saint-Cloud, when 
they applied for a privilege by which the 
exclusive right of manufacturing porcelain 
should be transferred to them. The claims 
of Poterat's widow could not, however, be 
altogether ignored ; the Chicanneaus were 
granted in 1702 a licence for establishing a 
protected porcelain manufactory in any 
town of the kingdom they might like to 
choose, the city of Rouen being excepted. 

Here a few words concerning the origin 
of the Saint-Cloud factory will not be found 
out of place. Such authenticated examples 
as we possess of the Rouen porcelain have 
made us aware that it is not through the 
nature of the paste and glaze or the style 
of decoration that it can be distinguished 
from that made at Saint-Cloud ; between the 
two we see a puzzling similarity. The 
most natural conclusion that presents itself 
to our mind is that a direct connexion exists 
between the two productions. It cannot be 
the fruit of mere coincidence, nor of a 
rediscovery of complicated recipes. 

If the probable filiation cannot be es- 
tablished by material evidence, recourse 
must be had to hypothesis. For instance, 
it is not impossible that Pierre Chican- 
neau, the founder of the Saint-Cloud fac- 
tory, should have obtained possession of 
the impenetrable secrets from Poterat him- 
self. The name of one Chicanneau appear- 
ing on the roll of the Rouen faience 
painters of that period goes far to show 
that the family were not strangers to the 
pottery trade of the town. That the 
maker of the early Saint-Cloud faience 


had received his training from the Norman 
potters is plainly suggested by the unmis- 
takable imitation of the Rouen patterns ; a 
community of interest may have arisen 
between two men inhabiting the same 
town and engaged in the same craft. We 
must bear in mind that at the time when 
Chicanneau, full of hope and activity, was 
starting his carefully-planned establish- 
ment, Poterat, ill and disheartened, knew 
well that the end was fast approaching, 
and that it was too late for him ever to reap 
the reward of his labours. A private ar- 
rangement may have been entered into 
through which Poterat agreed, in con- 
sideration of a substantial sum of money, to 
instruct Chicanneau in the mystery of por- 
celain-making, but without parting from 
his newly extended privilege, which would 
thus remain his own property and that of 
his heirs after him. In this manner Chican- 
neau may have been placed in the position 
of producing, without further trouble, a 
beautiful ware, the secret composition of 
which might have been either stolen or 
purchased, but not possibly re-invented. 
What gives probability to this view of the 
matter is that, at an epoch when no inven- 
tor would have thought of bringing out a 
new kind of manufacture without taking 
steps to have it legally protected, Pierre 
Chicanneau never applied for a royal privi- 
lege, knowing doubtless that it would not 
have been granted. 

The quantity of porcelain made and dis- 
persed by L. Poterat between 1673 and 
1694 may not have been inconsiderable, 
even if one accepts his statements that he 
would never have any assistance, and that 
he performed every part of the work with 
his own hands. Many causes unite to 
bring to untimely destruction the finest 
productions of the fictile art ; in the present 
case very few authenticated examples have 
come down to us. They consist chiefly in 
domestic ware, and are suggestive of cur- 
rent manufacture rather than of the occa- 






m *L *& .JA*i 

1 -A< l Y 



■ / 



sional making of odd pieces exhibiting a 
pretension to exceptional workmanship. 

Andre Pottier never had the proud satis- 
faction of seeing his belief in the existence 
of the Rouen porcelain substantiated by 
the discovery of tangible evidence ; he died 
before the first examples of the kind were 
duly recognized. It was in the old city 
itself that the pottery collectors, eagerly 
on the look out, one day came across a few 
small vessels of translucid ware that pro- 
mised to throw some light on the matter, 
for they bore the identical patterns seen on 
the current Rouen faience. This alone 
could not, of course, be accepted as a con- 
vincing testimony of local origin ; it was 
not to be denied that a frequent use of the 
same style of ornamentation was made on 
the early productions of Saint-Cloud. How- 
ever, the tables were turned against the 
incredulous when fragments of porcelain 
were dug up from the site of L. Poterat's 
old works. One of the refuse heaps formed 
by the accumulation of the broken and 
half-molten mass of residues which had to 
be cleared out of the oven, after a disas- 
trous firing, had obviously been struck by 
the pick of the excavator. Every fragment 
which had preserved something of its 
original shape and colour was carefully 
gathered. Most of these fragments also 
showed the same faience patterns noticed 
on the small vessels in the hands of the 
collectors. A few of them were truly in- 
valuable. The opaque scarlet red, so char- 
acteristic of the Rouen fai'ence,and unknown 
to all other fai'enciers of the period, was 
freely introduced in the decoration of salt- 
cellars, knife-hafts, and other small articles. 
Nowhere else but at Rouen could we find 
this peculiar red applied to porcelain 

A mark is of rare occurrence, but, how- 
ever, not always diffident. The monogram 
A P, roughly traced in underglaze blue and 
surmounted by the star which figures in 
the Poterat coat of arms, may safely be 

The Rouen Porcelain 

attributed to Rouen, although the signifi- 
cation of the first letter has, so far, re- 
mained unexplained. Again, conjectures 
must be called to the rescue and supply the 
lack of direct evidence. 

Looking over the Poterat pedigree, given 
by Andre Pottier, we learn that Louis had 
a younger sister named Anne. Now, know- 
ing as we do the objection the potter had to 
associate any operative to his making of 
porcelain, and also that in the old faience 
works the female members of the master's 
family took an active part in the carrying 
on of the trade, it has occurred to me that 
the inventor may have entrusted the simple 
decoration of his precious ware to a clever 
sister. I fondly imagine that in the letters 
A P I see the initials of the painter's name : 
Anne Poterat. 

The unique collection of Rouen porce- 
lain which had been formed by the late 
Gustave Gouellain, a collector of the true 
stamp, is unfortunately dispersed. I had 
the advantage of visiting it during the 
possessor's lifetime. It comprised about a 
score of telling specimens, all discovered in 
the city or its immediate surroundings. 
Shapes and patterns offered sufficient char- 
acter and variety to assist the identification 
of any number of controvertible pieces. 
A short description of this collection has 
been given by M. de Brebisson. Two 
jars and two bottles of comparatively large 
size, decorated in underglaze blue and other 
colours with designs in the Berain taste, 
head the list with honour. In blue and 
white porcelain, none of the factories of 
later time can be said to have produced 
anything better than the pieces reproduced 
on our plate. Small salt-cellars, drinking 
cans, cups and saucers, inkstands and oint- 
ment pots, of a style which might make a 
superficial examiner attribute them to 
Saint-Cloud, completed a most instructive 
collection, the like of which may never be 
brought together again. The sale cata- 
logue of the Dupont Auberville collection, 


The Rouen ^Porcelain 

Paris, 1886, describes seven examples of 
the rare ware, also gone now into various 

The Sevres museum is proud of possess- 
ing the first authenticated piece. It is a 
small toilet pot bearing the arms of the 
Norman family Asselin de Villequier. A 
mustard pot and a sugar basin decorated 
with the well-known patterns of the 
Poterats' faience are in the ceramic mu- 
seum at Rouen. In the Limoges museum 
may be seen a spice-box painted with a 
' lambrequin ' pattern and two heavy clock 
weights, also decorated in the Rouen style, 
and marked A. P. The fragments collected 
by Monsieur G. Lebreton, which I was at 
one time allowed to examine, are of great 
documentary importance. 

With the exception of a charming coffee 
cup painted with Berain ornaments, in the 
possession of Mr. J. H. FitzHenry, and by 
him exhibited in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, I do not know that any good 
example of Rouen porcelain exists in Eng- 
land. But I think it likely that a few 
pieces may have drifted into the private col- 
lections, where they rest awaiting recog- 
nition. I should therefore recommend all 

collectors of early French porcelain to sub- 
mit their unmarked specimens to special 
scrutiny ; it is by no means impossible that, 
on further examination, one or more of the 
pieces so far attributed to Saint-Cloud, 
Lille, Chantilly, or Villeroy may prove to 
be the work of the inventor of the porce- 
lain of France. It is not yet too late to 
institute searches in that direction. Happy 
the fortunate man who will make the dis- 
covery, for at that moment his hand will 
hold, instead of a token of base metal, a 
priceless coin of gold. 

If a trilogy were to be formed of the 
greatest ceramic rarities that a mighty col- 
lector should covet and obtain, if possible, 
a fine example of Rouen porcelain should 
be added to one of the Medicean porcelain 
and another of the Henri II faience ; all 
three may be considered as equal in interest 
and rarity. 


Pottier (A.). — ' Origine de la porcelaine d'Eu- 
rope. La premiere porcelaine fabriquee en Europe 
a ete inventee a Rouen.' Rouen, 1847, 8°. 

De Brebisson (R.). — ' La porcelaine Tendre de 
Rouen en 1673.' Evreux, 1896, 8°. 

Milet (A.). — ' Historique de la faience et de la 
porcelaine de Rouen au xvn s siecle.' Rouen, 
1898, 8°. 




HERE is a type of person 
who can look at a Dutch 
picture like Rembrandt's 
Night Watch, Vermeer's 
View of Delft, or Hob- 
bema's Avenue at Mid- 
delharnis, and surrender 
himself completely to aesthetic enjoyment 
without puzzling his head over the con- 
ditions under which these and similar gems 
of Dutch painting of the seventeeth cen- 
tury were produced. For such a one 
enjoyment suffices, enjoyment varying in 
proportion to the subject of the picture, 
and the taste and artistic appreciation of 
the beholder, from profound reverence to 
ecstatic admiration, as he wanders through 
a picture gallery or contemplates single 
pictures in the peaceful seclusion of a 
collector's home. 

Anyone who has made himself familiar 
in this way with the works of the great 
period of Dutch painting, does not need to 
know the names or lives of the artists, 
still less does he require a book to instruct 
him on the subject, and he may very well 
leave this article unread. 

But the case is different with the amateur 
who, besides enjoyment, feels the need of 
exploring the forces from whose opera- 
tion his enjoyment is derived, and ascer- 
taining the circumstances which led to the 
production of these masterpieces. ' Who 
painted the picture ? ' is then the first 
question that rises to his lips. It is 
followed by several others ; he must learn 
to estimate the personality of the artist by 
endeavouring to trace clearly the develop- 
ment of his talent ; he must know how 
far the man's work was original and pro- 
gressive, how far his art was the reflection 
of his mind, his environment, his nationality, 
his period. 

1 Translated by Campbell Hodgson. 


The satisfaction of this need, supple- 
menting purely aesthetic enjoyment by 
pleasure of another kind, lies at the bottom 
of all methodical art criticism. It has led 
many students to examine the state of 
civilization with which the development 
of Dutch painting in the seventeenth 
century was closely connected. What was 
the origin of the hundreds, nay thousands, 
of pictureswhich wereproduced in Holland 
in the short period from about 1620 to 
1700 ? What motives, what circumstances, 
occasioned their production ? How were 
the pictures painted, and for what pur- 
pose ? How did their authors live, and 
how did they earn their livelihood ? 

We do not intend to answer all these ques- 
tions in the following pages. The principal 
aim of our article is to answer the two last. 

For years the notions people formed of 
the life of the old Dutch masters were 
derived exclusively from the amusing 
anecdotes of Houbraken, Weyerman, Van 
Gool, and other early writers on art. It is 
only in the last few decades that earnest 
andsystematic study ofarchivesand pictures 
has laid a firmer foundation for our know- 
ledge of the conditions under which they 
lived. Thus we find it possible to-day to 
form some notions on the subject, fairly 
clear even if incomplete. A few years ago 
I endeavoured in my monograph on 
Gerard Dou 2 to put together the scattered 
material on the subject, and since then 
Dr. Hans Floerke has done a piece of work 
that may be called in many respects ex- 
haustive in his excellent ' Studien 
Niederlandischen Kunst und 
schichte.' 3 Hitherto, however, the rich 
material in the way of pictures, drawings, 
and prints, often affording the most 

2 Leyden, 1901. A condensed edition was published by G. Bell 
& Sons, London, 1902. 

3 Munich and Leipzig, Georg Muller, 1905. 




"The Life of a Dutch tArtist 

striking illustrations, has been very scantily 
published in this connexion, so that I was 
glad when the Editors of The Burlington 
Magazine gave me another opportunity 
of summarizing the chief points in a series 
of articles illustrated by select reproduc- 
tions of a characteristic kind. 

On the surface it may seem as if the 
situation of a painter at that time was not 
so very different from what it is at the 
present day. The would-be artist goes to a 
teacher, goes through a course of training, 
and then sets up as an independent master, 
tries to sell his pictures as well as he can, 
and lives, according to his means, in ease or 
poverty. So it is to-day, so it was three 
hundred years ago in Holland. On the 
whole, that is true ; but if one compares 
the state of things more exactly, differ- 
ences of many kinds become evident : the 
relation of pupil to teacher, the status of 
the two in the eyes of the law, the right 
of ownership in pictures, and the power to 
sell them — all these things differed as much 
from modern usage as modern colouring 
and technique differ from those of the 
seventeenth century. 

In order to view these differences more 
closely, we will try to reconstruct the life 
of a painter of that time from the sources 
accessible to us. We will first deal with 
the question, how a youth of that time 
received a painter's education, how he set 
up as a master, and what his studio was 
like. Then we will see how he sold his 
pictures, and lastly, in connexion with 
the trade in works of art, consider their 
ultimate destination. 

The Dutch boy — we can hardly call 
him a youth — who meant to devote him- 
self to painting practised drawing in the 
first instance. He was generally sent — 
often at the age of ten or twelve — to a 
drawing master or painter, who properly 
grounded him in the art of drawing. 
Carel van Mander, the well-known painter 
and author, and the earliest historian of 


art in the Netherlands, emphasizes the 
desirability of such preliminary instruction 
in verses, of little poetical merit, but in- 
teresting for their contents, printed at the 
beginning of his book on painters, pub- 
lished in 1604. In this poem on 'the 
foundations of the noble and liberal art of 
painting,' Van Mander declares that the 
beginner must first seek ' a good master,' 
in order that he may learn properly to 
compose, sketch, shade, and work up 
neatly, ' first with charcoal, then with 
chalk or pen.' The pupil has also to learn 
neatness in ' doezelen ' (stump drawing). 

With this object the master first made his 
pupil copy all sorts of prints and drawings. 
Then came — just as it does at the present 
time — drawing from the plaster cast, a 
method which was usual in the Nether- 
lands, even in the sixteenth century. How 
they drew from the cast we learn, for in- 
stance, from the celebrated Dutch poet 
and statesman Constantyn Huyghens, who 
learnt drawing from 1629 to 1631 from the 
painter Hendrick Hondius, and describes 
his instruction in the following words : 

Hondius corporis humani membra . . . suis 
dimensionibus singula et maiusculo volumine 
efformanda dabat. 

' Human limbs in plaster were to be 
drawn the size of life and also on a larger 
scale.' Samuel van Hoogstraten, again, at 
a later date, 1678, speaks in his 'Inleyding 
tot de Hooge Schoole der Schilderkonst ' 
of ' eyes, noses, mouths, ears, and various 
faces,' as well as engravings, as instruments 
for the instruction of youth in drawing. 

The inventories of the effects left by 
Dutch painters at their decease also give 
us the clearest information on this point. 
Rembrandt, for instance, possessed a great 
quantity of plaster casts for this purpose. 
In the inventory of his possessions taken 
in July 1 656 we find a considerable number 
mentioned, such as naked children, a sleep- 
ing child, casts from antique Greek sculp- 
tures, and many casts from life, including 

one of a negro. Then there was a whole 
basketful of plaster heads, and finally, in 
two of the little rooms in which he made 
his pupils work apart from one another, 
' 17 hands and arms, moulded from life' and 
' a great quantity of hands and faces, moulded 
from life.' Evidently Rembrandt used all 
these things in teaching. He proves it him- 
self in one of his etchings, here reproduced,* 
which shows a young pupil engaged in 
drawing by candlelight from a plaster bust. 

Our two following illustrations 4 are also 
instructive in this connexion. The first 
is from an engraving by Brichet from a 
picture by Gabriel Metzu in the Poullain 
cabinet. The picture, whose present 
whereabouts I do not know, represents a 
female artist drawing from a cast. No 
further explanation is required. The second 
illustration reproduces a well-known print 
by Wallerant Vaillant, a young pupil in 
the corner of a studio, in which among 
other things a plaster figure of a boy and 
some plaster heads are to be seen. 

The paintings of the Dutch school afford 
several other instances of the use of plaster 
casts for instruction in drawing. We will 
not here enumerate all the etchings and 
pictures of Ostade, Schalcken, Dou, Frans 
van Mieris, etc., which prove this fact, 
but will only refer to two very character- 
istic examples. Both are pictures by the 
painter-etcher Michiel Sweerts, who lived 
about 1650. The first belonged a few 
years ago to a London dealer. It repre- 
sents a painter's studio in which plaster 
casts are present in great numbers. Un- 
fortunately we cannot publish the picture 
here. The second painting by Sweerts is 
still more interesting. It was bought a few 
years ago for the Rijksmuseum at Am- 
sterdam, and is published here for the first 
time. 5 A spacious studio is represented, in 
which several very youthful artists are 
employed. In the foreground on the left 

4 Plate I, page 129. 

s Plate II, page 131. I am indebted for the photograph to Jhr. 
van Riemsdjik, Director of the Rijksmuseum at Amsterdam. 

The Life of a Dutch Artist 

one of them is engaged in drawing from a 
large anatomical plaster model, which is 
set up in the middle of the studio. Two 
youths watch him at his work. Farther 
back another is painting from the nude 
living model, whilst a third, more in the 
middle at the back, is drawing from a 
plaster cast of the well-known head of the 
Ludovisi Juno. A whole heap of other 
casts, mostly from the antique, occupies 
the right half of the foreground. 

This picture shows us most clearly the 
various stages of instruction: simple draw- 
ing from the cast, drawing from anatomical 
figures in plaster, and drawing from life. 
Anatomical plaster figures — or 'flayed 
plaster casts,' as an artist of the period calls 
them — were indispensable for the study of 
anatomy, to which the young pupil had to 
devote himself seriously after the primary 
instruction in drawing. Anatomical study 
was no easy matter in those days. It was 
unlawful till 1555 to dissect corpses in the 
Netherlands, and then permission was only 
granted in respect of malefactors of the 
male sex. 6 How difficult it was to obtain 
permission to draw from a corpse, we see 
from the story told by Carel van Mander 
in 1604 of the painter Aert Mytens, who 
went himself to cut down a body from the 
gallows for the purpose of study, and took 
it home with him in a sack. Even at a 
later date it was difficult to draw from a 
dead body. In 1641 the painter Philips 
Angel complains that there is no opportu- 
nity of doing so in the town of Leyden. 
They had recourse, therefore, to anatomical 
plaster casts (as in the picture by Sweerts 
described above) or to illustrations in the 
handbooks which soon began to appear in 
Holland in considerable numbers. 

Along with this anatomical knowledge 
students were also grounded in the theory of 
perspective, especially according to the prin- 
ciples of Diirer's well-known book, which 
was much used in Dutch translations, as 

6 The date of the first dissection of a woman is 1720. 

1 27 

The Life of a Dutch Artist 

we learn by the inventories of painters' 
effects. The books on perspective by 
Abraham Bosse and Hendrick Hondius 
were also popular with students. 

At a later date more and more handbooks 
on perspective and anatomy were written 
for the Dutch painters, which soon de- 
generated into a sort of recipe books for 
painting, in which it is exactly described 
how this or that theme is to be represented, 
how colours are to be ground and how 
used, and so forth. It is worth noticing 
that the number of these books grows with 
the increasing decadence of Dutch paint- 
ing. The best known books, by Goeree, 
de Pas, Hoogstraten, and Lairesse, did not 
appear till after 1660. 

In the first half of the seventeenth cen- 
tury books were of second-rate importance 
to the student of painting. The time 
was still remote in which the effort of 
painting was to beautify nature by aesthetic 
rules, a time which thought the worse of 
Rembrandt for choosing a Dutch washer- 
woman as model for a Venus, and putting her 
in a picture straight from nature, without 
beautifying her in the least. 7 Dutch pupils 
were not vexed with such academic obser- 
vations in the first half of the seventeenth 
century, unless they were in the studio of 
some academic painter of the school of 
Goltzius or Bloemaert. The Dutch realists 
were of quite a different way of thinking. 
They did not go in for philosophy, still less 
did they point to Raphael and Michelangelo 
as the only painters worth imitating ; but 
they were for ever impressing on their 
pupils a deep love of nature as she is. The 
precept, ' Look at nature and imitate her,' 
takes precedence of all others throughout 
the flourishing period of Dutch painting. 
The pupil, accordingly, as soon as he ac- 
quired a certain sureness of hand, was con- 
fronted with nature herself. Whether he 
was given fruit or still-life to draw, no pic- 
ture or other source of information tells us. 

7 Poem by Andries Pels, quoted by Houbraken, i. 268 

So far, therefore, we know little about 
drawing from nature. So much, however, 
is clear, that even then the young artist 
was confronted as early as possible with 
the chief representative of nature, the liv- 
ing man. He had first and foremost to 
draw from the living model. 

It is Michiel Sweerts again who has left 
us a vivid description of a drawing lesson 
of that date from the living model in a 
picture at the townhall of Haarlem, repro- 
duced here. 8 In a large room the male 
model stands on a raised platform round 
which numerous lads, aged from ten to 
fifteen, sit in a circle. On the right one is 
hard at work, on the left another passes a 
sheet of drawing-paper to a comrade, and 
another fair-haired boy in the middle stops 
for a moment. The master, talking to a 
gentleman, stands at the back of the room, 
seen from the back pointing to his pupils. 

It is a picture full of life and freshness, 
which has no equal in bringing before our 
eyes a drawing lesson from the nude model 
in the seventeenth century. We are struck 
with the youthfulness of these incipient 
artists, whose names, unfortunately, are not 
known, for the old hypothesis which took 
them for pupils of Frans Hals is untenable. 
How glad we should be to learn their 
names ! Then the picture would be a still 
better illustration of those past times in 
which many a one resolved, even in boy- 
hood, to dedicate his life to art. Most of 
our greatest painters went to a master for 
instruction at the age of ten to fifteen, as 
we can see from the dates of their lives. 
They often needed five to ten years of ener- 
getic work and preparation before they got 
so far as to be allowed to set up as inde- 
pendent masters and members of a painters' 
guild, and were permitted to sell their 
pictures. We shall deal with this further 
period of the development of a Dutch 
painter in a subsequent article. 

8 Plate II, page 131. 

{To be continued.) 





i'l Ml. I 



PLATE 11. PA1 



OT the least delightful 
lamong the early Umbrian 
painters so scrupulously 
concerned with religion 
and the beauty of reli- 
gious meditation, Bene- 
detto Bonfigli would seem to have been 
born in Perugia about the year 1420, some 
seven years before the death of Gentile da 
Fabriano. A painter of but little import- 
ance, we may think — concerned not so 
much with Art as with the representation of 
religious truths ; and, almost by chance, a 
kind of historical painter in the Cappella 
dei Priori, where he has painted so lan- 
guidly, and yet with a certain sweetness, 
at least in the early frescoes, the story of 
the city as it had come down to him : the 
wonderfully heroic actions of S. Ercolano, 
his life, his death, and all the wonders of 
that distant past. But as the master of 
Perugino, as the only visible founder of 
that school of Perugia which became so 
famous, which has been so beloved, Bonfigli 
appears to us as a painter of more import- 
ance than his weak but charming work at 
first suggests. 

Though he seems in his day to have 
travelled so far as Rome and Siena, it is 
really only in Perugia that we find his 
work. Mr. Berenson mentions an early 
picture in a private collection in London, 
and he is represented in Berlin and in the 
Opera del Duomo at Empoli ; but beyond 
these three pictures all his work is still in 
his native city, in the Pinacoteca for the 
most part, with here and there a standard 
or a panel in the churches, which have 
rendered their treasures to the municipal 
authorities, one may believe, not without 
a certain sadness. 

The pupil, perhaps, of Boccatis, who 
was working from about 1436, it is really 
a glimmer, faint and evanescent, of Floren- 
tine genius that we see in his work, the 
influence of Fra Angelico and Benozzo 

Gozzoli, and it may be of Fra Lippo 
Lippi. On those soft Umbrian hills the two 
former have left not a little of their work, 
and in Perugia herself there are still some 
of their paintings, very carefully made on 
a prepared canvas covered with stucco and 
laid on wood; not the least interesting of 
their works, seeing that they are unrestored. 
And at Spoleto, at the head of that long 
valley, Fra Lippo Lippi produced the most 
splendid of all his works, the frescoes in 
the apse of the Duomo, where we may see 
even to-day the Annunciation, and the 
Adoration of the Shepherds, and the Ma- 
donna crowned by her Son, very tender and 
strong with vitality, so characteristic of Fra 
Lippo, who must surely have influenced the 
mystical painters of the surrounding cities 
very strongly. But even so early as 1454, 
when Bonfigli was at work on the frescoes 
of the Cappella dei Priori, we hear of Fra 
Filippo as one whom the Perugians would 
have liked to engage to paint their chapel, 
and in 1461 he comes himself to judge of 
the work done there, and praises it. Con- 
sider, too, the Madonna of the Frate, now 
in the UfHzi, how blonde she is, how deli- 
cate and full of grace her fine, modelled 
features ; the small soft chin and wide 
brow are pure and fair as a bright lily 
before any hand has touched it. And then 
look at Bonfigli's Adoration, and it might 
seem that her younger sister held the Child 
while the three kings came with their gifts 
to greet Him. Her hair falls in little 
golden curls over her temples that are deli- 
cate and almost transparent in their fine- 
ness ; the dainty lace work, that has fallen 
in so many folds, hardly covers her hair or 
her slender throat. Her wide brow and 
the delicate, arched brows that we find in 
so many fifteenth-century paintings are 
characteristic of her, certainly the first of 
her race in Umbria. 

Another painter beside Fra Filippo was 
named in the contract for the Priors' 


The Father of T^erugian Tainting 

Chapel of 1454, to wit, Domenico Vene- 
ziano, the master of Piero della Francesca. 
That somewhat vague personality moves 
behind the work of more than one Um- 
brian, and we find him perhaps here too, 
in a certain uncouth vigour and robustness 
so manifest in Bonfigli's Bambini. But, 
after all, Bonfigli's masters must, as it seems 
to me, for ever remain unknown ; the 
documents are silent, and what gossip of the 
time we possess would appear to be mis- 
leading. In the Adoration in the Pinaco- 
teca at Perugia we find at least a new per- 
sonality in Umbrian art. The drawing is 
very weak, the whole picture really just a 
chance or almost accidental combination of 
colours on the wall, refined upon by an 
unconscious artist who was anxious about 
nothing save the story he was telling with a 
certain peevishness, a certain impatience. 
Mark how unamiable she is — that strange 
country virgin. There is almost the shadow 
of a frown between the pure brows, and 
those three emaciated child angels — how 
sorrowful they are, how mechanically they 
assume the attitude of prayer ! And in that 
far country across the curious hills that divide 
us — is it from Bethlehem ? — a great army 
seems to be moving, rushing out of the 
gates of a city with champing of horses and 
bright armour and spears, and all the splen- 
dour of the eve of battle. Never again, as 
I think, is Bonfigli quite so uninitiated, so 
naive in his workmanship ; but even here in 
this picture, which I suppose, perhaps with- 
out sufficient reason, to have been among 
his earliest work, he has not forgotten to 
crown his angels with those strange wreaths 
of roses, so artificial, so obviously grown in 
heaven, that we see in all his work. 

The frescoes in the Cappella dei Priori, 
begun in 1454 and unfinished at his death 
in 1496, would seem, since he worked at 
them so languidly, so intermittently, to 
have been distasteful to him. That fresco 
which begins the series, in which we see St. 
Louis of Toulouse standing before the Pope, 


is, to my mind at least, easily the best. Was 
it perhaps after seeing this fresco that Fra 
Lippo Lippi in 1461 recommended that 
Bonfigli should paint the whole chapel? 
One might almost think so. And yet in 
the fresco where St. Louis lies dead, sur- 
rounded by monks in a church which is 
really S. Pietro in Perugia, how lovely is 
that figure of the kneeling youth who, un- 
conscious of anything but the dead saint, 
seems to be weeping so passionately ! 

In 1460 Bonfigli is said to have been in 
Siena, and later still in Rome, painting in 
the company of the young Pinturicchio. 1 
That visit to Siena, even though it were his 
first, and remembering his work I cannot 
think it, seems to have been of some im- 
portance to him ; a new spirit comes into 
his work, a desire for beauty not divorced 
from religion, but as the handmaid of it, as 
a kind of realization of that song of the 
beauty of holiness. Something of this we 
see, perhaps, in the picture of the Annuncia- 
tion in the Pinacoteca. 2 Madonna, a little 
tearful, kneels on a stool of beautiful work- 
manship, her eyes just lifted from the book 
of prayers which she holds in her hand, 
gazing at nothing. The Angel, dressed in 
fantastic fashion, almost ridiculous, speaks 
his message, while between him and 
Madonna, writing the words which the 
angel speaks, St. Luke sits on his ox, be- 
tween whose legs is a copy of the gospel. 
From the Eternal in the heavens the Holy 
Spirit as a Dove descends with a great 
swiftness, making a passage of light in the 
soft air. Four child angels, one of a real 
and natural beauty, with outstretched hands, 
watch the work of God. Madonna is 
kneeling just outside the magnificent por- 
tico of some palace in a kind of courtyard, 
over the rich walls of which we see the 
tops of the cypresses and the mountains. 
Above is a loggia with carved and splendid 
pillars. It is perhaps in the frieze of the 

1 Brousolle, ' Pelerinages Ombriens,' Paris, 1896. 
s Reproduced, page 135. 

5 fc 

'The Father of ^Peruvian Tainting 

wall whereon Bonfigli has painted a sump- 
tuous sort of carving that we find our first 
surprise; and then something of a larger 
world seems to have come into the picture 
with the impersonal detached figure or 
St. Luke, who so calmly, almost with a 
smile, writes the unforgettable words. How 
strange is this dream of the Annunciation ! 
And, indeed, long after we have forgotten 
the mere strangeness of an idea so natural 
perhaps to mystical Umbria, we remember 
that soft, delicate Madonna with the peev- 
ish lips and the delicate temples. It is said, 
I know not with how much truth, that in 
the Adoration Bonfigli has introduced the 
portraits of his sister as the Madonna, his 
nephew as the Child, and his brother as the 
youngest of the three kings. It may be so ; 
but it is another woman, younger and more 
charming, who is so distracted by the mes- 
sage of the angel amid all the beauty of that 
Renaissance palace in the Annunciation, and 
who prays with so much simplicity and 
sweetness in perhaps the most beautiful 
picture of all his work — a Madonna and 
Child, much damaged, and yet retaining 
something of the memory of Fra Angelico 
in its simplicity, its spirituality. Who was 
she that was so unhappy, a little wilfully we 
may think perhaps, her fortune being so 
splendid? We shall never know. Fra 
Filippo had painted in his pictures over and 
over again the woman he loved. It may be 
indeed that Bonfigli did so too. How 
peevish she is, how discontented, how de- 
lightfully unhappy. Was she perhaps his 
wife who quarrelled with him so that their 
differences have been noted in the public 
records,or was she just a vision that even to- 
day, if we are fortunate, we may chance to 
see in that very city, something so delicate 
and wonderful and altogether lovely that for 
ever after that fierce, rude city seems to have 
been changed for us: living ever after in 
the memory as some place almost out of the 
world, so that in thinking of her all the 
tumult of our life is hushed, and the soul 

itself silent in order that all our dreams and 
visions may come to her and be touched by 
her delicate hands and made perfect ? For 
her voice is as the sound of distant waters, 
and our thirsty days are ended in a moment 
when she speaks; her eyes have looked at 
heaven and remembered the stars, and 
the sun has lingered in the coils of her 
hair, and her hands are softer than the 
bright lilies which will reconcile us with 
death at the last. I cannot forget the sound 
of her footsteps or the folds of her dress, and 
the gesture of her hands is a perpetual 
benediction. Ah, how I have envied those 
she is even now making so happy, for where 
she is one might say God smiled. At home 
in winter, when the world is hushed by the 
fall of the snow, and the eartli made pure 
again from heaven, I have seemed to see her 
coming, delicate and altogether precious, 
across the spotless fields, her golden hair 
trailing in the night like a shower of stars, 
her little feet whiter than the blossoms of 
the snow. And when my spirit was perhaps 
stooping under my life, was it not her eyes 
that looked on me and refreshed me, and 
tenderly lifted up my soul, and ever since 
has she not held it softly in her hands ? And 
I know, as I know the sureness of the stars, 
that she will not let it fall. 

Those banners which Bonfigli painted to 
be carried in procession, one ot which, the 
Gonfalone di S. Bernardino, 3 is now in the 
Pinacoteca, are almost peculiar to the Um- 
brian school. Another of these strange 
painted canticles is in S. Fiorenzo, and yet 
another in S. Maria Nuova. The one in the 
Pinacoteca is, however, not the least 
curious. Above sits the great figure of 
Christ surrounded by angels, while below 
are gathered the priests and people of 
Perugia in front of the Oratorio di S. Ber- 
nardino and the church of S. Francesco, in- 
tent on some ritual or service. Between 
our Lord and the people, St. Bernardine 
himself stands, listening to the words of 

8 Reproduced, page 135. 


The Father of Perugian 'Painting 

Christ. It is evidently a portrait of the 
saint ; the lean, emaciated face is stilled in 
a kind of mystical contemplation. The 
terrible emotion of the orator from whose 
lips fell words not of love only, but of 
burning scorn and terrifying denunciation, 
is hushed. His whole figure is burning 
with a kind of ecstasy, he seems like a 
flame almost, motionless in heaven. It is 
said that the people gathered together 
outside the Oratorio di S. Bernardino are 
busied with the ceremony of the blessing 
of the candles by Pope Pius II, which 
happened in 1489. However this may 
be, surely one of those women who stand 
so unconcerned in the corner of the picture 
is the Madonna of the Annunciation ? Pale 
and graceful she stands still a little unhappy, 
while before her a nun kneels in passionate 
prayer ; yet she is so indifferent that she 
has almost let her candle fall. 

The banner of S. Maria Nuova is less 
beautiful, and it may be from another 
hand. Christ between the sun and moon 
surrounded by saints and martyrs threatens 
the people of Perugia with an arrow, 
while death mows them down with a 
scythe. The saints appear to be interced- 
ing. At S. Fiorenzo there is another 
banner, also commemorating some pesti- 
lence ; a long inscription in verse upheld 
by an angel prophesies to them in the 
manner of Jeremiah. In Corciano there 
is another, and indeed the list of those 
ascribed to Bonfigli is long. It is in these 
banners that Bonfigli really ceases to be an 
artist, and becomes a mere agent of the 
Church. Certainly, with the possible ex- 
ception of the one in the Pinacoteca, they 

can make no claim to beauty. It is not 
in them that we shall find the master 
of Perugino, but in those pictures, a 
little bitter and yet sweet withal, which 
have been gathered together from many 
places into the Pinacoteca. Without the 
passion and the profound sense of beauty 
which Niccolo da Foligno possessed, and 
which make him so interesting a pupil of 
Benozzo Gozzoli, Bonfigli yet contrived 
to give his pictures that suggestion — 
though it is scarcely anything more than a 
suggestion — of sentiment and charm which 
in Perugino came at last to be so loved, 
which seems to us at times so sickly, so in- 
sincere. Sometimes his angels are really 
beautiful, more often they are peevish and 
unhappy, with a kind of childish grief 
that looks almost like a simper on their old 
young faces. As an historical painter, or, 
rather, as a painter of tradition, he was un- 
successful, evidently feeling himself incap- 
able of telling a story or composing in the 
larger way of Gozzoli. And yet there is 
something golden in his work, something 
of the soft beauty of his birthplace, that 
Perugino was to turn to such good account. 
In thinking of him one might almost say 
that his chief fault was that he learnt so 
little from Piero della Francesca or the 
Florentines. The father of Perugian paint- 
ing, he gives but the faintest clue to the 
work of Perugino or Pinturicchio, and 
though he was born in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, it is rather as a kind of ' primitive ' 
we come to regard him, indifferent 
alike to art and to life, occupied as he 
was as a craftsman in the service of the 

Notes, plate i. the annunciation, 
by roger de la pasture, in 
the collection of the late 
m. rodolphe kann ; formerly in 
the ashburnham collection. 




HE picture here reproduced ' 
is the finest of the early 
Netherlandish paintings for- 
merly in the collection of the 
earl of Ashburnham at Ash- 
burnham Place, where I first 
saw it in May 1878. It has 
since, like so many other of 
our art treasures, left this 
country, and is now in the fine collection formed 
by the late Mr. Rudolph Kann. It belongs to the 
best period of the master, and bears considerable 
resemblance to the same subject on the shutter of 
the triptych formerly in St. Columba's church at 
Cologne and now in the Munich Gallery. There 
is, however, a notable difference : the master has 
here represented the angel as just greeting the 
Virgin, who turns towards him ; but he has not 
delivered his message, and therefore the Holy Dove 
is not represented, whereas in the Munich panel 
the later and more usual incident has been chosen ; 
Mary has replied, ' Be it done unto me according 
to thy word,' and the Holy Dove is descending 
towards her. 

The pose of the Virgin's head is here slightly 
different, but her right arm and hand and the 
drapery of her dress are almost identical in treat- 
ment ; the bed in the background and the flower 
vase are also alike, except that the body of the 
latter, plain in the Munich picture, is here adorned 
with a. spiral molding. The angel here, instead 
of a white mantle, wears over his apparelled alb a 
tunic of crimson and gold velvet brocade. In the 
background is a bench with cushions, and above 
it a two-light round-arched window looking out 
on a flower garden with a crenellated wall and a 
gatehouse, towards the half-open door of which 
Joseph is walking, staff in hand, while a woman 
is looking at the plants in the raised flower-beds. 
The day is drawing to a close, but the twilight is 
still clear and bright. Mary has, however, already 
provided herself with a lighted taper which she 
holds in her left hand resting on her prayer-book. 
In the upper part of the window, glazed with 
lozenges, is an escucheon charged with the arms 
of the Burgundian family of Clugny azure, two 
keys in pale addorsed or, repeated in the circular 
compartments of the carpet beneath the Virgin's 
feet. I have not been able to discover for what 
member of the family this work was painted, but 
it is almost certain that it was either for Ferry, 
who became chancellor of the order of the Golden 
Fleece, and was consecrated bishop of Tournay 
in 1474 and made cardinal in 1480, or his brother 
William, who was in 1479 translated from the see 
of Terouanne to that of Poitiers, and most prob- 
ably for the former, whose love of art is evidenced 
1 Plate I, page 140. 

by his Missal preserved in the library of Siena 
and his Pontifical now in the possession of the 
Marquess of Bute. W. H. James Weale. 


The exhibition of the Hardwick Hall hunting 
tapestries, at the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
during 1903-04, was instrumental in bringing into 
notice a style of tapestry which, until then, had 
been the object of little attention even from those 
specially interested in the art. In the discussion 
which ensued, interesting divergences of opinion 
were manifested as to the origin of these hangings, 
but the verdict as to date was almost unanimous. 
The second quarter of the fifteenth century was 
recognized as the period of their fabrication by the 
most competent critics. In which direction this 
date can be extended with a view to discovering the 
chronological limits within which so important a 
style of tapestry was produced, will, of course, be 
seen from the examination of other specimens as 
they come to light, and from this the identifica- 
tion of the atelier may also result. 

Meanwhile another tapestry which came into 
the market recently at Paris ■ bears upon it evi- 
dence placing its date beyond question. This 
piece, which is enriched with gold and silver 
thread, is apparently an altar-frontal (height 
82 cent. X 2 m. 30 length); it depicts St. John 
the Baptist standing upon the bank of a lake or 
stream, between, on his right, St. Martin of 
Tours, 3 and St. Hugh of Grenoble,' to his left. 
Above St. John's left shoulder — he is clad in a 
hooded-mantle, and an under-vest of goat-skin — 
is represented the Lamb, to which the saint 
points, with a scroll inscribed ' Ecce agnus dei.' 
St. Martin wears mitre and cope; St. Hugh, 
mitred, is in the Carthusian habit. Each bishop is 
in the act of blessing, and holds in his left hand a 
crosier, with veil. The background is filled with 
dense foliage, and a number of birds disport 
themselves in it and around the figures. A glance 
at the illustration accompanying this note will 
reveal the general identity in design and similarity 
in treatment of many details of this tapestry with 
those in the Hardwick Hall hangings — the foliage, 
the patched sky, the flowers, bird life, and water 
in the foreground. 

What render the piece specially important are 
four shields which hang from tree-trunks in the 
background. On either side of St. Martin, the 
shields bear two pallets, and on either side of St. 
Hugh they bear the same two pallets impaling 
a crescent verse' and a champagne, these chequy. 

2 At the sale of the Guilhou collection ; it now belongs to 
Monsieur Jacques Seligmann, to whom we are indebted for 
permission to reproduce it. (Plate II, page 143.) 

8 ' SS. Martin ' is the inscription beneath the figure. 

* ' S. Hugo,' but the letters are almost obliterated in the 
reproduction. To the bishop of Grenoble (1080-1132), the first 
Carthusians owed their settlement at the Grande-Chartreuse, 
mother and governing-house of the order. 

M I4I 

*A Tapestry of Martin of dragon 

The latter, the arms of the Aragonese Lunas, 
were thus impaled with two pallets of her hus- 
band's arms by Maria de Luna, wife of Martin, 
king of Aragon. Upon the other two shields 
the Aragonese pallets of King Martin are again 
depicted. 6 Martin married his first wife, Maria 
de Luna, in 1372, and succeeded to the crown in 
1397 ; after his consort's demise in 1407, Martin 
remarried in 1409, and died, the last king of his 
line, in 1410. The date of the tapestry is there- 
fore before 1409, or (as Martin's arms are depicted 
without the brisure of a younger son) between 

It would be interesting, were it possible, to 
trace the frontal in an inventory of the period. 
Although it is known that tapestries (panos de raz) 
adorned the walls of the Aljaferia, or royal palace 
at Saragossa, at Martin's coronation in 1398, 6 the 
limited series of published Spanish inventories 
offers none in which this particular tapestry might 
be supposed to figure, and King Martin's great 
inventory remains a manuscript in the Archives 
of Aragon, at Barcelona. On the other hand, the 
significance of the combination of the monarch's 
and his consort's insignia with representations of 
his name-patron, St. Martin, and of St. Hugh 
of Grenoble, a beatified Carthusian, should not be 
lost sight of. The Carthusians owed their intro- 
duction into Spain, in 1163, to the Aragonese 
Alfonso II, and King Martin, a descendant of the 
latter, was not less favourable to the order than 
any of his predecessors. Than one Carthusian 
establishment, the Val de Cristo, near Segorbe, 
in the kingdom of Valencia, no religious com- 
munity stood in closer personal relation to that 
monarch. Founded in 1386 by him and by his 
father, Pedro IV, Martin added to it a church, 
dedicated to St. Martin, and consecrated in 1401. 7 
The adjacent lordship of Segorbe had accrued to 
Martin on his marriage with Maria, the daughter 
of a count of Luna, and lord of Segorbe, in 1372. 
The charterhouse of Val de Cristo was, therefore, 
closely connected with both Aragonese sovereigns 
whose arms figure on the tapestry, before and 
after their accession. The earlier of the apparent 
dates, 1397-1407, would of course be anticipated 
by a few years if the central figure of the Baptist 
depicts the patron of Martin's elder brother 
King John I (1387-97), during whose reign the 
frontal may have been designed, as it appears to 
have been, for the Carthusian monastery. 

A. V. de P. 

The technique shown in this altar-frontal is 
different from that of existing tapestries of the 

5 Or four pallets gules should be depicted here, but the 
designer has accepted as Martin's arras the dimidiated or 
halved coat 6guring in the queen's achievement. The shield- 
shapes chosen are habitually used in N. Spanish armorial 
seals of the period. 

• G. de Blancas ' Coronaciones de los reyes de Aragon,' 1641. 

7 J. L. Villanueva ' Viaje literario a las iglesias de Espana,' iv. 
1806. Sequestrated in 1835, the Val de Cristo is now a ruin. 

early French school. In these, clouds are repre- 
sented by conventional forms of ribbon shape ; 
here the clouds, more in accordance with nature, 
are disposed in layers. The foliage is rendered 
in mass, with little or no outline ; the water is 
rippled, suggesting the motion of the water-fowl — 
a treatment that exists to some extent in the otter- 
pool of the Hardwick hunting tapestries. 

The small dimensions of the altar-frontal of 
King Martin would permit of its being woven in 
the house of the client who ordered it. A parallel 
is found in the case of the ' Coronations ' of the 
Cathedral of Sens, woven in all probability for 
Tristan de Salazar, by Allardin de Souyn, who 
lived in the Paris residence of that prelate. 8 The 
texture of both tapestries is very fine, as may be 
judged from the amount of detail in the figures in 
relation to their size. There are two existing 
tapestries which were woven about the same 
time as the one under review, viz. the ' Life of 
St. Piat and St. Eleuthere,' woven in Arras in 
1402, now in the cathedral of Tournai, and a 
hanging with portraits of the duke of Orleans 
(assassinated 1405) and his wife Valentia 
Visconti, which was exhibited at Madrid in 
1892-3 by the count of Valencia de Don Juan. 
These do not afford comparison with the altar- 
frontal of King Martin, which, wrought with gold 
and silver thread, is probably the sole repre- 
sentative of that class of hangings of the early 
fifteenth century ; similar pieces are nearly a 
hundred years later in date. W. G. T. 


This drawing (Louvre, Collection Vallardi No. 
2,330) has suffered greatly from rubbing, which 
has caused the power of its original accent to dis- 
appear. If its attribution thus becomes pliable 
to the fancy of theory, it yet is probably not 
of Florentine technique ; the medallion-like con- 
ception of the head, the wavy intricate treat- 
ment of the hair, and even the collection in 
which it is embedded, lend colour to the belief 
that it belongs to the school of Pisanello. This 
seems at first difficult to reconcile with the 
identity of such a portrait. But Lorenzo de' 
Medici had at eighteen been sent to the courts 
of Italy to gain the beginnings of an experience 
in statecraft which was to prepare him for the 
later practice of authority. The date of the draw- 
ing — if, as seems likely, he posed for it while on 
this tour, in some city of the north — would thus be 
fixed in 1466, which accords with the probable 
age of the sitter. 

One leaves the ever-dubious ground of hypo- 
thesis in examining the identity of the likeness. 
The individual characteristics of the face prove 
this — especially the deep-set eye, the flattened nose, 

* Guiffrey, ' Histoire de la Tapisserie,' p. 136. 
9 Reproduced, Plate II, page 143. 




» -'V 









Recent Acquisitions at the British Museum 

and the peculiar nostril, in later years to grow more 
accentuated, and reminding one that Lorenzo was 
deficient in the sense of smell — an advantage, he 
averred, since in Italy then, as now, fragrant 
odours were the exception. The redeeming feature 
in the expression is the look of mcrbidczza — so often 
characteristic of quattrocento art and counter- 
balancing the hardness of its naturalism — in the 
eyes of the youth who had not yet been steeled by 
dangers of conspiracy and the struggle for power 
which later in life was to make him callous to 
friend and enemy. 

If Benozzo Gozzoli's fresco of the boy-king on 
horseback in the Riccardi chapel is truly Lorenzo, 
then only fifteen, the name exists without the 
resemblance. Hence the Louvre drawing is prob- 
ably his first portrait, and three years earlier than 
the medal ascribed to Tanagli, which may well 
have been struck in honour of the Magnificent's 
marriage to Lucrezia Donati. To this it bears a 
considerable resemblance, though in the medal the 
jaw has set firmer and the features of the face 
have hardened. Lorenzo figures in four other 
medals, two of which are by Bertoldo di Giovanni : 
the one commemorating the Pazzi conspiracy in 
1478, and the other, though considerably smaller, 
reproduces with a different inscription the iden- 
tical head. Another, and the best of the series, is 
the well-known one by Niccolo Fiorentino, a fine 
example of which is in the Dutuit collection. 
Lastly, there is a small but vigorous single-sided 
high-relief medallion in the Dreyfus collection, 
where it is unique. This dates from a later period 
in his life ; his features have grown extremely ac- 
centuated with age. It is probably his last portrait. 
The series of portraits of Lorenzo is by no means 
so extended as might be desired. If we possess 
Ghirlandajo's fresco at Santa Trinita in Florence, 
much doubt must exist as to the identification of 
the Magnificent in the Adoration of Botticelli. 
The glamour of Lorenzo's name has very naturally 
attracted attributions of portraiture where the 
wish has fathered the thought. There seems to 
be no good reason why the bust ascribed to Ver- 
rocchio in the Quincey Shaw collection should be 
that of Lorenzo, or the charming Rafaellino del 
Garbo belonging to Lady Layard in Venice. It 
is,, moreover, a curious fact that the best-known 
portrait of Lorenzo is by Giorgio Vasari, and falls 
of course in a later century. 

Lewis Einstein. 


The British Museum has been particularly fortu- 
nate of late in receiving quite a number of impor- 
tant additions to the collections of English 
porcelain and glass; a rare occurrence in these 
days, when the market price of really fine examples 
10 See Plate III, page 146 

of these wares is beyond the ordinary purchasing 
power of the national museum, while the gifts 
and bequests of private collectors, naturally 
enough, arrive only at considerable intervals. It 
is to the liberality and public spirit of Mr. Charles 
Borradaile that the chief of the present acquisi- 
tions is due, and the pieces he has presented to 
the British Museum are precisely of that kind 
which Sir A. W. Franks, the originator of the 
collection, would have made every effort to secure 
for the nation. They are all, in fact, documen- 
tarv specimens of high historical interest to the 
student of English porcelain. The first (No. 1) is 
a ' goat and bee ' milk-jug of familiar type, but on 
glancing underneath the incised mark and inscrip- 
tion will at once arrest attention. There is one 
other published example of a similar piece, which 
was formerly in the Russell collection, the inscrip- 
tion differing only in lettering and arrangement from 
the above ; and these two are the earliest marked 
and dated specimens of the porcelain made at our 

most noted factory. 
By these two pieces 
the ownership of the 
triangle - mark and 
the ' goat and bee' 
mould is decided 
once for all in favour 
of Chelsea,as against 
the claims of its rival 
Bow. Moreover, the 
nature of the earli- 
est Chelsea ware 
may be read with 
certainty in these 
milk-jugs ; and the 
present example is 
composed of a soft 
glassy porcelain of 
creamy tone, with 
lustrous ' satiny ' 
glaze, highly trans- 
n places the walls 
Can there be 
this beautiful 
ware was learnt ? The French alone could 
have taught it ; and if, as we have good reason to 
suppose, the Chelsea factory was quite recently 
established in 1745, we can only conclude that 
such complete mastery of technique as the present 
piece implies, was due to the guiding hand of some 
skilled workman from one of the already mature 
factories of St. Cloud, Mennccy, or Chantilly. 
The remarkable shape of this little jug is derived, 
like so many of the early porcelain models, from 
contemporary silver-work. On either side of this 
historic specimen is a Bristol porcelain cup (Nos. 2 
and 3), an absolutely unique pair. In 1775 they 
formed part of the small exhibition of china laid 
before the House of Commons by Champion, when 
he applied for the renewal of his patent for the 


lucent, and so thin that 
seem to consist of glaze alone 
any doubt where the secret of 

Recent Acquisitions at the British Museum 

manufacture ot true porcelain. This patent, 
taken out by Cookworthy at Plymouth in 1768, 
and bought by Champion at Bristol five years 
later, protected the use of the china-clay and 
china-stone of Cornwall ; but, unfortunately for 
Champion, the renewal was stubbornly opposed 
by the Staffordshire potters, and was only granted 
with such limitations that the manufacture of true 
porcelain had to be abandoned in 1781, never to 
be revived in this country. Technically, these two 
interesting cups and the goat-and-bee jug are as 
far apart as the Poles ; the latter is soft-paste, as 
soft as the pate tendre of France, while the former 
are hard-paste, as refractory as the true porcelain 
of China. Under one of them Champion has put 
the Meissen mark, the crossed swords in blue, in 
token of his admiration of the Saxon porcelain ; but 
the decoration, which is entirely gilt, rather recalls 
the early Vincennes style. No. 4 is also a speci- 
men of hard-paste, finely enamelled with Chinese 
vases, monsters, and brocaded designs in pure 
famille-verte taste. An inscription in red pigment 
under the base no doubt once told its history, but 
unfortunately, being unfired, it has worn away, 
and nothing can now be read but the date, 
November y' 27'*, 1770. We know, however, that 
in the early part of that year Cookworthy's factory 
was moved from Plymouth to Bristol, where it 
continued till 1773 under the title ' W. Cook- 
worthy and Co. ' ; and there can be no doubt 
that this jug was made at the transplanted Ply- 
mouth works, the Chinese decoration being in 
accord with the Plymouth traditions. Mr. Borra- 
daile's gift includes a Bristol coffee-cup, marked 
with a cross between the initials J. H. (probably 
for Joseph Hickey) and the date 1774, and ena- 
melled with floral festoons in typical Bristol style. 
No. 5 is a fine example of Bristol glass, one of a 
pair of jars which completes Mr. Borradaile's 
liberal donation. It is made of opaque white 
' milk glass,' not unlike pate tendre porcelain, 
enamelled in bright colours by Michael Edkins, 
who, after painting Bristol delft at Frank's factory, 
worked for the glass trade, and was employed by 
no less than five Bristol firms between the years 
1762 and 1787. The present pieces formerly be- 
longed to his grandson, William Edkins, from 
whom they passed into the Francis Fry collection 
and afterwards into Mr. Borradaile's hands. No. 6 
brings us back to Chelsea : it is a theatrical figure 
in the hybrid costume, partly Georgian and partly 
Elizabethan, affected on the stage in the middle of 
the eighteenth century. It forms part of a bequest 
made to the museum by the late Mr. Lionel van 
Oven, including a pair of Chelsea sporting figures, 
Derby-Chelsea statuettes of Venus and Justice, 
and a Derby figure of Andromache weeping over 
Hector's urn. Finally the museum has received 
a small bowl painted with country scenes in red 
and sepia, and inscribed ' Lane End, 1785 ' ; it is 
of rough porcelain, with badly crazed glaze, and 


is evidently an experimental piece made by 
W. and J. Turner, sons and successors of the cele- 
brated John Turner of Lane End (now Longton), 
Staffordshire. This important witness to an other- 
wise unrecorded endeavour was given by Mr. F. 
Bennett Goldney, through the National Art Col- 
lections Fund. R. L. H. 


The charming miniature here for the first time 
reproduced, 11 and provisionally described as Two 
Sisters, has long been ascribed to Cosway, and on 
the evidence afforded by some writing pasted to the 
back of the oval frame, but in no sense an integral 
part of the miniature itself, has been called The 
Duchess of Devonshire and her sister Lady Dun- 
cannon. It was evident to me from the first that, 
although this exquisitely-finished little piece had 
certain definite points of resemblance to the work 
of the renowned English master whose name it bore, 
it showed differences of conception and technique 
which made it impossible to seriously sustain the 
attribution to him. Failing for the moment any 
more satisfactory solution, I provisionally cata- 
logued it under the old name, with the word of 
caution ' ascribed to Cosway.' The family like- 
ness between the work of the man who limned the 
Two Sisters and that of Cosway is undeniable 
and obvious. On the other hand, the drawing, 
less bold and elegant than Cosway's best work, is 
much more finished, more highly worked up in 
every particular, the elegant toilettes de ville of the 
two ladies being detailed with a skill and fidelity 
to which the English master of miniature never 
pretended — which, indeed, like Reynolds and 
Gainsborough, he as much as possible avoided. 
Another point, which in itself would be sufficient 
to shut out the authorship of Cosway, is the delicate 
landscape background, with its very light, even 
tonality, the chief component elements of which 
are salmon pink and pale green. I am not aware 
that Cosway, or any of his British contemporaries 
of the first rank, ever relieved their portraits 
against such backgrounds. The contemporary 
French and allied schools did, on the other hand, very 
frequently thus enliven their counterfeit present- 
ments in miniature, and the Swede Pierre-Adolphe 
Hall — a master of this art, who became acclimatized 
in France, and stood practically at the head of 
the French school of limners of this class — made 
flowery bowers and park-like backgrounds an 
especial feature both of his portraits proper and of 
his fanciful studies of youth and beauty en desha- 
bille galant. The recent publication in the Jahrbuch 
der Koniglich - Preussischen Kunstsammlungen 
(Sech und zwanzigster Bund, i. Heft) of a very 
interesting and practically exhaustive monograph 
by Herr Ferdinand Laban on the Viennese 
11 Plate IV, page 149. 



■ k ; i n r h e 


miniature-painter Heinrich Friedrich Fuger, some- 
times called ' The Cosway of Vienna,' has fur- 
nished the key to the enigma — enabling me to 
identify the miniature now under discussion as 
beyond reasonable doubt as by this local celebrity — 
an artist not much known, as yet, over here beyond 
the inner circle of collectors, yet certainly one 
of the most accomplished miniature-painters of 
his time, which was practically that of Cosway. 
Propert has said of him that ' for delicacy of 
colour and general refinement his miniatures will 
compare favourably with our Cosway, or the 
charming French (!) artist Hall.' This judgement 
is in the main not unfounded. And yet at the 
Wallace Collection, where this Fuger hangs in 
the same case with at least two Cosways of the 
first rank, and an unrivalled collection of Hall's 
finest works, it is seen that, while Fuger is 
distinguished by an exquisite delicacy of touch 
and a rare power of finely individualizing his 
sitters, he has not the suave, if rather conven- 
tional, elegance of Cosway, or the sprightliness, 
the movement, the vivacity of execution which 
give life and fascination to the most charming 
creations of Hall. It is perhaps not quite fair to 
judge the Austrian master by this charming little 
piece, now for the first time identified in the Wallace 
Collection, since its laborious finish and a certain 
anxiousness betrayed in the general working out 
would seem to point to an early date in the artist's 
career as that of its execution. Fuger is at his very 
best in the celebrated miniature on a large scale, 
The Countesses Elisabeth, Christiane, and Marie- 
Caroline Thun, now in the Kaiser-Friedrich 
Museum of Berlin, and the Portrait of a Lady, 
both of them beautifully reproduced in colours in 
the Jahrbuch with Herr Laban's article. It is 
necessary, moreover, before making up one's mind 
about the piquant and highly-individualized art of 
the Viennese court limner, to study the long suc- 
cession of portrait-miniatures reproduced by Herr 
Laban from originals in the Imperial Academy of 
Arts of Vienna, the Imperial Museum there, the 
collections of the House of Austria, the Figdor 
Collection, and others in the same regions. In 
these is revealed an artist whose portraits, though 
they may not, save in rare and exceptional 
instances, exercise that peculiar fascination, not 
exempt from meretriciousness, which distinguishes 
his most famous contemporaries in England and 
France, do unquestionably constitute records of in- 
dividual character, of personality, of far more value 
than any of theirs. And really in the two master- 
pieces of the limner's art facsimiled in colours in 
the Jahrbuch he is second to none, whether in 
distinction and elegance, or in truth and vitality. 
Fiiger's miniatures are exceedingly rare in 
England, and at the present moment I am not 
able to point to any with which I have a personal 
acquaintance. Lady Currie (Mrs. Singleton) 
contributed, I find, to the great exhibition of 

zA Miniature by Fuger 

miniatures held at the Burlington Fine Arts Club 
in 1889 a portrait of Francoise Magdalene de 
Clermont D'Amboise ascribed to Fuger ; but of 
this I have no distinct recollection. We have 
still to ascertain who are the two young ladies in 
the bloom of youth and the freshness of immacu- 
late spring finery who have hitherto usurped the 
names of the fair Georgiana, Duchess of Devon- 
shire, and her sister. Here I hope for some 
guidance from Herr Laban. He mentions as 
among the first miniatures with which Fuger won 
celebrity the portraits of the two daughters of the 
engraver, J . F. Bause. Against the identification of 
these likenesses with the miniature in the Wallace 
Collection is the fact, or rather the supposition, 
that they were single pictures, not a portrait-group. 
I may add in conclusion that the Two Sisters 
of the Wallace Collection is painted on ivory, as 
are the great majority of Fiiger's best authenti- 
cated works of the same type. 

Claude Phillips. 

Signor Boni, the able director of the excavations 
in the Roman Forum, has formed an admirable 
scheme for gathering together in a central museum 
contiguous to the Forum topographical records of 
the Roman remains to be found in various parts 
of the world. This scheme is embodied in a small 
pamphlet which he has sent to the chairman of 
the English Society for the Protection of Ancient 
Buildings, in common with other archaeological 
societies in Europe. Signor Boni appeals for in- 
formation in the shape of photographs accom- 
panied by topographical and other descriptions 
to be kept and classified for reference and study 
in the museum, which would thus become a com- 
prehensive record of Roman antiquity. 

Signor Boni points out that, owing to the rich- 
ness of its historical and artistic memorials, Italy 
has been, more than any other country, a prey 
to the spoiler; and, though some monuments of 
supreme importance still remain in the form of 
buildings that cannot be broken into fragments 
and made over to the foreigner, some of the finest 
examples of archaic art are now to be found in 
foreign collections. He appeals to the officials of 
museums and archaeological societies, and to all 
students of classical antiquity, for photographs of 
important monuments and architectural structures, 
such as tombs, bridges, aqueducts, walls, gates, 
temples, amphitheatres, etc. But he does not wish 
the photographs to be limited to 'reproductions of 
buildings, as there is much to complete in the way 
of anthropology and ethnography.' Indeed he 
asks for photographs, not only of anything con- 
nected with Roman antiquity, but even of the 
domestic utensils of contemporary peasant people 
and costumes; 'little in this way,' he says, 'has 
been done by Italy, and if the camera does not 
quickly come to the rescue, every trace will dis- 


*A Museum of Roman ^Antiquities 

appear of the costumes which differentiated the 
races which often date back to the very earliest 
beginnings of Italy.' He further announces the 
preparation of a catalogue of monuments intended 
as a guide in forming this collection. 

It is hardly necessary to commend Signor Boni's 
appeal, which speaks for itself; he has our hearty 
wishes for the success of his efforts and our com- 
plete sympathy in his pointed and sensible obser- 
vations on the proper, as against the improper, 
treatment of historic buildings and historic finds 
in general with which his appeal is prefaced. 
Signor Boni has recently taken a journey beyond 
the Alps in order to make notes of anything that 
bore in any way upon excavations in the Forum, 
and in the course of this journey he has had occa- 
sion to observe that deplorable methods of restora- 
tion still persist in other countries than his own. 
Indeed his conclusion is that the methods of 
archaeological research in other countries give 
Italy little cause for envy. We can sorrowfully 
acknowledge the justice of his criticisms and trust 
that they will not be without effect. 


i. Portrait of Paulus Hofhaimer in the 
British Museum 12 

An identification proposed by Dr. Dornhoffer 
in a footnote to a review of Dr. Rottinger's mono- 
graph on Hans Weiditz, 13 is not quite certain, 

Fig. I.— Hofhaimer at the Organ. Detail from 'Maximilian at 
Mass.' Woodcut by Hari6 Weiditz 

but the suggestion is attractive and too interesting 
to be overlooked. Hofhaimer was born near 
Salzburg in 1459, and entered the service of the 

11 Reproduced, Plate V, page 153. 
■ " Kunstgeschichtlichs Anzeigen, 1904, p. 58. For the biography 
of Hofhaimer, see Eitner's ' Quellen-Lexikon der Musiker und 
Musikgelehrten,' v. 169. 


Archduke Sigismund. On the latter's death in 
1496, he became court organist to Maximilian, 
whom he often accompanied on his journeys. He 
resided otherwise at Innsbruck until, after the 

Fig. 2. — Hofhaimer at the Organ. Detail from 'The Triumphal 
Procession of Maximilian.' Woodcut by Hans Burgkmair 

Emperor's death, he removed to Salzburg, where 
he was organist of the cathedral. In his 'Har- 
moniae Poeticae,' printed at Nuremberg in 1539, 
he is spoken of as already dead. One of the many 
complimentary poems printed in that volume refers 
to a painting of Hofhaimer, by Cranach, but no- 
thing is said of a portrait by Diirer. He appears 
in two woodcuts of the time, Maximilian hearing 
Mass, by Hans Weiditz (formerly attributed to 
Dtirer, B. app. 31, or Burgkmair, P. 99), and 
No. 22 in the 1796 edition of the Triumphal Pro- 
cession of Maximilian, a certain work of Burgkmair 
himself (see Figs. 1 and 2). The Diirer drawing in 
which Dr. Dornhoffer recognizes the same features 
is Lippmann 284, an undated charcoal portrait 
which Lippmann places among the drawings of 
the journey to the Netherlands in 1521. Both the 
woodcut portraits are drawn on a small scale in 
profile to the right, whereas the drawing by Diirer 
is on a large scale, approaching life-size, and in 
three-quarter face to the left. The difference of 
pose and scale makes the recognition of the por- 
trait difficult, but the shape of the nose and cut of 
the hair are certainly much alike in all three heads. 
If the identification is correct, this will probably 
be another of Diirer's Augsburg portraits of 1518. 
The new suggestion is far more probable than one 
previously put forward by Dr. B. Haendcke, u that 
we have in L. 284 a portrait of Oswald Krell in 
later life. 

14 Zeitschr./.christlicheKunst, xi. 157. 

X. < U 

2: ~ — 

« * I 5 



2 o 

0. H U T. 

a " z h 

H ^ U U 

o 5 w w 

Z S H J 

Carved JJ r ood Watch-stands 

2. Portrait of Ulrich Starck in the 
British Museum 15 

One of the few drawings of 1527, the last year 
of Dtirer's life, is the black chalk bust of a man, in 
profile to the right, Lippmann 296. Ephrussi 
settled it that the sitter was an Englishman, and 
this opinion was adopted by other writers, though 
it is difficult to see how Dtirer could have drawn 
an Englishman except, perhaps, in the Netherlands 
or on the occasion of Morley's mission to Nurem- 
berg in 1523. The identity of the sitter has now 
been established by Dr. A. Hagelstange 10 by aid of 
a medal at Nuremberg, 16 which must have been 
made directly from the drawing. Nothing is 
altered but the costume. The obverse bears the 
legend, ' Vlricus Starck aetatis sve XLHI,' the re- 
verse has the arms of Starck with the motto, ' In 
Domino confido ' and the date M.D.XXVII. It is 
suggested that Ludwig Krug may have made the 
medal after Durer, but this cannot be proved. 

Ulrich Starck was a member of a patrician 
family of Nuremberg. lie was born in 14S4, 
married Katharina Imhof in 1513, and died in 
1549. Two other medals of him exist, earlier and 
later respectively than the portrait of 1527 ; his 
likeness is also to be found among the drawings 
by Hans Schwartz in the Berlin Museum. 

3. Portrait of Hans Burgkmair at Oxford 

The black chalk drawing, Lippmann 396, in the 
University Galleries, has generally been taken for 
a portrait of Jakob Fugger. It was done in 151S, 
the year of the Diet of Augsburg, at which Durer 
drew Maximilian's portrait, and it certainly bears 
some resemblance to Fugger's features. Far 
greater is the likeness to another Augsburg cele- 
brity, the painter Hans Burgkmair. This was 
first noticed by Dr. F. Dornhoffer, director of the 
print collection of the Hofbibliothek, Vienna, 
in an essay on the relations between Dtirer and 
Burgkmair. 17 One has only to glance at the re- 
production of the drawing set beside two authentic 
portraits of Burgkmair by himself, the drawing of 
1517 at Hamburg, and the painting of 1529 at 
Vienna, to see that the identification is absolutely 
certain. It has been adopted by Mr. Sturge 
Moore in his recent book on Durer, p. 91. 

Campbell Dodgson. 


The series of carved wood watch-stands illus- 
trated on Plate VI are a few examples taken from a 
most interesting collection formed by Mr. Charles 
Edward Jerningham, who, with an apparently in- 
exhaustible power of originality, appears always 
to be able to discover new sources of interest 

u Reproduced, Plate V, p. 153. 
IS ' Mitteil. d. Ges. f. vervielf. Kunst,' 1905, p. 25. 
W ' Uber Burgkmair und Durer. Beitrage zur Kunstgeschichte 
Franz WickhofTgewidmet,' Wien, 1903, p. III. 

worthy of the best attention of all lovers of the 
relics of the past. 

The fact that watch-stands in carved wood 
have hitherto escaped the notice of the art col- 
lector is not so difficult to understand when their 
extreme rarity is borne in mind. They are fairly 
common in many other materials; earthenware, 
porcelain, and various metals have all been 
brought into the service of those who wished to 
have a suitable receptacle for placing their watch 
when not actually carrying it on their person; but 
to find a well-carved wood watch-stand is in- 
finitely more difficult than anyone would imagine 
who had not engaged in the quest. 

At the present day, when watches and clocks 
have become so cheap as to be easily procurable 
by the most humble member of the community, 
few people realize how precious the possession of 
a reliable timepiece was considered in the days of 
our ancestors. In those days the fortunate owner 
when at home would probably be expected to 
make his watch take the place of a clock by 
setting it in a stand in a conspicuous position in 
the room, so that all the household might have 
the benefit of being able to know the time of day. 
This fact entirely accounts for the elaborate 
designs of the watch-stands of the eighteenth 
century as compared with the simple character 
of those of the present time, when they are merely 
intended as convenient receptacles for holding 
the watch on the dressing-table at night. The 
artistic taste of the period demanded that the 
watch-stand should not only fulfil the duty of 
safely holding the watch in a prominent position, 
but should also in itself be a decorative adjunct 
to the room ; this was the more necessary as the 
stand would be very often empty while the owner 
of the watch was carrying it with him. With 
apologies for this short introduction we will now 
turn to the consideration of the examples shown 
in the illustrations. 

Two of the most important in the collection 
are Figs. 4 and 7, which are covered with gilding 
and represent respectively Hercules with tin 
Nemaean Lion, and Mercury in his character as 
the god of merchandise and patron of merchants. 
The subjects of these two stands date them to 
the period when society was ruled by the craze 
for introducing the gods of the Grecian mytho- 
logy on every possible occasion; these stands 
cannot have been made much later than about 
1730. Another very characteristic example is 
Fig. 2, decorated in the style of Louis XV, with 
delicately carved festoons of flowers painted in 
natural colours, the other portions being enriched 
with gilding on a dark green ground. Fig. 3 is 
remarkable as a specimen of fine carving ; it is all 
in one piece excepting the foot, a large portion of 
the decoration being cut to within one-eighth of 
an inch in thickness ; the whole design is intended 
as a representation of the sun, the ruler of the 


C a real JI r ood Watch-stands 

hours; the little cupid below with the basket of 
flowers is very finely modelled. In Fig. i is shown 
a skilful adaptation of the dolphin motif which was 
for so Ions; a period a favourite on the old brass 
lantern clocks. Figs. 5 and 6 are sufficiently de- 
scribed by the illustration, their chief characteristic 
being the figure of Time seated at the base. 

The limited space at our disposal forbids us to 
5 this subject at any greater length, but this 
note will have served its purpose if it succeeds in 
awakening an interest in a forgotten phase of the 
work of a class of craftsmen of former days when 
articles which are now looked upon as common 
necessities were regarded as luxuries and had to 
be eked out so as to serve the needs of as many 
people as possible. C. H. Wylde. 


The great revolution played havoc with the 
quondam fine private art collections in France. 
Germany, in former times, was always too poor to 
boast of any important ones. Latterly, those for 
which England was famous have been diminish- 
ing. Before long, it seems, Austria will be the first 
country as regards fine old collections of works of 
art. Vienna already to-day stands almost without 
a rival, containing as it does within its walls such 
galleries as the Liechtenstein, the Czernin, the 
Harrach,andthe Schonborn Buchheim collections. 

There are many others, perhaps only slightly 
less important than these, scattered over different 
castles in the united empire — all of them scarcely 
known, as, for example, the collections of the 
Rohan family, which were brought from France, 
whence members of that famous house migrated 
more than a century ago. The modern art col- 
lections in Austria cannot compete with the old, 
and one of the most important is upon the point 
of ceasing to exist, if the reports spread about 
it should prove true. 

Mr. A. von Lanna at Prague has devoted large 
sums of money and many years to stacking 
his fine residence full of beautiful things. He 
began to collect more than forty years ago, 
when things were cheap and when the connois- 
seurs were few and far between. He was gifted 
with a refined natural taste, and practical ac- 
quaintance with art objects trained his eye in 
a few years to such an extent that he could 
infallibly distinguish the genuine and valuable 
from the inferior and sham. Mr. von Lanna 
collected fine prints, drawings by old masters, 
books of the fifteenth-sixteenth century, medals, 
porcelain and faience, and glass. A catalogue of 
the prints in two volumes appeared in 1895. The 
porcelain, faience, and glass collections are at 
present shown as a loan exhibition at the Prague 
Museum of Applied Arts. It is rumoured that the 
Austrian (Bohemian) Government are making 
overtures to purchase them in behalf of the State 
for the sum of a million and a half florins. 


Speaking of private collections — a portion of 
the Forbes collection was put up at auction at 
Cologne the other day, including all the pictures 
by German artists, one or two French paintings, 
and six large drawings and pastels by Segantini. 
Most extraordinary reports have been for a long 
time circulated about Mr. Forbes's collection, 
which perhaps owe their existence to the circum- 
stance that it was never on view. It is to be 
hoped, at any rate, that the standard of the other 
portions is decidedly above that of the German 
collection, which was very indifferent. Among 
the 102 pictures put up for sale only thirteen 
fetched more than £150 apiece, and very 
many sold for less than £50. The principal 
Lenbach was a tame replica of the Leipsic 
Emperor William I, and I conjecture that must 
have been bought in at £1,525, because it seems 
improbable that anyone in Germany should have 
given that sum for a picture of which Lenbach 
professedly painted no less than five replicas. 

We all know that the world is a merry-go- 
round, what is at the top or in front to-day will 
be at the bottom or in the background to-morrow. 
But it is always amusing to find new instances 
proving the old adage, and especially to see artists 
and art critics, both of whom are always so 
ready to condemn whatever immediately preceded 
them, furnishing such proofs. At Bremen a new 
statue of Emperor Frederick by Tuaillon has 
been unveiled. It represents the emperor, still 
alive in the memories of most of the present 
generation, semi-nude, more or less like a Roman 
conqueror. Shoals of the most pushing and 
popular among modern critics jumped at the idea 
as a revelation, as something bright and grand 
and new, breaking away from cramping traditions. 
These traditions are not yet of 50 years' standing. 
I believe there is a ' Roman ' statue of Napo- 
leon III somewhere, and certainly this 'novel' 
thing, representing a modern king or general as a 
hero of antiquity, more or less nude, was the usual 
thing long after Napoleon I's time. A generation 
or so ago it was decried as ' cramping tradition.' 

H.W. S. 



In Mr. M. H. Spielmann's article in the last 
number of The Burlington Magazine, it was 
stated that the Directorship of the British Museum 
was about to fall vacant, and this was also implied 
in the first editorial article. It is with particular 
pleasure that we are able to announce that both 
Mr. Spielmann and ourselves were mistaken in 
this regard. The Director of the British Museum 
is appointed under Sign Manual, and is not sub- 
ject to the retirement regulations of the Civil 
Service. We rejoice to learn that Sir Edward 
Maunde Thompson has no intention of retiring 
from the position which he so ably fills. 




The last letter published by The BUR- 
LINGTON concerning my book on the 'Primitives' 
has produced a mirthful impression on all com- 
petent readers. It would have been unworthy of 
a reply had it not appeared in the pages of a 
serious paper whose readers are not obliged to 
be acquainted with ' the Van Eyck question.' 
Mr. Weale has gone so far in his fancies and 
rectifications that one is inclined to think that 
some mauvais plaisant has forged his signature. 
However, I appeal to your judgement, and quote, 
number by number, the remarks imagined by the 
prete-nom of the eminent member of the Academy 
of Belgium. It would be very amusing did it not 
affect Mr. Weale's artistic reputation, as you will 

The author of the reply has written down his 
rectifications in one column, opposite the 'non- 
sense ' emitted by me. This manner of pro- 
ceeding is sufficient to prove that Mr. Weale has 
had nothing to do with the case. The said author 
pretends to criticize my book on the ' Primitifs 
Francais,' and has chosen, he says, some ' mis- 
statements ' amongst the numerous false opinions 
it contains. 

That being the case, why does he give under 
No. i an answer to an article in the Bulletin de 
I' Art ? The author of the rectifications mentions 
an example of a translation of De Eyck by Van 
Eyck. There exist a hundred other examples Mr. 
Weale must be acquainted with. But Mr. Weale 
is well aware that the Van Eycks always signed 
De Eyck, 1 and that the popular and modern 
version is a confusion between the de article and 
the de preposition. As a proof whereof we may 
mention that a transcriber has retained the de 
article in referring to the daughter of Van Eyck, 
whom he names Van der Eecke. 2 Mr. Weale would 
have abstained from writing the rectification of 
The Burlington in presence of the name so spelt. 

2. We here approach the greater buffoonery. 

The question is to show that Jacques Cone is only 

a supernumerary, and in order to do so the 

author of the rectification informs us of some very 

singular facts. He states that the plan of the 

church of Milan dates from 1356, and that the 

construction began on the 18th of March of that 

year. Now read this : — 

La storia di sua edificazione sta registrata nelle antiche 
cronache e nei libri della fabbrica. . . assegnando esse l'epoca 
del suo annalzamente nell' anno 13SG, mentre releviarao che, nel 
giorno 15 marzo di detto anno, Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti 
circondato da brillante e numeroso sua corte. da moltiarchitetti, 
parti nazionali, parte stranieri. . . vi si pose la prima pietra 
fondamentale. 3 

1 A picture at Vienna bears the name of /. van Eyck, but it 
does not appear to be the work of that artist, in spite of Mr. 
Weale's dissertation in The Burlington of May 1904. 

: 1 e Laborde, No. 1407. 

9 ' La Metrorolitana di Milano,' an official work published in 
1824 by G. Bocca, Milano, in fol. page 1. 

As you perceive, Mr. Weale's name has been 
really misused. This is the more evident when 
he is fathered with the idea — most strange ! — that 
the Fabric of Milan sent for J. Cone and his com- 
panion Mignot to sketch or draw the church 
already built. It was precisely because the Italian 
architects were unable to execute the work — very 
little advanced in 1399 — that the two artists were 
sent for, at the recommendation of Jean Aucher.' 
Designate ecclesiam signifies to determine the plan, 
and not to sketch, as the author of the rectifica- 
tions insinuates. A proof moreover that Mignot 
was a ' building architect ' exists in the fact that 
he quarrelled with the members of the Fabric 
about a chapiteau, which he placed too low, in 
1401. Can you conceive these two men conveyed 
to Milan at a great expense, and accompanied by 
an assistant, only to execute a drawing, which they 
took two years to accomplish ! 

Mr. Weale would be amply justified in suing 
the individual who dares to thus misuse his 
signature, and to attribute to him such false dates. 

3. The first part of the note refutes M. Houd< y, 
and not me. The contradictor insinuates that 
Jean de Yeke is not Jean van Eyke ; what does 
Mr. Weale think of this assertion ? The second 
part of the ' rectificative ' note is even more 
burlesque than note 2. The ' Saint Thomas a 
Beckett' — Mr. Weale has repeated it oftenand again 
— has been entirely repainted, restored and per- 
verted. The frame bears the date MCCCC 21 
octobris, according to the catalogue of the Bruges 
Exhibition, No. 8. This date is intact, says 
Mr. Weale's prete-nom ; the canvas alone has been 
retouched! But as in reality the date is 1400, 
21 October, the figures 30 have been inserted 
between 21 and octobris, in order to justify the 
authorship of Jean van Eyck. Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle, in the Springer edition, contest 
that date. M. Paul Durrieu demonstrates it to 
be an 'infamous falsification.' 5 The warmest 
partisans of Flemish art consent to it. Unfortu- 
nately Mr. Weale considers it an irrefutable 
argument in favour of Jean van Eyck, that which 
induces his prete-nom to compose his rectification, 
which becomes in this case a most ludicrous piece 
of nonsense. In this instance he, like Ham, un- 
covers his father's nakedness. 

4. The author insinuates that if I do not under- 
stand the last verse of the 'Lamb,' it is because 
I have wrongly transcribed it. This is not the 
case. My version is that of the Catalogue of 
Berlin. It would perhaps have been preferable 
to give us the true sense; but he carefully refrains 
from so doing. It is a rebus Mr. Weale's prete- 
nom is incompetent to solve. 

* • Annali <li Fabbrica,* I. 199. 

'Paul Durrieu, Bulletin de la Soriiti- naticnale des Antiquairet 
de France, 1902, and Les Debuts da Van Eyck, page 9. 

6 'This picture,' writes Mr. Weale, ' constitutes actually the 
most ancient work executed by the brush of the youngest of the 
two brothers.' Catalogue 0/ the Exhibition of Bruges, Preface. — 
And yet he admits that it has been 'entirely repainted '! 

N 159 

Letters to the Editors 

5. Carl van Mander, in his ' Livredes Peintres ' 
(edit, de l'Art, 1882, page 393), says that in 
certain cities of the Netherlands the tinkers, 
pewtermongers, frippers, etc., formed part of the 
corporation of painters. Here again the prete- 
nom plays a scurvy trick upon Mr. Weale, whom 
he appears to accuse of not having read Van 

It is impossible to carry to a higher pitch a 
very sorry jest, as you will admit. 

In presence of the harm done to Mr. Weale, I 
care very little for the insinuations made against 
myself. The author of the ' note ' wished to kill 
two birds with one stone, and to crush me while 
slaying Mr. Weale. For my part, I escape as 
best I can. I can scarcely say so much for my 
companion in adversity. Henri Bouchot. 

%* We submitted a proof of M. Bouchot's 
letter to Mr. Weale, in order that he might close 
the controversy, and he writes as follows : — 

' M. Bouchot's methods are ludicrous. Does he imagine that 
the readers of The Burlington Magazine are so ignorant as 
not to know that John Van Eyck's paintings are signed by him 
in Latin, and that de is a preposition = van ? I know only one 
inscription in which de does not occur, but this exception only 
proves the absurdity of M. Bouchot's contention. John calls 
his brother " Hubertus e Eyck." Duke Philip of Burgundy and 
the canons of Bruges, who knew John intimately, call him in 
French and Latin documents "van Eyck." M. Bouchot thinks 
he knows better than they. 

1 As to the second point I repeat that Coene was only employed 
to make a drawing of the cathedral as it then stood, which drawing 
he was ordered to begin on the morrow of his arrival in August 
I 399- John de Grassis was also employed to make a model of 
wood snowing the work of each master-mason, a number of whom 
had been employed. Mignot, who seems to have been a can- 
tankerous conceited individual, criticized everybody else's work, 
relying apparently on the Duke's protection. To put an end to 
the scandal he was ordered to hand in his observations in writ- 
ing. These were refuted, and he was sent about his business. 

' 3. The assertion that the 30 is an interpolation is audacious. 

' 4. M. Bouchot says his version (" Les Primitifs," p. 229) is 
that of the Berlin catalogue. But it is not. The catalogue 
(1878, p 103) has versu, Mr. Bouchot versus. On the subject of 
this inscription, see The Burlington Magazine, Vol. IV, 
pp. 26, 27 (January 1904). 

' 5. Haarlem is not in Flanders ; and Van Mander, writing in 
1600, is not a reliable authority as to artists of the fifteenth 



I read with much pleasure Mr. C. H. 
Wylde's article, in the April number of The Bur- 
lington Magazine, on the origin of the small 
delft-ware drug and unguent pots found in exca- 
vations in London ; and although the considera- 
tions adduced amply disprove, in my opinion, 
Mr. Wallis's contention that these rough and 
insignificant pieces are of Italian workmanship, 
further evidence, especially if it is of a circumstan- 
tial nature, can hardly fail to be of interest. 

Mr. Pit, the learned curator of the Netherlands 
Museum, Amsterdam, recently informed me that 
a number of pots precisely similar to those in 
question have been found in excavations in the 


town of Delft. This discovery clearly indicates a 
Dutch origin for part at least of the debated wares, 
though it does not necessarily invalidate Mr. Wylde's 
conclusion that those found in London were made 
for the English druggists at local factories, since 
the manufacture of English delft was learned direct 
from Holland, and, indeed, actually started by 
Dutch potters. It will at any rate be granted that 
in spite of the debased Italian motives which 
appear in the decoration of some of these pots, it 
is superfluous to look further than Holland for 
their birthplace. R. L. Hobson. 


The idea of a Minister of Fine Arts, as set 
forth in your journal by Mr. Spielmann, is most 
charming. A control by Government which would 
correct all that may be complained of with regard 
to our public picture galleries and museums, which 
would remove field advertisements, so offensive to 
all right-minded travellers, making them ashamed 
that foreigners should see our sordidness, which 
would prevent the general disfigurement of our 
cities and towns, as well as save our valuable 
ancient buildings and monuments both from 
neglect and from ' restoration ' ; that all these 
important matters should be set right is indeed a 
fascinating idea. 

But could one man be so gifted as to be capable 
of forming a right judgement in all these things? 
I think not. If a minister were appointed he 
would certainly require an office with clerks. 
When the Government changed he would be 
replaced by another Minister of Fine Arts, who 
would find that his office knew more of the details 
of his subject than he did, and, in the end, we 
should find what we most care about would be 
under the control of a Government office. 

The Burlington Magazine finds it desirable 
to have a strong committee representing the 
many branches of art with which it deals. The 
clerks of the Government office would take the 
place of this committee, but is there any chance 
that they would be as strong a committee as the 
committee of your magazine ? We know that 
they would not, and I think that we should be 
wise to take warning by the result of the control 
of such matters by Government in other countries. 

Thackeray Turner. 



It may be of interest to your readers to 
know that the Boston ' Velazquez,' described in 
the April number of The Burlington Magazine, 
was a few years ago taken to the Prado and 
placed next to the Velazquez portraits, and by all 
the best critics acknowledged to be a copy. 

Alban Head. 
Madrid, n April 1905. 



Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and En- 
gravers. Vol. V, S — Z. G. Bell & Sons. 
£i is. net. 
It is easy to find fault with any work conceived 
on so large a scale as this new edition of Bryan's 
Dictionary. The issue of the fifth and final volume 
makes it possible to view the series as a whole, and 
in so doing it is impossible not to recognize that 
the new ' Bryan ' is not only more bulky and more 
handsome, but also much more complete and 
trustworthy than any of the older versions. 
From the point of view of scholarship, objection 
must be taken to a portion of the illustrations as 
perpetrating pictures that only deserve oblivion. 
At the same time the fault perhaps lies almost 
as much with the taste of the British public as 
with the editor and publishers. In England it is 
still impossible for good work to obtain acceptance 
except as a pill sweetened with a goodly propor- 
tion of the jam of sentiment, and the inclusion 
of letterpress and pictures connected with certain 
popular pets was probably a necessary concession, 
since the book will have to depend largely upon 
English people for its success. 

Side by side with these bids for popularity we 
find a great deal of tolerable criticism, and some 
really first-rate essays, among which that of 
Dr. Kristeller on Squarcione and the concise 
notices of Mr. Weale are prominent. We could 
wish Mr. Weale's virtues had been emulated 
by the writers of the notices of modern artists 
who are often absurdly verbose. The notices of 
R. Kent Thomas and Vereschagin might be 

In looking over the volume we have not noticed 
many serious errors and omissions. A reference 
should certainly have been given to Levina 
Terling — for though she is dealt with in the first 
volume under her maiden name, it is by her 
married name that she is generally spoken of. 
The date of A. G. Stannard's birth is surely 
incorrect by nearly forty years. Joseph Slater, 
the well-known portrait draughtsman of the earlier 
part of the nineteenth century, is omitted, an 
omission the more regrettable because there was 
an earlier artist of exactly the same name, and 
also because Slater's portraits are uncommonly 
skilful as well as numerous. The omission of the 
well-known landscape painter James Webb is 
even more serious from the point of view of the 
criticism of English painting. It is precisely to 
such a work as 'Bryan 'that students should be able 
to turn to find particulars of clever artists like 
Webb and Paul, whose work under more famous 
names is so frequently seen in good society. The 
most notable slip in the illustrations is the attribu- 
tion of the well-known picture by Bartolommeo 
Veneto, at Glasgow, to Domenico Veneziano. 
The notice of Bartolommeo Veneto, by the way, 
is singularly inadequate and incorrect. 

The letter from the author of one of the most 
important new articles which appeared in The 
Athcnaum for April 15th last, suggests that the 
contributors cannot in all cases be held responsible 
for the opinions professedly signed by them ; a 
very serious defect in a work with pretensions to 
accurate scholarship. 

It is nevertheless only fair to recognize that the 
articles dealing with the more popular painters 
maintain a very respectable average of excellence, 
and the purchasers of the new ' Bryan ' will at 
least have a considerably better book than the 
former edition. 

Lorenzo Lotto. By Bernhard Berenson. Re- 
vised Edition. George Bell & Sons. 

Mr. Berenson's monograph on Lorenzo Lotto 
has already taken its place among the classics of 
art criticism. At first sight it might be natural to 
wonder, or even to regret, that the author's great 
critical powers should have for so long been di- 
verted to the study of one who with all his gifts of 
talent and temperament was not an artist of the 
first rank. Nevertheless this natural surprise or 
regret would in reality be unreasonable. The wide 
field of Italian criticism had ahead)- been s irveyed 
by Crowe and Cavalcaselle, and the whole of their 
survey has been revised by the researches of 
Morelli, so that now we have a tolerably accurate 
bird's-eye plan of the entire surface. The task of 
the successors of these pioneers of criticism is to 
complete the details, and this can only be done 
district by district. The critic of to-day has to 
make up his mind whether he will devote himself 
to the perfecting of some tract of rich and con- 
spicuous genius already cultivated and reduced to 
approximate order by his predecessors, or whether 
he will go out into the wilderness and explore some 
rougher, less attractive upland, and attempt to 
trace to their sources the streams from which the 
main rivers of artistic progress have their origin. 

Mr. Berenson took the latter course when he 
chose Lotto for his subject, and the result of his 
researches has fully justified the choice. Lotto 
was one of the fortunate painters who lived when 
the art of the Renaissance was reaching its highest 
development. Being sensitive and adaptable by 
nature he was impressed by the example of many 
more independent spirits into whose sphere of 
influence he happened to be carried, and the study 
of his work from first to last is thus constantly 
throwing light upon the other artists with whom 
he came in contact. 

The external influences which impressed the art 
of Lotto's middle life had been sketched out before 
Mr. Berenson devoted himself to the subject, and 
for this portion of Lotto's career he could do little 
more than amplify and verify and correct existing 
criticism. With regard to the early portion of 
Lotto's career the position was different. Here 
the whole existing tradition had to be reconsidered, 



with a result that amounted practically to an entire 
re-writing of the history of Venetian painting at 
the end of the fifteenth century, and the recon- 
struction of the forgotten personality of Alvise 
Yivarini as the head of a school second in impor- 
tance only to that of Bellini himself. 

Of the mass of arguments adduced in support of 
Mr. Berenson's view of Alvise and his followers, 
some part (not a large one) may seem a little far- 
fetched; not everyone may agree as to the author- 
ship of all the works of art attributed to him (the 
drawings, perhaps, are less obviously character- 
istic than are the paintings), but the sum total of 
the result achieved is so great that the book must 
always be one of the cardinal authorities upon 
the growth of Venetian art. It may be added that 
this new edition, besides containing a good deal 
of additional matter, including some interesting 
notes on portraits recently identified as Alvise's 
work, is admirably illustrated and produced. 

Albert Durer. By T. Sturge Moore. Duck- 
worth. 7s. 6d. net. 

The previous volumes of Messrs. Duckworth's 
series have all followed more or less the recognized 
lines of modern artistic biographies. Mr. Moore's 
book is an exception. As he explains in his pre- 
face, it is intended to be an appreciation of Durer 
in relation to general ideas, an unorthodox pro- 
gramme which is carried out with unusual fresh- 
ness and completeness. Those who are acquainted 
with Mr. Moore's previous work in prose and 
poetry will expect originality, enthusiasm, and an 
almost overpowering wealth of imagery, and in 
these respects they will not be disappointed. 
Perhaps the most notable feature of the writer's 
attitude is his aloofness from current interests, a 
feature which, in combination with much shrewd- 
ness of insight, gave a peculiar charm to his study 
of Altdorfer. Viewing the world with eyes at once 
keen and simple, Mr. Moore sees with a certain 
cleanly frankness, which enables him to approach 
the character of Durer with a sympathy that has 
not been extended to it hitherto. 

It would be hard to overpraise Mr. Moore's 
treatment of Durer's attitude to morality and to 
the religion of his time, but even this portion of 
the book yields in interest to that in which he 
deals with a subject in which biographers are far 
more rarely successful, the analysis of Durer's atti- 
tude towards his art. His lucid exposition of 
Durer's theory of a canon of proportion has already 
appeared in The Burlington Magazine. It will 
give some idea of the logical and sensible spirit in 
which Mr. Moore deals with the master's theories, 
and with his desire to help others by recording the 
results of his own experience. On the practical side 
Mr. Moore is no less well equipped, and although 
he makes little attempt at an exhaustive study of all 
the drawings, paintings, and engravings given to 


Durer (the paintings, indeed, he deals with almost 
too briefly), he marks their characteristics with 
so much intuition and technical experience that no 
student of art can fail to be informed and stimu- 
lated by the book, however considerable his per- 
sonal attainments or however well provided with 
Durer literature he may be. 

One or two impatient criticisms of other critics 
seem more out of place in a book whose general 
tone is so lofty than do one or two trifling mis- 
prints, and in our copy at least the frontispiece 
is missing. The only other fault that could be 
found with the work is a certain lack of order and 
proportion in the arrangement of thoughts that in 
themselves are logical enough. Mr. Moore, in fact, 
has a tendency to be overwhelmed by the quantity 
of his own ideas, but this surplusage is so unusual 
in these days that it makes this book even more 
remarkable than it would be had its growth been 
trained and pruned by some precisian. 

The Life and Art of Sandro Botticelli. 
By Julia Cartwright (Mrs. Ady). Duckworth. 
21s. net. 

Like the Nemesis in a Greek tragedy, the monu- 
mental life of Botticelli, upon which Mr. Herbert 
Home has been engaged for so many years, would 
seem to have hung like a heavy cloud over other 
critics of Italian painting. It is difficult to explain 
in any other way w^hy the one who is perhaps the 
most generally popular of all Florentine artists of 
the Renaissance should have been the subject of 
so few biographies of any kind in England. 
Mrs. Ady's book makes no claim to finality, but 
those who know and can appreciate the products 
of her many-sided activity will not be disappointed 
in her latest work. This life of Botticelli is not 
perhaps very original or profound, but it sums up 
the results of the best modern research in a plea- 
sant and readable form, and contains plenty of 
illustrations. Some of these, by the way, are re- 
peated in a manner that suggests an alteration in 
the original plan of the book. The repetition 
is rather annoying because one or two of Botti- 
celli's most important works, such as the Sistine 
frescoes, are quite inadequately shown. 

One merit of the biography is the excellent 
picture which it draws of Botticelli's Florence — 
the Florence of Lorenzo the Magnificent, and of 
Savonarola. Its chief defect is a certain diffuseness, 
or rather lack of incisi veness, in the treatment of the 
pictures themselves. If Botticelli's imitators were 
to be discussed and illustrated, the points on 
which they fall short of the master himself, e.g., 
in the treatment of the hand, should have been 
explained. Botticelli's colour, too, surely deserved 
more definite praise. The glowing scarlet and 
gold and azure of the Coronation of the Virgin in 
the Accademia, and the unique perfection of The 
Calumny of Apelles surely might have been ac- 


corded a fitting tribute. We regret these defects 
because the volume is otherwise accurate and 
appreciative as well as pleasantly written. 

How to Identify Portrait Miniatures. By 
Dr. Williamson. London: G. Bell & Sons. 
6s. net. 

This is an epitome of the pretentious work in two 
large volumes by the same author, and contains a 
certain amount of varied information not always 
trustworthy. Its usefulness for the purpose indi- 
cated by the title would be greater were it not for 
the poverty of the illlustrations. 

Analysis of Drawing, Painting, and Composi- 
tion. By H. L. Moore, 31, Margravine 
Gardens, W. 12s. 6d. post free. 

There is much to commend in Mr. Moore's effort 
at removing some of the difficulties which sur- 
round the teaching of drawing. The bulk of the 
advice given is sensible and practical, and is ex- 
plained and illustrated by some four hundred illus- 
trations by the author, who is also the publisher 
of the book. Nevertheless, the book has one or 
two serious faults. As writing it is amateurish, 
and thus is not easy reading : a grave defect in a 
work intended for beginners. More serious still 
is the lack of insistence on quality of workman- 
ship. The author's drawings are generally excel- 
lent and to the point, but they will not give the 
student any idea of the refinements of execution 
found in all first-rate work. No harm can be done 
by insisting on those refinements from the first, 
and the reproduction of half-a-dozen drawings by 
the great masters properly annotated would teach 
a student more than double the number of rough 
diagrams and many pages of letterpress. The 
printer's reader ought to have corrected ' the 
Greeko-Romans ' and 'Annanias,' even if Ilissis ' 
seemed sufficiently Hellenic to pass muster. 

Millet. By Netta Peacock. Methuen. 

A careful little book principally illustrated by 
small reproductions of the Millet drawings in the 
Boston Museum. 

about him in England. This excellent study by 
Mr. Rudolf Dircks is unfortunately omitted by 
M. Mauclair from his list of books and articles 
relating to Rodin. Otherwise M. Mauclair's work 
is fairly complete, and is a pleasant supplement 
to the articles of M. Roger Marx and the volumes 
of M. Maillard and Mile. Cladel. 

M. Rodin has numerous friends among literary 
men, and in consequence those who write about 
him have a tendency to read more ' literary ' 
purpose (even while denying its existence) into his 
work than he himself would claim. The titles, 
for instance, which they attach to many of his 
sculptures, which need christening no more than 
do pieces of music, are apt to mislead both Rodin's 
public and Rodin's biographers. M. Mauclair, for 
instance, illustrates a figure on page 74 and calls 
it Primitive Man ; on page 106 it appears again 
as A Shade, while M. Rodin's photographer 
(spelt, by the way, Buloz) calls it Adam. The 
last title is possible ; the last but one reasonable, 
since the figure closely resembles one of the three 
shades that crown The Gate of Hell ; the first is 
a source of confusion, if not a positive mistake. 
No title at all is given to the subject on the left 
of the plate of page 106, although it is a work of 
some interest, being the nude study from which 
Rodin constructed the figure of Jacques de Wissant 
in the Burghers of Calais. 

By far the most valuable and interesting portion 
of the book is that in which M. Rodin explains 
his own theories. 

His criticism of the custom of setting beginners 
to study the antique instead of making it the last 
part of their course, should be read by every 
teacher in a school of art. His account of the 
development of his own practice is an admirable 
exposition of the progress of sculpture, and of the 
principles upon which power of expression maybe 
best attained. The case is put with uncommon 
clearness and conciseness. It would be difficult, 
for instance, to describe a great artist more pithily 
than M. Rodin has done in the phrase, 'men of 
genius are just those who, by their trade skill, 
carry the essential to perfection.' It is impos- 
sible to discuss these opinions at length in a 
short review; but M. Rodin's criticism should be 
invaluable to any art student who has the wit to 
make use of it. 


Auguste Rodin. By Camille Mauclair. Trans- 
lated by Clementina Black. Duckworth. 
12s. 6d. net. 

This volume will be welcome to many English 
readers who want to know more about Rodin and 
to possess more pictures of his work than they 
can find in the one little book (apart from some 
good magazine articles) which has been written 

The Renaissance of Sculpture in Belgium. 
By Oliver Georges Destree. Seeley. 3s. 6d. net. 

A re-issue of the Portfolio Monograph origi- 
nally published in 1895. The recent death of 
Meunier, the greatest of modern Belgian artists, 
added to the general revival of the study of 
sculpture, gives particular interest to this sensible, 
well-illustrated essay on a school of art which 
has both vigour and national character to recom- 
mend it. 




A History and Description of French 
Porcelain. By E. S. Auscher. Translated 
and edited by William Burton, F.C.S. Con- 
taining twenty-four plates in colour, together 
with reproductions of marks and numerous 
illustrations. London : Cassell & Co., 1905. 
8vo, pp. xiv., 196. £1 10s. net. 

Although Messrs. Cassell & Co. never have 
promised that the handsome volumes they have 
brought out at intervals — each forming a detached 
chapter of the history of the ceramic art — would 
be followed by other volumes prepared on the 
same plan, it is to be hoped that the success 
with which the venture has so far been rewarded 
will induce the publication of such additional 
monographs as are, doubtless, included in the wide 
scheme framed by the editor, Mr. William Burton. 
When brought to completion, the series will con- 
stitute a ceramic cyclopedia of an importance 
never approached before. To-day we have to 
welcome the appearance of a fresh instalment, 
which brings us a step nearer the accomplishment 
of that desirable end. Monsieur E. S. Auscher's 
history of French porcelain is by no means 
inferior to its forerunners, and its incontestable 
merit augurs well for what, we may expect, will 
shortly follow. It was wise on this occasion to 
entrust a French specialist with the task of com- 
piling a historical and descriptive book, brought 
up to the present state of advanced knowledge, and 
free from the erroneous notions which have too 
long been allowed to pass unchallenged. No one 
was better qualified for the task than M. Auscher, 
a well-known writer on ceramics, acquainted with 
the contents of the public and private collections 
of France, and for ten years director of the manu- 
facturing department of the national manufactory 
of Sevres. 

The captivating tale unfolded in the pages dealing 
with the historical part of the subject commands, 
in more ways than one, the attention of the English 
collector of ceramics. To go over a trustworthy 
record of the glories and vicissitudes of the chief 
centres of manufacture, to master the main 
features through which their productions may be 
recognized, is a labour which, undertaken at first 
as a duty, will soon prove a source of pleasure. 

The account starts with the discovery made at 
Rouen by the fa'iencier, Louis Poterat, in 1673, of 
an artificial porcelain, sufficiently white and trans- 
lucid to be considered as a satisfactory substitute 
for the mysterious ware that came from the Far 
East. The reader will then be made to follow the 
course of the process, which passed successively, 
and without undergoing any material alterations, 
from Rouen to Saint-Cloud, Lille, Chantilly, 
Mennecy-Villeroy, and ultimately reached Vin- 
cennes and Sevres, where it was to develop its 
highest degree of perfection. While examining 


the typical examples of the productions of these 
various places, a clear-sighted observer will find 
much in the quality of the paste, as well as in the 
taste of the decoration, which reminds him of the 
early china of Bow and Chelsea. From this 
recognition there is but one step to the surmise 
that a still unacknowledged relationship must have 
existed between the old factories of France and 
those established later on in England. More than 
one inquisitive spirit may feel incited, in con- 
sequence, to make an attempt at picking up the 
thread which unites our national porcelain works 
to their foreign ancestors. 

When the narrative enters the portion devoted 
to the royal factories of Vincennes and Sevres — 
necessarily the most important of the book — the 
interest felt by the true china-lover will increase. 
He will find himself almost at home with the 
subject, for if he has not yet heard all that he 
wants to know about the old porcelaine tendre, he 
is, at any rate, already familiar with the finest 
examples of the ware. Alas for poor France ! by 
far the largest and finest portion of her Sevres 
china fled from the country during the storm of 
social perturbations, never to return to it again. 
It is now chiefly in England, at Windsor Castle 
and at Hertford House, in the collections of 
Lord Spencer, Lord Harewood, Baron A. de 
Rothschild, and many other distinguished ama- 
teurs, that the matchless porcelaine de France may 
be admired in all its splendour. 

One would willingly linger over the period when 
soft china had acquired right of abode in all 
refined households, brightening with multi-coloured 
marvels the exquisite appointments of the refined 
drawing-room. What was accomplished at Sevres 
in the reign of Louis XV, partly under the in- 
spiring influence of the Marquise de Pompadour, 
has certainly never been surpassed. The discovery 
of the Kaolin of Saint-Yrieix, near Limoges, in 
1769, and the substitution of a natural for an 
artificial porcelain, which was the consequence of 
it, opens a new phase in the history of French 
porcelain. With the introduction of an undeniable 
technical improvement came the artistic decline. 
Many were the practical advantages of the hard 
paste ; its manufacture had at once been safely 
regulated, while the making of pate tendre was still 
hampered by risks and accidents which could 
never be mastered. It mattered little to the china- 
maker if by adopting the new processes the white 
porcelain was to lose its creamy whiteness, and 
if the colours applied to it would no longer show 
the same vivacity of tint and brilliancy of surface ; 
this was more than compensated in his estimation 
by the greater facility it would bring in the conduct 
of manufacture. In consequence of the sudden 
transformation of an unstable and often ruinous 
trade into a steady and remunerative one, the 
number of porcelain manufactories increased with 
amazing rapidity. In Paris alone, close on thirty 


of them were at work towards the end of the 
eighteenth century. They were all making hard 
paste ; the body was obtained ready mixed from 
Limoges, and made use of in each place without 
any appreciable modification. As to the style of 
decoration, it seldom departed from close imita- 
tions of the most successful patterns created at 
the manufactory of Sevres. On that account the 
productions of a late period present a similarity of 
character, both from the technical and artistic 
points of view, which would render an attribution 
to their respective maker a matter of great diffi- 
culty were it not that, in accordance with State 
regulations, each piece had to bear the distinctive 
mark of the manufacturer. A great number of 
these Parisian marks are included in the general 
list ; needless to say that they will prove of great 
assistance to the collector. 

The chapter dealing with modern forgeries, rank 
counterfeits, or genuine pieces skilfully doctored 
up, is an original feature in this work ; it will be 
read with interest and profit. It brings to our 
mind the recollection of the fact that in the 
provision of the curiosity market with an ample 
supply of spurious Sevres porcelain the English 
forger never remained behind his Continental 
brethren. This does not, however, appear to be 
known in France, for M. Auscher has neglected 
to mention it. 

A copious set of plates, representing well- 
selected specimens, and produced in the best style 
of typographic colour-printing, adds much to the 
attractiveness and value of the volume. 

M. L. S. 


hunderts. Katalog der vom 15. Februar bis 
30. April 1904 im Lichthofe des Kgl. Kunstge- 
werbe-Museums zu Berlin ausgestellten Por- 
zellans. Von Adolf Briining, in Verbindung 
mit W. Behncke, M. Creutz, und G. Swar- 
zenski. Berlin, G. Reimer, 1904. Roy. 8vo., 
with 15 col. pi. and 25 pi. in black and white. 
M. 30. 
A retrospective exhibition of European porce- 
lain was held at the Industrial Art Museum of 
Berlin in the spring of 1904. Much taste and dis- 
crimination had been displayed by the organizers 
in selecting out of the chief public and private 
collections of the country such typical specimens 
as would best represent the various styles and 
periods of manufacture. No catalogue of the ex- 
hibition had, however, been provided. To make 
up for a regrettable deficiency and in order that a 
lasting record might remain of an assemblage of 
fine and rare examples of the ceramic art, never 
again to be brought together, a few members of 
the committee, with Mr. Briining at their head, 
decided to prepare, and ultimately to publish, the 
handsome volume now under our notice. 

Naturally German porcelain largely predo- 

minates, in the descriptive list, over that of other 
origin. On this account the book commends itself 
to the attention of the English collector to whom 
foreign languages are not unfamiliar. We have 
still much to learn in England about the minor 
porcelain works of Germany. Numerous as they 
are, they all stand partially eclipsed, as it were, by 
the all-absorbing glory of the royal manufactory 
of Meissen, from which they were more or less 
directly derived. A brief history of each centre 
of manufacture is prefixed to the catalogue. From 
the examination of the well-chosen specimens 
reproduced on the plates, will be gained a broad 
idea of the distinctive characteristics of the pro- 
ductions ; further work of identification being 
greatly facilitated by the accompanying set of 
marks. In short, it may be said that the book 
forms a valuable introduction to the study of a 
most interesting subject. M. L. S. 


Studies in Ancient Furniture : Couches and 
Beds of the Greeks, Etruscans, and 
Romans. By Caroline L. Ransom, Fellow 
in the University of Chicago. Chicago : the 
University Press, 1905. 4to, pp. 128, 30 plates, 
53 cuts. $4.50. 

This work, by a young American lady who has 
studied classical archaeology both at home and 
in Europe, deals with a subject which hitherto 
has received little attention from writers on Greek 
and Roman antiquities. As the authoress points 
out in her preface, all previous literature is con- 
fined to a few articles in works of an encyclopaedic 
character, and research among existing monu- 
ments is rendered difficult by the vague and 
fragmentary character of the evidence. The in- 
dustry and care with which she has collected all 
the available representations of ancient beds and 
couches, and the judgement shown in weighing the 
results obtained, deserve great commendation; 
and an interesting practical outcome of her studies 
is the attempted restoration of a couch from 
Greek vase-paintings as shown in Plate II. This 
restoration was worked out by a firm of uphol- 
sterers at Chicago, and bears out the accuracy 
with which the Greek vase-painters reproduced 
small details, though the limitations of their 
technical methods often render it difficult to 
distinguish what they really intended to show. 

Miss Ransom points out that the Greeks and 
Romans made no distinction between beds and 
couches for social uses, the latter being universal 
in dining-rooms and banqueting-rooms on account 
of the practice of reclining at meals. But that 
chairs and high stools of more or less modern 
shapes were also commonly in use is abundantly 
clear from the vase-paintings and statues of seated 
figures; with these, however, the book is not 
concerned. Among the many existing examples 

i r >5 


of couches or parts of couches illustrated in this 
work few are more interesting than the bronze 
bisellici of Pompeii, of which several specimens, 
more or less complete, may be seen in the British, 
Naples, and other museums. Curiously enough 
they have in almost all cases been wrongly re- 
stored, and instead of forming, as they really did, 
couches of some five or six feet in length with 
raised ends for head or arm rests, they usually 
appear in the form of four-legged stools, the orna- 
mented rests being placed underneath the seats ! 
These rests are frequently decorated with some 
device in relief, most commonly a horse's or 
mule's head decked with ivy-wreath and inlaid 
collar; others have a swan's head and neck or a 
bust of Cupid. The mules' heads were considered 
specially appropriate to banqueting couches, 
owing to the connexion of that animal with 

Space forbids us to enter into further details of 
the very interesting objects here collected, dis- 
cussed, and illustrated. The subject-matter is 
throughout excellent and scholarly, and we have 
only detected a few very trifling errors ; our only 
regret is that the book is so frequently marred by 
the uncouthness of its style, not to mention some 
excruciating Americanisms. H. B. W. 

A History of English Furniture. By Percy 
Macquoid, R.I., with plates in colour after 
Shirley Slocombe, and numerous illustrations 
selected and arranged by the author. Vol. I. 
The Age of Oak. 11X15 inches, pp. viii, 244. 
Fifteen plates in colour. London : Lawrence 
and Bullen. £2 2s. net. 
This first volume of Mr. Macquoid's work, which 
comprises Nos. 1 to v of the monthly parts in 
which it is being issued, treats of the first of 
the four periods into which the subject has 
been divided, which is conveniently and with 
sufficient accuracy described as ' The Age of 
Oak,' since during the period dealt with oak was 
the material chiefly, though not exclusively, used 
for furniture in England. The volume brings 
us down to the Restoration, and covers the styles 
roughly classified as gothic, Elizabethan, and 
Jacobean. Of the earlier gothic furniture little or 
nothing, as Mr. Macquoid remarks, now survives, 
and the surviving pieces are chests and coffers. 
Mr. Macquoid includes in his illustrations an 
interesting chest of the early part of the fourteenth 
century belonging to Mr. MorganWilliams, and the 
fifteenth century is represented by several beautiful 
pieces. The remarkable chest known as 'Sudbury's 
Hutch,' given at the end of the fifteenth century 
by a vicar named Sudbury to Louth church, where 
it is happily still preserved, is specially interesting 
as showing a certain Renaissance influence at an 
early date for England. Contemporary pieces, such 
as Mr. C. E. Kempe's magnificent cupboard or 
the beautiful chests belonging to Messrs. Gill 


and Reigate, and Mr. A. L. Radford, are purely 
gothic. Nothing perhaps is more attractive at this 
period than the severely simple linenfold pattern, 
of which some fine specimens are illustrated, 
notably a cupboard door in which the pattern is 
slightly elaborated. 

When we reach the sixteenth century the 
wealth of fine pieces is so great that it is hardly 
possible to select any for special mention. But 
we cannot pass over Sir George Donaldson's 
exquisite marquetry writing-cabinet, apiece made 
probably about the middle of the sixteenth century, 
and purely of English workmanship, though 
inspired by foreign (probably, as Mr. Macquoid 
suggests, Spanish) influence. This remarkable 
piece is of English oak, inlaid with English 
walnut, rosewood, and other coloured and stained 
woods. Its history is an example of the vandalism 
of our immediate ancestors ; it was discovered in 
the basement of a house in the country, where it 
served the children of the family as a rabbit- 
hutch ! Fortunately it was little injured, and is 
practically in its original state. Mr. Slocombe's 
coloured drawings of this and other inlaid pieces 
are more successful than the coloured plates of 
plain oak pieces. The complete volume now 
before us only confirms the opinion stated in our 
review of the first monthly part, that the reproduc- 
tions in monochrome from photographs are, on the 
whole, far more satisfactory and much nearer to 
the originals than the reproductions in colour from 
Mr. Slocombe's drawings, which fail to reproduce 
the oak surface, though they are in many respects 

In the seventeenth century furniture became 
much more common with the growth of com- 
fort and luxury, and Mr. Macquoid's illustra- 
tions give us an exhaustively representative selec- 
tion. It is pleasant to find that so large a number 
of finepieces survive in this country not only ingreat 
houses such as Hardwick and Knole, but also in 
less conspicuous places. Among the most curious 
pieces of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth 
centuries are the chests with representations in 
inlay of Nonesuch Palace, Cheam, that wonderful 
house which Barbara Palmer destroyed and sold 

We have already in our previous review of 
the first monthly part of this work expressed 
certain criticisms. The book is not fully adequate 
from the archaeological and historical points of 
view, and the definitive history of furniture remains 
to be written. But from the artistic point of view 
the book can be unreservedly praised. The illus- 
trations alone (more than two hundred pieces 
are figured in this volume) make it indispensable 
to the collector of furniture, and for the trouble 
and time that he must have spent on discover- 
ing and selecting the pieces to be illustrated 
Mr. Macquoid deserves the gratitude of every- 
one interested in the subject. Only a connoisseur 

as keen and well-informed as he is could have 
pictured the furniture of the past as it is here 
pictured for us, or have described it with so 
true an artistic appreciation. 

We should like to plead for a more exhaustive 
index and a complete list of illustrations. Per- 
haps they will be forthcoming at the end of 
the publication. 

English Furniture Designers of the Eigh- 
teenth Century. By Constance Simon. 
London : A. H. Bullen. 1905. 25s. net. 
Too many of the books pretending to expert art 
knowledge which have been called into existence 
by the re-awakened interest shown by the public 
in such matters remind one forcibly of the refresh- 
ment-room sandwich. The bread is often stale, 
and what it encloses is of the thinnest and flimsiest 
consistency, being neither satisfying nor savour}-. 
In Miss Simon's book we occasionally — very occa- 
sionally — come across such reminiscences; but 
though the book has faults, the faults are its own, 
and are not copied parrot-like from other utter- 

From one point of view the book does not de- 
serve its title. The bulk of it is composed of 
illustrations from a few collections with letterpress 
explanatory rather of the pieces chosen than of 
the changing styles and fashions. It is not what 
has been selected, but what has been ignored, that 
renders this latest attempt at the history of eigh- 
teenth-century furniture unrepresentative. There 
is a want of sequence and continuity, even in the 
style, which makes it read too much like a mass 
of disjointed notes without a central aim. That 
the authoress has a good eye for fine pieces is 
abundantly evident from the illustrations, but the 
reason for bringing these examples together is not 
so obvious. 

Some time ago a writer on this subject sug- 
gested that many important dates, such as that of 
Thomas Chippendale's death, might be found by 
dint of careful search among parish and other 
records. Few people have both the time and in- 
clination for such a task, but Miss Simon has heroi- 
cally — I had almost written manfully — stepped into 
the breach. If it is easy to point to a lack of 
scientific treatment in the work as a whole, it is 
impossible to commend too highly the painstaking 
research which has been given to the personal 
history of some of the old furniture makers. 
Registers and dry-as-dust documents in almost 
countless numbers must have been examined to 
furnish the facts arrived at. Sometimes these are 
stated rather baldly, while at others there is a 
leaning to the picturesque which leads to trouble. 
The story of a quarrel between Chippendale and 
the rest of the trade, though originally the merest 
guess, has been largely copied by other writers. 
Miss Simon now furnishes us with another — quite 
as imaginary — between Hepplewhiteand Sheraton. 


Ilepplewhite, she tells us, spoke disparagingly of 
Sheraton, who retaliated by saying that Hepple- 
white's work had already caught the decline, and 
perhaps in a little time would suddenly die in the 
disorder. This was not retaliation, but unpro- 
voked assault, for Hepplewhite was stating an 
undeniable fact regarding the books previously 
published, which could scarcely refer to the Draw- 
ing Book nor even to Sheraton's work, as he, to 
take Miss Simon's own date, did not come to 
London till some years later. Though thus at- 
tempting to strangle an impossible legend in its 
infancy, it is only fair to add that this must not 
be taken as a sample of Miss Simon's facts, which 
are usually most carefully accurate, while in the 
matter of dates it will in future be impossible to 
write exhaustively of the period without indebted- 
ness to her labours. R. S. C. 

Chats on Old Furniture. By Arthur Hayden. 

Fisher Unwin. 5s. net. 
A really good popular book — pleasantly written, 
well illustrated, and remarkably cheap. It is also 
as trustworthy as can reasonably be expected of 
any small book that covers so much ground, for 
although we have noticed one or two slips in 
Mr. Hayden's chapter on the Stuart period, and 
think that the contemporaries of Chippendale 
might have been dealt with a little more definitely, 
even at the expense of another two pages of letter- 
press, the author on the whole is so sensible and 
so appreciative of the artistic side of his subject 
that such trifling blemishes hardly deserve to be 


English Embroidery. By A. F. Kendrick. 

London : George Newnes, Ltd. 7s. 6d. net. 
For a long time we have been much in need of a 
work dealing with the subject of embroidery witli 
taste and discretion and with the authority of an ex- 
pert; Mr. Kendrick'svolumeonEnglishembroidery, 
therefore, has been looked for with pleasurable 
anticipation since its announcement. Ingivingwhat 
necessarily must be a rather curtailed account of 
an art that spreads over so many periods, Mr. K< n- 
drick has, by a certain reserve of treatment, and 
judgement in selection, succeeded in presenting his 
subject to us in an interesting and attractive form. 
Four chapters treat respectively of the Norman and 
Early English Periods, the Great Period (1270- 
1330), and the Decline and Revival (about 1330- 
1530), and three chapters give an account of the art 
in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth 
centuries, a clear and reasonable arrangement 
for a volume containing not much more than a 
hundred pages. Without making a definite list of 
existing pieces of English embroidery, Mr. Ken- 
drick gives useful comments and notes on the 
principal examples of this work and tells us where 
they are to be found at the present day. The 



limitation of the subject to English art really 
increases the usefulness of the volume : it makes 
a harmonious ensemble (which, in homely language, 
means a readable book), and it makes it possible 
for the student, in looking through the numerous 
illustrations, to follow the development of certain 
characteristics, the divergence of others, and, 
generally speaking, to trace for himself, in the 
material thus compactly presented to him, that 
indefinite English quality which is so far from 
easy to describe in its essence. In the interesting 
but all too short chapter on the ' Great Period,' 
there are one or two points on which one might 
differ from the author ; but matters of opinion are 
not matters of vital interest to the public, and I 
pass them over, except the following point, 
which, though not important, is rather interesting. 
In speaking of the characteristic treatment of the 
flesh in Opus Attglicanum, the author brings 
forward once more the theory of the centre of the 
cheek being pressed by a ' heated instrument of 
a rounded form.' I am rather sceptical as to 
this, as it seems to me that the mere stitching 
round and round on a very small scale, and the 
subsequent removal of the strain on the material 
necessary during working, would induce this sym- 
metrical 'cockling' of the surface in the middle 
of the cheek. One writer after another makes 
this assertion about the heated knob, and none of 
them quoting their ultimate authority, I am roused 
to make the above suggestion. I am afraid that all 
are not quite agreed that the Syon cope stands 
' easily first ' among English embroideries. 
Beautiful as it is, the Bologna cope strikes a more 
individual note among the ' architectural ' copes, 
and among the ' circle ' copes that at Steeple 
Aston, when uncut and shining with its romantic 
wreathing of gold and its splendid angel-borders ; 
and the Cope of the Passion at St. Bertrand de 
Comminges is more interesting in its ensemble, 
with its crisp details like those of a manuscript, and 
its rose and pearl colours — a reflection of moon- 
light in fairyland. The competition for first place 
is an amiable one, however, for all these fine 
embroideries have their due importance. In his 
chapter on the ' Decline and Revival,' Mr. 
Kendrick points out the speedy degeneration of the 
art in the fourteenth century — the gothic tradition 
emphatic in outward expression, but the spirit 
gone. ' The careful embroidering of faces. . . is 
seen no longer, and the work generally loses its pre- 
cision and fineness.' The next two chapters deal 
delightfully with the most delightful art of the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries, and we close the 
volume with a pleasant feeling that some of these 
pieces, with their light-fingered grace and absence 
of set design — nearer to us than the noble work 
of the Great Period — are possible achievements 
or mortal fingers, that we too might scatter 
columbines and roses and ribbons over gowns and 
cushions without being guilty of the affectation of 

1 68 

plagiarism, and with some chance of success. The 
choice of illustrations shows a fastidious taste : they 
form a very interesting and informing series, 
though some of them, especially those of the earlier 
period, have suffered from the small scale pre- 
scribed by the size of the volume. A good detail, 
on the same scale as the very clearly defined one 
of the 'Jesse' cope (Plate XVIII), would have 
usefully supplemented the rather inadequate plate 
of the Steeple Aston piece (Plate XIX). The 
coloured plate of Mrs. Buxton's delightful Eliza- 
bethan tunic that fronts the volume is full of 
charm, but the other coloured plates are not alto- 
gether satisfactory. The title-page has a pseudo, 
old-world look that is rather depressing to the 
simple mind ; but, after all, one does not stop to look 
at this, hurrying on to the book itself, whose 
matter, entirely delightful, is presented in an 
entirely worthy and sympathetic form. M. M. 

Last Letters of Aubrey Beardsley. With 
an introductory note by the Rev. John Gray. 
Longmans, Green & Co. 1904. 5s. net. 
' As a contribution to the body of scientific docu- 
ments,' says Father Gray of this book in his in- 
troduction, ' it is of the first order, for it is the 
diary of a keen intelligence concentrated upon its 
utterances, without arriere pensee.' Here is 
No. XIX. of the ' scientific documents ' literatim 
et verbatim : — 

' 10 and n, St. James's Place, S.W. 
' Tuesday. 
' My dear * * * 

' I shall be most pleased to come to 
lunch to-day. 

' Yours 

'Aubrey Beardsley.' 

Nobody but an autograph collector would pre- 
serve such a note ; not even an autograph col- 
lector would print it. And this is a specimen 
picked out at random ; the book is mainly com- 
posed of this sort of thing, and contains hardly a 
letter that ought to have been published or is of 
the smallest public interest. It is difficult to 
avoid the unpleasant suspicion that the recipient 
of the letters preserved them with a deliberate 
eye to ' copy.' 

No light is thrown on Beardsley's art — the only 
thing connected with him with which the public 
is concerned — except by a chance reference here 
and there (such as a request for photographs of 
the Brighton Pavilion) which reveals the genuine 
' decadent.' There is no trace of a ' keen intel- 
ligence concentrated ' on anything, and an un- 
pleasant note runs through the numerous pietistic 
remarks. Not a note of insincerity ; quite the 
reverse. It is just because many of the letters 
are self-revelatory that, in justice to Beardsley, 
they ought never to have been published. What 
right have we to pry into the intimacies of a 
dying man, a man dying by inches under circum- 

stances which must have impaired his mental 
powers ? We have Beardsley's work — the work 
of a great artist — and the pleasant knowledge that 
an unhappy life ended happily. That is enough. 
This book is an outrage alike on Beardsley and 
on the public ; it calls for a protest from all who 
still respect the canons of a decent reticence. 

R. E. D. 

Some Old French and English Ballads. 
Edited by Robert Steele. Eragny Press, Ham- 
mersmith. 35s. net. 
We have noticed from time to time the charming 
products of Mr. Pissarro's press, which now stands 
alone in consistently combining original wood 
engraving and colour printing with faultless typo- 
graphy. The present volume has a double claim 
on the attention, since in it the artist's charac- 
teristic talent is employed upon some twenty of 
the finest ballads of France and England. These 
old songs recall pleasant memories. The English 
ballads are almost all established favourites, but 
several delightful things will be found in the 
French section that are much less familiar. The 
music has been taken from the oldest known 
copies, and a comparison with more modern 
settings indicates that in several cases the change 
has entailed a considerable loss of spirit and 
character. The little book, in fact, is as interest- 
ing as it is outwardly attractive. 

Florence : Some Tuscan Cities Painted by 
Colonel R. C. Goff. Described by Clarissa 
Goff. Black. 20s. net. 
This volume of Messrs. Black's handsome series 
of coloured picture books is a little unlucky in 
the time of its issue. Only a month or two ago 
there appeared Mr. Hallam Murray's volume, in- 
cluding the same district and illustrated in the 
same way. A comparison is inevitable, and Colonel 
Goff must feel that the odds are against him. 
Mr. Murray's book was not only first in the field, 
but was also a thoroughly efficient piece of literary 
work. Mrs. Goff's modest preface almost disarms 
criticism, but even when judged by a lenient 
standard the letterpress of the book is inade- 
quate, the more so because it deals with a centre 
of art-production on which so much has been 
written well. Colonel Goff's drawings show that 
he can handle the brush as skilfully as the etching 
needle. Perhaps because the process of repro- 
duction has heightened his colouring, perhaps 
because he himself was less in love with truth 
than with effectiveness, it is only in one or two of 
the quieter sketches that he conveys the real feel- 
ing of the Arno valley. Nor can the Carrara 
mountains or a distant cypress be rendered even 
by the cleverest of blots ; they must be drawn. 
Colonel Goff s work is gay, fresh, and spirited, and 
will doubtless appeal to the tourist, but the true 
lover of Italy will prefer the more sincere if less 
brilliant renderings of Mr. Hallam Murray. 


Illuminated Manuscripts. By J. W. Bradley. 

Methuen & Co. 2s. 6d. net. 
There is an astonishing variety about these little 
books on art. Most of them are mere compila- 
tions, but here and there one comes across a book 
which would be no discredit to a far more elabo- 
rate setting. Mr. Bradley's book on Illuminated 
Manuscripts belongs to this class. It is at once 
methodical, scholarly (at times to the verge of 
pedantry), and as complete as any book of the 
size could be made. It may thus be recommended 

A General Description of Sir John Soane's 
Museum. By Walter L. Spiers. Oxford 
University Press. 6d. 
A useful little handbook to the contents of Sir 
John Soane's House. The Hogarths, the Turner, 
and the Watteau have long been known to students 
of painting, but this publication ought to be of use 
in introducing architects and designers to the 
other resources of the museum, which are of no 
small importance from their bearing upon modern 
fashions in decoration. 


A History and Description of French Porcelain. By 
E. S. Auscher. Translated and edited by William Burton, 
F.C.S. Cassell & Co., Ltd. 30s. net. 

Lorenzo Lotto. By Bernhard Berenson. (Revised Edition.) 
George Bell & Sons. 7s. 6d. net. 

A History of English Furniture — The Age of Oak. By 
Percy Macquoid, R.I. Laurence & Bullen. £2 2s. net. 

Newnes' Library of the Applied Arts— English Embroidery. 
By A. F. Kendrick. George Newnes, Ltd. 7s. 6d. net. 

Miniatures. By Dudley Heath. Methuen & Co. 25s. net. 

Little Books on Art — Illuminated Manuscripts. By John 
W. Bradley. Methuen & Co. 2s. 6d. net. 

Giotto. By Basil de Selincourt. Duckworth & Co. 7s. 6d. net. 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston: Twenty-Ninth Annual 
Report for the Year 1904. The University Press, 
Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

Critical Studies and Fragments. By the late S. Arthur 
Strong, M.A. Duckworth & Co. 16s. net. 

Norway. Painted by Nico Jungman. A. & C. Black. 20s. net. 

Nuremberg. Painted by Arthur S. Bell. A. & C. Black. 
7s. 6d. net. 

Catalogue of English Porcelain. By R. L. Hobson, B.A. 
Printed by order of the Trustees of the British Museum. 

La Storia di Venezia nella Vita Privata. Parte Prima. 
Editore : Istituto Italiano d' Arti Grafiche, Bergamo. 

Rome. Painted by Alberto Pisa. Text by M. A. R. Tuker and 
Hope Malleson. A. & C. Black. 20s. net. 

Apollon-Gaulgruppen. By N. K. Skovgaard. Williams and 
Norgate. 7s. 6d. net. 


Die Graphischen Kiinste, Part 4, 1904, and Parts 1 and 2, 1905 
(Vienna). La Rassegna Nazionale (Florence). Rivista 
d'Arte, No. 1, January 1905 (Florence). Le Correspondant 
(Paris). Sztuka(Wydawca). Revue de 1' Art Chretien (Lille). 
Onze Kunst (Amsterdam). Gazette des Beaux-Arts (Paris). 
La Chronique des Arts et de la Curiosite (Paris). The Kokka, 
No. 177 (Tokyo). Museum of Fine Arts Bulletin, April 
(Boston). Harmsworth Encyclopx-dia, Part 1 (The Amalga- 
mated Press, Ltd., and Thos. Nelson & Sons. 7d. fort- 
nightly). The Nineteenth Century and After. The 
Fortnightly Review. The Contemporary Review. The 
National Review. The Gentleman's Magazine. The Monthly 
Review. The Independent Review. The Quarterly Review. 
The Edinburgh Review. The Rapid Review. Review of 




Capart (J.). Primitive Art in Egypt. Translated by A. S. 
Griffith. (10 x 7) London (Grevel), 16s. net. 208 illus- 

Chatelain (U. V.). Le Surintendant Nicolas Foucquet, pro- 
tecteur des lettres, des arts et des sciences. (9 x 6) Paris 
(Perrin), 7 fr. 50. 

Chytil (K.) Die Kunst in Prag zur Zeit Rudolf II. (11 x 7) 
I'rag (Kunstgewerbliches Museum). 80 pp., 32 illustrations. 


Excavations at Phylakopi in Melos, conducted by the British 
School at Athens. (11x7) London (Macmillan, for the 
Society for the promotion of Hellenic Studies). Illus- 

Koepp (F.). Die Rbmer in Deutschland. (10 x 7) Leipzig (Vel- 
hagen & Klasing). 4 m. 

An excellent survey of Roman remains and art in Germany. 
With 136 illustrations and maps. 

Cooper (T. P.). York : the story of its walls, bars, and castles. 
(9x6) London (Stock), 10s. 6d. net. Illustrated. 

Home (B. J.). Old Houses in Edinburgh, Part I. (16x11) 
Edinburgh (Hay), is. net. 3 plates. 

Russell (Lady). Swallowfield and its owners. (10x7) London 
(Longmans). Illustrations. 

Coindre (G.). Le vieux Salins : promenades et causeries. 
(9x6) Besancon (Jacquin). Illustrated. 

Colasanti (A.). Gubbio. (11x8) Bergamo (Istituto d'Arti 
grafiche), 3I. 50. ' Monografie illustrate.' 114 illustrations. 

Corradini (E.). Prato e suoi dintorni. (11x8) Bergamo (Is- 
tituto dArti grafiche), 3I.50. Illustrated. 

Archaeological Survey of India. (13 x 10) London (Qua- 
ritch). The inaugural issue of a new annual, containing 
beside reports upon conservation, etc., papers upon Man- 
dalay Palace, Buddhist Jewellery, Charsada, Tinnevelly. 
290 pp., illustrated. 

Romdahl (A. L.). Pieter Brueghel der Altere und sein Kunst- 

schaffen. (Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen 

des Kaiserhauses, xxv, pt. 3.) Vienna (Tempsky). 

A separate publication, 87 pp. and 68 excellent repro- 
Burckhardt (R.). Cima da Conegliano: ein Venezianischer 

Maler des Ubergangs vom Quattrocento zum Cinquecento. 

(10x7) Leipzig (Hiersemann). Illustrated. 
Moore (T. S.). Albert Diirer. (8x5) London (Duckworth), 

7s. 6d. net. 53 illustrations. 
Paine (A. B.). Th. Nast, his period and his pictures. (9 x 7) 

London (Macmillan), 21s. Illustrated. 
Mackowsky (W.). G. M. Nosseni und die Renaissance in 

Sachsen. (11x8) Berlin (Wasmuth's ' Beitrage zur Bau- 

wissenschaft ') 5 m. Illustrated. 
Valentiner (W. R.). Rembrandt und seine Umgebung. (12 x 8) 

Strassburg (Heitz). 7 plates. 
Schubring (P.). Luca della Robbia und seine Familie. (11x7) 

Leipzig (Velhagen & Klasing), 4 m. ' Kiinstler-Mono- 

graphien.' 172 illustrations. 
Mauclair (C). Auguste Rodin, the man, his ideas, his works. 

(11x8) London (Duckworth). 
Suida (W.). Die Jugendwerke des B. Suardi genannt Braman- 

tino. (Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des 

Kaiserhauses, xxv, pt. 1.) Vienna (Tempsky). 
A separate publication of 72 pp., 52 illustrations. 
Daun (B.). P. Vischer und A. Krafft. (10x7) Leipzig (Velhagen 

& Klasing), 4 m. 102 illus. ' Kiinstler-Monographien.' 
Hasse (C). Roger van der Weyden und Roger van Brugge, 

mit ihren Schulen. (12 x 8) Strassburg (Heitz). 15 plates. 


Spiers (R. P.). Architecture east and west, a collection of 
essays written at various times during the last sixteen years. 
(10x6) London (Batsford), 12s. 6d. net. Illustrated. 

Ashby (T., jun.). Sixteenth-century drawings of Roman build- 
ings attributed to Andreas Coner. (Forming ' Papers of the 
British School at Rome,' 11). London (Macmillan), 30s. net. 
170 plates. 

Brandes (J. L. A.). Beschrijving van de rui'ne bij de desa 
Toempang genaamd Tjandi Djago in de residentie Pasoe- 
roean. (14x11). 's-Gravenhage (Nijhoff). 

The first vol. published by the Dutch Archaeological 
Survey of Java and Madura ; with phototypes, plans, etc. 

Guedy (H.). Le Palais du Louvre, exteYieur et interieur 
architecture, sculpture, decoration, ensembles et details- 
(18x13) Dourdan (Th^zard). Part I, 21 phototypes. 

Green (A.). The Eighteenth-Century Architecture of Bath. 
(11x9) Bath (Gregory). Illustrated with measured draw- 
ings, photographs, and sketches. 


Kern (G. J.) Die Grundziige der linear-perspektivischen Dar- 
stellung in der Kunst der Gebriider Van Eyck und ihrer 
Schule. Vol. I. (n x 8) Leipzig (Seemann). 44 pp., and 

Justi (L.). Diirer's Dresdener Altar. (10x6) Leipzig (See- 
mann), 1 m. 50. 'Beitrage zur Kunstgeschichte.' 7 illus- 

Meder (J.). Zwei Kartonzeichnungen von Giulio Romano. 
(Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des Kaiser- 
hauses, vol. xxv, pt. 2.) 5 pp., 4 illustrations. Vienna 

Badd-Bovey (D.). Peintres GeneVois (1766-1849), 1: Liotard 
Huber, Saint-Ours, De la Rive ; 11 : Tbpffer, Massot, Agasse. 
(13x10) Geneve {Le Journal de Geneve). Phototypes. 

The Old Water-Colour Society, 1804-1904. Edited by C. Holme. 
(12 x 8) London (Studio Offices), 5s. net. 40 colour plates. 

A selection from the pictures by Boudin, CSzanne, Degas, Manet, 
Monet, Morisot, Pissarro, Renoir, Sisley, exhibited by 
Messrs. Durand-Ruel and Sons, of Paris, at the Grafton 
Galleries. (11x9) Paris (16 rue Lafitte). 42 plates. 

Catalogue des dessins, aquarelles, gouaches des ecoles francaise 
et anglaise du xviif siecle, miniatures, etc., composant la 
Collection de M. A. Beurdeley. Vente a Paris, Galerie 
G. Petit, 13, 14, 15 mars 1905. (13 x 10) Paris (P. Cheval- 
lier). Illustrated. 


Bernoulli (J. J.). Die erhaltenen Darstellungen Alexanders des 
Grossen. (10x7) Miinchen (Bruckmann). Supplementary 
to the ' Greek Iconography.' 49 illustrations. 

Konigliche Museen zu Berlin. Beschreibung der Bildwerke 
der Christlichen Epoche. 11. Die Italienischen Bronzen. 
(12x9) Berlin (Reimer). 81 phototype plates. 

Keyser (C. E.). Norman tympana and lintels, with figure or 
symbolical sculpture, still or till recently existing in the 
churches of Great Britain. (12x9) London (Stock), 
21s. net. 155 illustrations. 

Le Musee de Sculpture comparee au palais du Trocadero : 
Dernieres acquisitions. (16 x 12) Paris (Guerinet). 
51 phototype plates supplementary to the 4 vols, already 

Gluck (G.) Uber Entwiirfe von Rubens zu Elfenbeinarbeiten 
Lucas Faidherbes. (Jahrbuch des Kunsthistorischen 
Sammlungen des Kaiserhauses, vol. xxv, pt. 2.) 7 pp., 
4 illustrations. Vienna (Tempsky). 


Kendrick (A.F.). English Embroidery. (9 x 6) London(Newnes), 
7s. 6d. net. ' Library of the Applied Arts.' Illustrated. 

Choix de Dentelles faisant partie de la Collection du Musee 
historique de Tissus de Lyon : Points d'Alencon, de Valen- 
ciennes, de Malines, de Bruxelles. (18 x 13) Paris (Lib. 
des Arts decoratifs). 26 plates. 


Auscher (E. S.). A history and description of French Porce- 
lain. Translated and edited by W. Burton. (10 x 6) 
London (Cassell), 30s. net. 73 plates, 24 in colour, and 
facsimile marks. 

Bruning (A.). Europaisches Porzellan des xvm Jahrhunderts. 
Katalog der Februar- April in Lichthofe des Kunstgewerbe- 
Museums zu Berlin ausgestellten Porzellan. (11x8) Berlin 
(Reimer). 40 plates, 15 in colour, and facsimile marks. 

J. A. M c Neill Whistler: Etchings, etc., in the National Art 

Library, Victoria and Albert Museum, with a bibliography. 

(8 x 5) 24 pp., id. 

The bibliography is the fullest yet published. 
Stassof (V.) and Gunzburg (D.). Ornementation des anciens 

manuscrits h^breux de la Bibliotheque impenale publique 

de St. P<5tersbourg. (23 x 19) Berlin (Calvary), 120 m. 27 

chromo-lithogr., and 16 pp. text. 
Muller (K. F.). Der Leichenwagen Alexanders des Grossen. 

(10x6) Leipzig (Seemann). ' Beitrage zur Kunstgeschichte.' 

1 Sizes (height x width) in inches. 



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N anonymous writer in a 
recent number of The 
Academy calls attention to 
a state of affairs which de- 
serves serious considera- 
tion from a national, as 
well as from an artistic, standpoint. The 
case is best stated in the writer's own 
words : — 

In former days there were patrons, often of 
obscure origin, self-made men, and sometimes not 
even men of great wealth, who bought without 
any idea of speculation, simply on their own judge- 
ment. Such were the first patrons of Turner — 
Joseph Gillott, Dr. Munro, Elkanah Bicknell. 
Even as late as the pre-Raphaelites there were to 
be found many patrons entirely independent of 
dealers and markets, who had the courage of and 
the reward for backing their own opinions. But 
a gradual change has been observable of late years. 
The middle classes appear to have concluded that 
original pictures are entirely beyond the means of 
persons with a moderate income; they would no 
more think of buying a picture than they would a 
pleasure yacht or a motor-car, and content them- 
selves with photogravures. The wealthy, on the 
other hand, appear to consider picture-buying 
merely in the light of an investment, and all they 
want is a safe thing like Preference stock. Since 
it has been proved over and over again of recent 
years that even the official stamp of the Royal 
Academy is not a sufficient guarantee of the 
security of the investment, and they have no other 
standard to go by, they have finally restricted 
their purchases to the established reputations — 
what we roughly call the Old Masters, including, 
of course, our own Reynolds, Morland, etc. 

It is to be feared that the facts stated 
areonly too true, but we are notsure thatthe 
whole of the blame for this decay of British 
taste and spirit and independence of judge- 
ment can be charged to the British public. 
Indeed, if the evil be traced to its source, 
it will be found, we think, that artists 
themselves are chiefly responsible. 

We need not go back to the days ot 
Dr. Munro. It will be enough for our 
purpose if we consider who were the 
great English art patrons of the fifties and 
sixties. They were the men who were 

The Burlington Magazine, No. 27. Vol. VII— June 1905. 

then making fortunes in commerce, either 
in London or in Lancashire. They spent 
their money freely, asking for the best 
obtainable work, and trying to get it 
either from a big dealer or from the one 
big art exhibition known to them. The 
Royal Academicians of the time naturally 
could not discourage these laudable en- 
deavours. Acting with the wonderful 
esprit de corps which has always distin- 
guished their body, they passed each 
purchaser on from friend to friend, with 
the stimulus of an occasional invitation to 
an academy banquet, until his desire for 
art was satisfied and his pockets duly 
lightened. Patron succeeded patron, and 
there seemed no end to the golden harvest. 

The fashionable painters could hardly 
keep pace with the commissions that 
poured in. Some had started with genuine 
and serious ideals, most of them with a fair 
standard of workmanship. Ideals and 
workmanship soon had to be thrown away 
in the hurry to get rich. Those who were 
really talented became mediocrities, the 
mediocrities became absurdities, but still 
the tide of patronage flowed. Fortunes 
were made by which painters could house 
themselves in palaces more splendid than 
those of their patrons, while the pictures 
they produced grew more and more 
tawdry and superficial. 

Then came years of depression, notably 
in the cotton trade, accompanied by the 
death of old patrons and the succession of 
sons who wanted cruder and cheaper plea- 
sures than academy banquets. The paintings 
accumulated with so much pomp and pub- 
licity began to come into the market. 
For years the dealers concerned struggled 
bravely with the torrent, buying what the 
public would buy no longer, and working 
municipal and colonial galleries for all 
they were worth. These last strongholds 
of ignorance, however, were not rich 
enough to absorb all that was required of 


The Extinction of the tMiddle-Qlass Collector 

them, while the painters who had made 
fortunes declined to back in the sale-rooms 
the pictures they had recommended to 
their patrons. Many, indeed, were already 
unable to do so, as their resources were 
strained by an extravagant standard of 
living, and by the absence of new com- 
missions. At last the cellars of Bond 
Street were so full that the dealers could 
no longer afford to continue their support. 
Prices immediately fell and continued to 
fall, until the collapse became so sensa- 
tional as to be past all concealment, with 
the result that a large section of the 
purchasing public was absolutely frightened 
away. If titles and prestige were no 
guarantee against the purchase of a picture 
being a disastrous loss, it was clearly absurd 
to buy any pictures at all. 

This decline in the value of the academic 
painters of the seventies has now long 
been understood by the most intelligent 
section of the public. The enlighten- 
ment of the great remainder must take 
time. Nevertheless, there are signs that 
the larger provincial towns are beginning 
to take their art collections more seriously. 
Glasgow has been conspicuously for- 
tunate in legacies, Birmingham in the 
energy of its art administration. Man- 
chester has recently taken a commend- 
able step in search of a better standard, and 
that step will give the cue to other gal- 
leries in the north which have hitherto 
almost uniformly wasted their substance on 
worthless pictures. 

It is no use blaming the Royal Academy 
of to-day for mistakes made thirty years 
ago. At the same time the sooner that 
the Academy and the younger societies 
review the whole position calmly the better 
for our national art. For this reason it is 
of supreme importance that artists should 
be able to meet on a common ground, 

and resolve upon some joint action to put 
things on a sane and healthy footing in- 
stead of wasting time in abusing each other. 

If a trial could be made of a united 
exhibition under the roof of the Royal 
Academy, as suggested by Mr. MacColl 
in the National Review for last month, an 
immense amount of good might result. 
The Royal Academy could once more 
play its part as host to the best artistic 
talent of the nation, instead of being de- 
serted by it ; while the juxtaposition of the 
rival artistic societies, each hanging its own 
section, would go far to remove the mis- 
understandings and quarrels which damage 
both academicians and outsiders in the 
eyes of the intelligent public. 

More important still would be the con- 
sequent reduction in the mass of work now 
exhibited. In England the good artist is fast 
being crowded out by a host of incompetents 
and amateurs. The veriest ignoramus can 
hold his one-man show in a Bond Street 
Gallery if he likes to pay for it, and can 
join some society of nonentities which 
holds one or two annual exhibitions, even 
when he does not by some lucky chance 
evade an overworked hanging committee. 

Amid the deluge of advertisements and 
puffing paragraphs written by critics who, 
without a label, could not distinguish 
between a daub and a masterpiece, it is no 
wonder that the collector is shouted into 
inaction, especially if he reads in an adja- 
cent column that the idols of a previous 
generation have once more sold for a mere 
song at Christie's. A hundred years hence 
no doubt the wheat will be separated from 
the tares, but unless our artists accelerate 
the process by taking united action they 
are not likely to rid themselves quickly of 
their present difficulties or gain for them- 
selves and the nation the recognition which 
their best talent deserves. 



HE exhibition of works 
by the Tempera Society 
which will open towards 
the middle of the month 
at the Carfax Gallery in 
Bury Street is an inter- 
esting evidence of the 
attempt to revive old and almost forgotten 
methods of technique. As far as the 
theory of tempera painting went the re- 
searches of Sir Charles Eastlake and Mrs. 
Merrifield had already done much, but the 
diffusion of a practical knowledge of the 
art dates from Mrs. Herringham's publica- 
tion of a translation of Cennino Cennini's 
Trattato with valuable explanatory notes. 
How complete the ignorance of a former 
generation was on the subject of early 
technique may be understood from the 
fact that until Ruskin found Mrs. Her- 
ringham copying in tempera at the 
National Gallery and questioned her as 
to what she was about, he was under 
the impression that Botticelli and all the 
Italian primitives painted in oils. There 
were of course plenty of people who knew 
the difference between the appearance of 
a painting in oil and one in tempera, and 
probably in Italy the tradition has never 
quite died out ; but it had become almost 
entirely a matter for the antiquarian and 
the forger. But now the attempt is being 
made to revive the process as a practical 
one for artists, and a few words on the 
distinctive qualities and limitations of the 
medium may be of interest. 

For details we must refer our readers to 
Mrs. Herringham's book, but the essential 
point of the method may be briefly stated. 
It consists in mixing the dry powdered 
colours with yolk of egg, slightly thinned 
with acetic acid or water, instead of mixing 
the colours with oil or varnish as in the 
case of oil painting. The colours thus 
mixed are usually laid on a priming of 
gesso, though other grounds may be used. 

The great difficulty ot the method arises 
from the rapid, almost instantaneous drying 
of the colour. This prevents anything like 
fusion of one colour into another dans la 
pate, as is the practice with modern oil 

It follows therefore that transitions of 
tone or colour must be made by hatched 
strokes, or else by continually laying one 
thin coat over another until the transition 
is produced. The method is suited there- 
fore to a well-ascertained design with 
clearly-marked contours rather than to 
vague and 'soft' effects. It is in fact a 
method in which the decorative element of 
design, together with naturalism of de- 
tailed forms, must predominate rather than 
the naturalism of the general effect. 

On the other hand, tempera is incapable 
of producing the hard and cutting edges 
that occur in oil painting, and this because 
of a very remarkable property, namely, the 
comparative transparency of even opaque 
colours when mixed with yolk of egg. 
Perhaps the greatest and most singular 
beauty of tempera arises from this fact. 
And the greatest masters of tempera used 
white almost as a glaze. Thus, in some 
cases, one may find a robe painted in the 
following manner. The whole has been 
laid in in an even flat brilliant red, the 
shadows will be laid over this with a darker 
mixture of the same colour, but still with 
opaque colour, while the lights may be 
made by merely hatching white over the 
middle tint. This will not produce the 
cold, unpleasant bloom that it would in 
oils,but a peculiar mellow opalescence with 
the red local colour still predominating and 
telling through the white glaze. In short, 
the peculiarity of tempera is its extra- 
ordinary transparency. On the other hand, 
owing to the quickness of the drying the 
glazing of really transparent colours, though 
perfectly possible, and often practised, is not 
so successful as in an oil or varnish medium. 


Tempera fainting 

These peculiarities fit tempera for the 
expression of certain aspects of nature rather 
than others. The real beauty of oil paint- 
ing, now for some time neglected, consists 
in its power of rendering effects of deep 
translucent colour. There are in fact com- 
paratively few effects of nature which lend 
themselves to quite literal rendering in oil 
paint in such a way as to bring out its 
characteristic and superlative beauties. For 
these are at their highest when the picture 
is painted in a comparatively low key of 
saturated transparent colour. The effects 
of nature which admit of being rendered 
at all truthfully in such deep transparent 
colours are first of all effects of low sun- 
light with the eye directed towards the 
sun. We then get intense transparent 
warm lights in the sky itself with deep 
warm silhouetted forms against it. Such 
effects, for example, as may be seen in 
works by Claude, Both, and Cuyp. Beside 
these effects of transmitted light which do 
generally conform to the distinguishing 
beauties of oil paint we may have effects 
of reflected light and colour where the sun, 
being near to setting, tones all the local 
colours to an intense warm glow. Such 
effects, though treated with some licence, 
are to be found among the Venetian 
painters. While yet again effects which 
approach to that of artificial light are also 
admirably adapted to a rendering in oil — 
such, for instance, as Rembrandt and many 
of the eighteenth-century English painters 

But the majority of effects of open-air 
nature are, if we look at them quite frankly, 
unfitted for rendering in oil with any due 
regard for its characteristic beauties. Such 
effects, for instance, as the powdered-grey- 
ness of noon sunlight or the tenderer greys 
of evenly-spread clouds, the crumbled 

greys of ancient masonry, or the lichenous 
greys of old tree-trunks and weathered 
beams ; all these, which make up so large 
a part of what appeals to us in nature, lend 
themselves particularly to a rendering in 

It is perfectly true that all these effects 
are constantly rendered by modern painters 
with great truth in oils, but only at the 
cost of the material beauty of their picture 
surfaces. Oil paint in a high key tends 
always to become chalky; whereas tempera, 
while it vies with oils in the richness of its 
deep tones, is indisputably supreme in the 
higher keys. Everyone must be familiar 
with the peculiar beauty of the skies in 
early Italian art, the exquisite pearly 
luminosity they display near the horizon, 
a beauty of which Ruskin once complained 
that the secret was lost. The secret lay 
simply in the use of tempera ; for while 
such an effect in oil would almost in- 
evitably be chalky and cold, it may easily 
be rendered in tempera with perfect mel- 
lowness and purity. 

Indeed, one may sum up the whole ques- 
tion of tempera as a medium by saying 
that whereas it is more difficult than in 
oil painting to produce any effect at all, it 
is yet far more difficult, almost impossible 
indeed, to produce with tempera those 
thoroughly ugly and uninviting surfaces 
which it requires profound science to avoid 
in the clayey mixtures of oil paint. It is 
not to be hoped that any change of medium, 
any technical recipes, could purify the mass 
of modern painting of its incurable vul- 
garity of sentiment, its bad ethos, but 
nothing would be likely to have a more 
restraining and sobering influence on our 
art than the substitution of tempera for 
oils as the ordinary medium of artistic 


these days when he has newly gone 

HE work of Constantin 
Meunier corresponded so 
particularly to certain 
aspects of his time, and 
evoked so grandly that 
obscure world of toil, the 
dull murmur of which 
surges in the ears of modern society like a 
threat, that even in his lifetime studies of 
it were numerous, and criticism fastened 
upon it with the conviction that the inner- 
most recesses of that mind were easy to 
penetrate. There may be some truth in 
that point of view so far as concerns the 
imposing, the broad and obvious side of 
his art. It is so simple and so clear that 
he who runs may read. It has nothing of 
the cryptic symbolism, the morbid precio- 
sity by means of which modern schools 
have sometimes attained an artificial origi- 
nality. It is mighty, too, in its statement 
of its message ; it has the beauty which 
there is no mistaking, because of the pro- 
found emotion it arouses. But I believe that 
there are still certain new ideas to be ex- 
pressed concerning Constantin Meunier, 
ideas that are contained in his work and 
are to be read in it. 

Here, however, I desire to do no more 
than to contribute to the question what 
may be drawn from the evidence of 
Meunier himself. I had the honour to be 
closely acquainted with him for a period 
of nearly ten years, during which, when 
the day's work was over and the light fail- 
ing in the studio, I was sometimes privi- 
leged to hear him summon up, in intimate 
conversation, the memories of the past. 
From those conversations I drew an im- 
pression of his youth, his history, and his 
development which no critical study of him 
has yet offered me ; and it has occurred to 
me that to record that impression would be 
the most genuine tribute that those who 
loved him could pay to his memory in 

1 Translated by Harold Child. 

from us. 

Constantin Meunier retained till his 
latest hour a singular youthfulness of spirit 
and glow of life. He never renounced his 
desire for self-renewal, for the power to 
see through things and their perpetual 
changes, to the mighty force of nature. 
He was anything but dilHcult of approach, 
and those who attained to intimacy with 
him saw in him not a master shrined in 
glory, but a comrade who sprang to life 
whenever there appeared some connexion 
between the matter of the talk and the 
conception of art to which he had devoted 
his whole being. 

That conception may be said to have 
dominated his life. It enabled him to come 
through periods of great trial without 
yielding to the exigencies of want. In his 
wife he had the surest prop for a character 
and desires such as his. Meunier's was not 
an unhappy nature, but he was given to 
mournful reverie : few things could rouse 
him to animation except those concerned 
with his art. In his wife he found the 
gaiety he lacked, and an active energy that 
could grasp the aim of his labours and 
give him the moral support necessary to 
the pursuit of it when, in his hours of de- 
pression, low spirits threatened to sterilize 
him. When he lost two sons, one after 
the other, his grief left him in a state of 
stupor in which his thoughts wandered 
in aimless dreaming. He himself told me 
how one day his wife put a little earth in his 
hands, pushed him, almost by physical force, 
to his work, and so saved him, by awaking 
his interest anew, out of the despair into 
which he had allowed himself to drift. 

The energy that was ever ready at his 
side Meunier had in himself as well. 
Three years ago he suffered from the 
cardiac exhaustion, the relaxed organic 
functions, which time inevitably brings. 
Yet he never ceased to produce. I le was 

Q l 77 

Constantin Meunier 

still at work on the eve of his death ; he 
was actually getting up to begin work 
when he was seized, suddenly, with syn- 
cope of the heart. 

That moment found him in a singular 
frame of mind. He felt new ideas, ideas 
of greater power and freedom, springing 
up in him. Aged artists are too often hide- 
bound in a technique which becomes a 
manner, devoid of inspiration and the fresh- 
ness of creative impulse. In Meunier, on 
the contrary, imagination was as strong as 
it had ever been. He saw a new future 
before him. He used often to tell me that 
he would like to have another life at his 
disposal, that he felt himself on the point 
of realizing a conception very different 
from that which gave us so many master- 
pieces. This astonishing vitality never 
yielded to physical fatigue. At seventy- 
four years of age, while he was at work 
on the large figures in his Monument to 
Labour, he was to be seen mounting ric- 
kety scaffoldings (which he used to erect 
on a plan of his own, by piling up empty 
packing-cases) with an obstinacy and im- 
prudence of which nothing could cure him. 
One day he had just succeeded, with some 
difficulty, in covering the great figure of 
the blacksmith with wet cloths, and was 
clambering down from the wooden plat- 
form on which the heavy statue stood, 
when I saw this enormous mass, ill- 
supported by an iron bar, the rivets of 
which had worked loose, come crashing 
down beside him. There was a month's 
work wasted. And yet, half-an-hour later, 
all he thought of was to get the workmen 
in so that he could go back to his work as 
soon as possible. The figure, which was 
sketched twice, shows no trace of fatigue ; 
it exhales all the grandeur, poignancy, and 
profundity of feeling which rise from every- 
thing he did. 

It follows from Meunier's own state- 
ments that in the history of his life and 
thought there was a unity which criticism 


has missed In his youth he entered the 
studio of Fraikin, a sculptor who carried 
on in Belgium the attenuated tradition of 
the classic schools. His distaste for such 
art led Meunier to abandon sculpture. In 
those days he was acquainted with a group 
of young, ardent, and promising painters, 
many of whom left their mark behind 
them. Meunier was attracted by this 
movement, this youth and effort. He used 
to say that the period during which he 
devoted himself exclusively to painting had 
brought him out of the studio, and led him 
to the observation of nature. But he felt 
that he had always been at bottom a sculp- 
tor. He said so himself, and would ex- 
plain thus the suddenness with which, on 
his return much later to sculpture, he 
picked up the broad and simple technique 
which mark his manner. 

In those distant days Meunier paid a 
visit to the Trappist monastery at West- 
malle in the plain of Campine. He was 
then in a period of investigation, and, to 
use his own words, ' did not know where 
he was going.' And here it was that he 
had his first revelation of the world of 
labour. At the Trappist monastery there 
were Fathers whose lives were purely 
contemplative, and Brothers who were 
occupied in many kinds of industrial and 
agricultural kinds of work. There were 
blacksmiths' forges and carpenters' shops ; 
they made boots and shoes and printed 
great missals. Meunier worked in these 
various workshops, striving to fix the atti- 
tudes of manual effort amid the grave 
abstraction of the religious life. 

It was at the same period, according to 
his own account, that he received a pro- 
found impression of the greatness of modern 
industry. One of his friends was em- 
ployed at the glass factory in the Val Saint- 
Lambert. Meunier spent some time there; 
and it was there, he used to tell me, that 
the vision of labour conquered him. He 
made drawings on the spot of these glass- 

INTERIOR Of \ i ' i . ! ', 

ir'- \j^S£p?% k 

furnaces: pastel 



workers and miners whom he saw now for 
the first time. From the Val Saint-Lam- 
bert he brought back studies, water-colours, 
sketches, and a few pieces of painting, all 
of which have been since dispersed. He 
himself never knew what had become of 
these earliest sketches of work that was to 
win so much glory. They formed the 
starting-point of the idea which he de- 
veloped. He has told me with a smile 
that many of the pictures and statues so 
eagerly sought for in later years were 
founded on motifs and attempts that had 
taken shape at that time, but had been 
allowed to pass unregarded. That was 
the case, notably, with his picture, The 
Descent into the Mine. 

He exhibited his earliest sculptures at 
Brussels in 1880. It was in Paris some 
years later that he leaped into success, 

Constantin Meumer 

and set the seal on a fiime that continues 
steadily to increase. The reward of his 
labours came to him full late. And yet, 
in spite of the general opinion of criticism 
in assigning so late a date to the conception 
by which, it would have us believe, he 
found his right road, it is clear to a dis- 
criminating mind that he had found that 
road in his earliest youth, and had followed 
it faithfully in spite of all the uncertainties 
of his destiny. Later, when the admirable 
series of drawings which he showed to 
few, but which I was privileged to see, 
come to be studied closely, they will prove 
the confirmation of that unity of concep- 
tion which directed his life. Then at last 
we shall be in a position to pay his memory 
the full homage of an admiration that 
was destined to be awarded him far too 


The art of Puvis de Chavannes, Rodin, 
and Constantin Meunier renews the great 
passionate tradition of the first half of the 
nineteenth century. These men accept 
greater responsibilities and face greater 
issues than their most advanced and influen- 
tial contemporaries : theirs is a larger out- 
look upon art and life. If we turn to the 
work done in the seventies by other artists 
of the first and second rank, who at first 
sight might seem the most opposed in 
aim, however delightful we may consider 
them — to Menzel and Manet for instance, 
or to Fortuny and Degas — wefind the paint- 
ing of detail and the matching of tones, 
the observation of tricks of character and 
movement, the anatomy of clothes, or the 
novelties of occasional effects. Art had 
become the expression of the superficialities 
of things, of the strangeness and glitter of 
life, seen with something of the mordant 
v/it of good journalism interviewing actual- 

ity. The main tendency in the latter third, 
or even half, of the nineteenth century was 
a reaction against great art. 2 The aim of 
painting was to astonish or charm : in its 
tendency it had become ' genre,' crossed 
by the landscape art of the man who travels 
in search of the picturesque. In sculpture 
the study of a model holding an attribute 
is largely the subject matter of Falguiere, 
and even Fremiet. 

If the two major men, Courbet and 
Carpeaux, who form the link between the 
earlier and later art movements of the cen- 
tury, retained a certain dignity in method 
and handling ; if both remain in their gifts 
superior to their general aims, the more 
significant and passionate effort of earlier 
masters, such as Delacroix and Millet, had 
become a thing of the past. The greater 
tradition is renewed once more by Puvis 

J In this article the writer has not included England in hi* 
estimate of European tendencies. 


Constantin Meunier 

de Chavannes in painting, by Rodin in 
sculpture, and in the work of the last 
comer, Constantin Meunier. To each we 
owe a reconstruction of the plastic conven- 
tions ; they have rendered more synthetic 
and expressive the language of art, and freed 
it from mental habits of the note-book and 
study from nature. In the place of inci- 
dental facts, small verities of effect seen in 
the theatre and the studio, we find once 
more the expression of the beauty of essen- 
tial things, human effort, tenderness and 
meditation, work, pain and desire, and 
above all, that essential sincerity of work- 
manship which frees art from the chance 
charms of the sketch, and the curiosities of 
the unattached intelligence. 

Meunier's sculpture is on a level of effort 
with the great perpetual tradition which 
remoulds facts and grasps essentials ; his 
work is concentrated and rhythmic in 
aspect, sober in detail, and noble in the 
rendering of relief and surface. If in his 
sympathy for daily life and action he re- 
minds one of the temper in which those 
sober craftsmen carved the Labours and the 
Months on gothic cathedrals, in the expres- 
sive control of his motives — man working 
or at rest, and stamped by the characteris- 
tics of his caste and habits of thought — he 
is classical also. 

Like many modern masters Meunier 
was late in finding his formula, and in free- 
ing himself from contemporary influences. 
There was the inevitable insufficiency of the 
early modern training to be supplemented 
by personal effort and discovery, there was 
the inevitable battle for existence (for the 
right to be an artist), and the waiting in 
patience for opportunity, in a period which 
has lost the traditional use for art. 

Meunier started life as a painter, and to 
the last he would turn for change to his 
brushes and chalks. In these two mediums 
he is always individual and stimulating, if 
a little occasional and experimental. The 
value of his pictures and pastels lies in 


a sort of austerity in the using of dry 
paints and chalks to render the gaunt 
silhouettes of a worker, seen as it were in 
mid-distance, and the aspects of the land 
of the factory and mine. His experience 
as a painter in all probability counted in 
his faculty as a sculptor for remembering 
movement, and escaping from the con- 
ditions imposed upon the common crafts- 
man who works from a posing model, 
conditions which make the sole standard 
of popular academic sculpture. 

Meunier was over forty when he exhi- 
bited his statue Le Marteleur, which 
remains on the whole his most typical 
achievement ; but from this work onward 
to the great gaunt ancestral workman in 
the last Salon there is a continuous pos- 
session of his method, and an unswerving 
continuity of aim. Once or twice, in Le 
Pardon, the Ecce Homo, the Supplice, 
he moves into other fields, but these works 
belong to the same austere art. They are 
large and square in plane and saliences, like 
his other statues and statuettes. 

The major influence of suggestion on 
Meunier came from thepaintingsof Millet ; 
to the peasant painter he owes the discovery 
of the plastic value of the worker ; to him 
we also owe the re-discovery of that beau- 
tiful convention which accents the major 
forms while sacrificing the more trivial 

In the evolution of Millet's practice we 
can trace the influence of the synthetic 
and ' leonine ' drawing of Delacroix, and of 
Daumier, another imaginative and emphatic 
draughtsman. These two contemporary in- 
fluences count in Millet's early works for an 
intenser element, which tends to disappear 
in his later drawings, which are less ener- 
getic, if always solemn and austere. It is 
in the energetic figure of Millet's Sower 
that we find the forerunner of many of 
Meunier's workmen. Yet if there is a 
certain kinship of aim between the two 
men the mood of each remains different. 















> a. 

a a 

f> z 

« 3 






-/ '- 




Millet's work is placid and brooding in 
temper ; he expresses all the gravity of 
work and the gravity of repose. Meunier 
interprets energy and concentration of pur- 
pose, both in action and in rest ; his human 
type is not placid, but seared and steeled 
by effort. The brooding type created by 
Millet of a humanity bent towards the 
ground, has given place to one in which 
the very bones of the brow have become 
projected by the effort of a constant will, 
the flesh is sparse, and the clothes have 
become almost abstract by their adaptation 
to active work — as if moulded by the sweat 
of the furnace and the mine. 

The bucolic temper of the master of 
Barbizon broods constantly round a central 
woman-type ; he paints by preference the 
woman who moulds the bread ; above all 
things he remains the painter of maternity ; 
in this he stands apart, even from the 
gravest and most ecstatic painters of the 
Madonna ; this is his province or his con- 
quest in the history of art ; this is his 
discovery, like the 'aspiration' expressed 
in the work of Michael Angelo, or the 
' disillusion ' expressed in the paintings of 

With Meunier, though one of his latest 
works is the large decorative figure, La 
Maternite, we find an active and virile 
habit of thought in which woman hardly 
figures at all. Glance at his work, it ex- 
presses male energies as constantly (almost 
as exclusively) as Donatello ; the enchant- 
ing little Hiercheuse, one of his most 
popular statuettes, is an excursion into the 
exquisite and strange in form ; with her 
mining breeches, her boyish gesture and 
face, she is almost sexless. The tragic 
woman in Le Grisou is the ' ancestress,' 

Constantin Meunier 

with sunken eyes and crumpled hands ; she 
expresses all the compassion of one who 
has borne and suffered, and who watches, 
with no word left, the wrecking of a life 
and the nothingness of hope and youth. 
The dominant motive of Meunier's work 
expresses a passionate patience. His success 
asasculptor lies inhisgrasp of motive, plane, 
and silhouette. Many of his masterpieces, 
such as Le Marteleur, Le Puddleur, Le 
Lamineur, Le Mineur au Travail, impress 
one as typical figures, not as seen incidents; 
they are new in subject and memorable 
for their simplicity and intensity. His 
modelling is large and square in plane, 
sober in the variations of the surfaces by 
which detail is indicated or withheld. A 
certain monotony of facial type should not 
blind us to the variety in movement, the 
variety in the structure of the torsoes and 
the scale of the arms, variations which are 
stamped upon the human body by work 
and the habits of life, and not by mere 
dumb-bell exercise which forms the standard 
of proportion to the art-student and the 
academic sculptor. Single in aim, Meunier 
is never didacticorsentimental ; his workers 
do not shake their fists at the cosmos. The 
sincerity and directness of his method is one 
with its dignity of purpose ; hence that 
perfect good luck in the result which we 
art-lovers call Style ; hence the unity in works 
as divergent in mood as the Hiercheuse 
and L'Homme Blesse, the Heroic head 
called Anvers, and the Ecce Homo. 
Meunier has rehabilitated the tragic dignity 
of work, human patience and will battling 
at its task ; he is the recorder of man as he 
watches and strives, silent in his work, per- 
sistent, undemonstrative, grave in life, and 
mute before death. 





MR. J. H. 

NE of the most remark- 
able facts in connexion 
with the study and collec- 
tion of specimens of the 
ceramic art, especially in 
j reference to porcelain, is 
the systematic neglect in this country of 
the cultivation of the knowledge of early 
French soft paste, or, to give it its native 
name, pate-tendre. This neglect is the 
more difficult to understand in view of the 
immense popularity of the study of porce- 
lain in England, and therefore of the fact 
that it must be common knowledge that 
the manufacture of porcelain was perfected 
on the Continent long before its production 
was even attempted in this country. 

This circumstance of the neglect of the 
study of French porcelain would be the 
more easy to comprehend if the early 
productions of the English ceramists had 
shown marked superiority to those of the 
Continent, but far from such being the 
case the results of the first years of Bow 
and Chelsea are crude specimens of the 
potter's art when compared with the beau- 
tiful little vessels which emanated from the 
fabriques of the Poterats at Rouen, and of 
Chicanneau at St. Cloud, nearly half a 
century before Bow and Chelsea had been 
heard of in connexion with the manufac- 
ture of porcelain. We find that already 
by the end of the seventeenth century the 
French potters of Rouen and St. Cloud 
were turning out small vases, chocolate 
cups, tea sets, etc., of exquisite design, and 
faultlessly executed both as regards firing 
and glaze. In proof of this it is only 
necessary to compare the beautiful little 
specimens, figs. 13 and 17 on Plate III, with 
a typical example of early Bow porcelain, 
such as one of the well-known inkstands 
inscribed 'Made at New Canton, 1750,' 
to note the imperfections of the first years 
of the English experiments as compared 


with the technical excellence achieved by 
the French half a century earlier. It may 
reasonably be objected that it is an unfair 
comparison to place the earliest attempts 
in the manufacture of English porcelain 
alongside specimens emanating from a 
foreign factory firmly established after 
years of experimental work, in a settled 
method of manufacture. For the purposes 
of comparing the technical skill of the 
potters of the two countries it would not 
be a fair test, but it will be granted as per- 
missible to prove the fact that up to the 
middle of the fifth decade of the eighteenth 
century the potters of this country were 
still groping in the obscurity of experi- 
mental stages towards the solution of the 
mystery of porcelain, whilst our nearest 
neighbours had half a century earlier suc- 
cessfully solved the riddle and produced 
porcelain of sufficiently fine quality to be 
described by Dr. Martin Lister in his 
'Account of a Journey to Paris in 1698 ' 
as ' equal if not surpassing the Chinese in 
their finest art.' 

To Mr. J. H. Fitzhenry is due the 
honour, not only of having brought to- 
gether by years of indefatigable industry 
both in England and the Continent prob- 
ably the finest collection of French pate- 
tendre in the United Kingdom, but also of 
having afforded, by his munificent gene- 
rosity, the opportunity to connoisseurs and 
the art-loving public in general of be- 
coming acquainted with some of the most 
charming specimens of the French cera- 
mists' skill by his loan to the Victoria and 
Albert Museum of a very representative 
collection of early French porcelain, in 
which practically every French factory 
which had any importance is exemplified, 
from the Rouen works founded in 1673 
down to the hard porcelain factory of the 
duke of Orleans established at Pont-au- 
Choux in 1786. Although this collection 


has been exhibited in the ceramic gallery 
of the museum for several years past, it has 
up to the present time attracted but little 
comment in the press. Yet it is only by 
a thorough knowledge of the history of 
the development of continental porcelain 
that our English productions can be 
properly understood, and the opportunity 
given by Mr. Fitzhenry's generous loan, 
which it is in his power to remove at any 
moment, is one of the extremely rare 
chances afforded to students and collectors 
in this country of seeing and comparing 
the various products of the early French 

Though Mr. Fitzhenry's Collection in 
the Victoria and Albert Museum is tho- 
roughly representative, yet it nevertheless 
forms only a small portion of the splendid 
series which his unremitting energy has 
succeeded in bringing together, and it has, 
therefore, been considered advantageous to 
illustrate this article from specimens in his 
private museum at Queen Anne's Gate, as 
this course affords the reader an opportu- 
nity of making the acquaintance of pieces 
which are less accessible than those on loan 
to the nation. 

Commencing in chronological order we 
will first notice the two specimens on 
Plate III already referred to, namely figs. 13, 
17. The shapes and decoration are abso- 
lutely typical of the St. Cloud factory, to 
which these pieces can be safely attributed. 
The blue borders of scallop devices and 
scrolls show the strong oriental influence 
which was paramount in the decoration of 
all early European porcelain, the reason for 
this characteristic being that the very 
origin of the manufacture of porcelain in 
Europe was due to the emulation excited 
by the importation of immense quantities 
by the Dutch and Portuguese merchants 
trading with China and Japan. At the 
same time the style of the decoration of 
the porcelain of St. Cloud is undeniably 
distinctly imbued with a reminiscence of 

Early French Pate-tendre 

the Rouen lambrequin, which maintained 
for so long a period its position as the 
chief decorative motif both on the porce- 
lain and on the faience wares of that famous 

The presence of these lambrequins on St. 
Cloud porcelain almost certainly proves that 
Chicanneau, the founder, had been at some 
time connected with the Poterats' works 
at Rouen, and this hypothesis is farther sup- 
ported by the fact of the name Chicanneau 
being found on the list of the painters 
employed at the Rouen fictory. 1 The tea- 
pot (fig. 17) is frankly imitated from a 
Chinese example, and while the modelling 
of the prunus branches on the body and of 
the flower loses nothing when compared 
with its Chinese original, the exquisite tex- 
ture of the pate-tendre makes it infinitely 
more beautiful than the cold, dead white 
surface of the hard oriental porcelain proto- 

Before passing on to the next group it 
should be noted that the year 1696 isthefirst 
official date connected with the manufacture 
of porcelain at St. Cloud, when letters patent 
were granted to the widow, Barbe Coudray, 
of Pierre Chicanneau, and to his children, 
who had already ' arrived at the point of 
making porcelain perfectly.' Later on, when 
a fresh patent was granted in 1 7 1 2, the name 
of Henri Trou first appears as officially con- 
nected with the factory, although as he had 
married the widow Barbe Coudray in 1698 
he most probably had taken part in the 
management for some time. The manu- 
facture of porcelain at St. Cloud appears to 
have been carried on by the Chicanneaus 
and Trous up to the year 1722, and from 
thenceforward by the Trous alone till the 
closing of the works, which, according to 
M. Auscher, seem to have been destroyed 
by fire in 1773 and not rebuilt. 

As coming next in historical sequence 
we will now consider the specimens figured 
at the bottom of Plate III. The examples 

1 See the article on Rouen porcelain by Mr. M. L. Solon, 
pp. 1 1 6- 1 24 anti. 

Early French Pdte-tendre 

are representatives of the celebrated factory 
at Chantilly, founded probably about the 
year 1725 by Ciquaire Cirou, to whom 
letters patent were granted in 1735, and 
who had the good fortune to attract the 
patronage of Louis-Henri Prince de Conde, 
to whom he was under considerable obli- 
gation for the expenses of the necessary ex- 
periments before a satisfactory porcelain 
body was successfully produced. 

Chantilly porcelain of the early period 
has a unique characteristic which dis- 
tinguishes it from all other porcelains which 
have ever been made in Europe. This pecu- 
liarity is the composition of the glaze, which 
instead of being transparent is opaque, and 
is in fact made in the same way as the stan- 
niferous glaze of faience ; that is to say, the 
body was covered with a coating composed 
mainly of oxide of tin on which the decora- 
tion was painted before the vessel was 
submitted to the process of firing. The 
specimens figured in our illustrations afford 
excellent examples of the prevalent types 
of decoration used in this factory, more 
especially during the early period when the 
stanniferous glaze was in use. As will be 
noticed, all these pieces are characterized 
by a close imitation of Chinese and Japanese 
motifs, of which the most frequent is the 
style of decoration invented by the cele- 
brated Japanese potter, Kakiyemon of 
Imari. The style used by this artist had 
a remarkable vogue throughout Europe, 
for we find his designs copied on porcelain 
in almost every factory, not only on the 
Continent, but also in England. All the 
pieces illustrated, with the exception of 
the small figure in front, show more or less 
of the Kakiyemon style, the most charac- 
teristic, however, being the small custard 
cup (fig. 21). 

We cannot pass over this group without 
drawing attention to the large Chinese 
figure mounted in ormolu and holding in 
front of him a beautiful little etui with a 
revolving lid ; this figure is a strikingly fine 

specimen of Chantilly porcelain, and would 
in itself confer distinction on any collection. 
The reader who is interested in the subject 
should also not fail to take an early oppor- 
tunity of becoming acquainted with the 
other fine specimens lent by Mr. Fitzhenry 
to the Victoria and Albert Museum, amongst 
which two very cleverly-modelled figures of 
peasants with market baskets on their backs 
are particularly worthy of notice. 

A class of Chantilly porcelain not shown 
in our illustrations is represented by a series 
of plates mostly decorated in blue with small 
floral sprays and leaves. These plates have 
been in recent years the innocent instru- 
ments for the perpetration of frauds on the 
too-confiding collector. Owing to their 
simplicity of decoration their value in the 
market is not very great, but the ingenious 
forger has found that by erasing the original 
decoration and substituting the elaborate 
designs of Sevres or Chelsea a very much 
handsomer profit can be realized. This is, 
however, a fraud very easily discovered by 
a discriminating purchaser, owing to the 
fact that the glaze becomes considerably de- 
teriorated by the refiring and shows numer- 
ous black specks ; the entire general appear- 
ance is also quite different from that of a 
plate which has only been decorated once. 

The Chantilly factory continued opera- 
tions up to about the year 1789, when the 
great upheaval caused by the Revolution 
closed the works. 

We will now devote our attention to the 
consideration of some of Mr. Fitzhenry's 
specimens of Mennecy porcelain. This fac- 
tory, which was established by one Barbin 
about 1735, under the patronage of Louis 
Francois de Neuville, Due de Villeroy, at 
Mennecy- Villeroy, became one of the most 
noted of the early porcelain factories in 
France. Precluded by the protective mea- 
sures which safeguarded the interests of the 
royal factory from the use of gilding, the 
designers nevertheless contrived to pro- 
duce some very charming examples of the 






ceramic art; the chief triumph of the factory, 
however, being the beautiful little biscuit 
groups and figures, charming specimens of 
which are figured in our illustrations on 
Plate II. The chief characteristics of 
Mennecy porcelain are the ivory colour of 
the paste and a purply-rose colour ; also 
the practice of using colour to decorate the 
rims and edges, which at Vincennes and 
Sevres would have been gilded. Amongst 
the specimens to which we would draw 
particular attention are the dish (Plate III, 
fig. 8) and the miniature little pot and cover 
exquisitely decorated in gold (fig. 7). For 
some unknown reason such pieces as plates 
and dishes were only made to a small extent, 
and therefore such a dish as that illustrated 
on Plate III is extremely important from the 
collector's point of view and of great value. 
The two little tea-pots painted with flowers 
and the custard cups, all on Plate III, are 
typical specimens of the Mennecy factory 
and betray the strong influence of Vin- 
cennes and Sevres, whose models it always 
seems to have been the desire of the Men- 
necy potters to successfully imitate. Their 
labours came to an end about 1 77 3 or 1 774, 
when the works were closed. 

The last group in our list, and certainly 
the most important as regards the history 
of European porcelain, is that illustrated 
on Plate I, representing the factories of 
Vincennes and Sevres, the homes of the 
aristocracy par excellence of European 

It is, indeed, hardly probable that the 
world will ever again witness the produc- 
tion of such perfect gems of the potter's 
art as were brought forth so abundantly at 
Sevres during the eighteenth century. In- 
deed the whole system of modern life pre- 
cludes the probability of the combination 
of such circumstances as are necessary to 
realize such a result. When we remember 
that at that time the manufacture of por- 
celain in France was not regarded as a 
commercial enterprise carried on solely 

Early French Pate-tendre 

for profit, but, on the contrary, was looked 
upon as a luxury and as a field of more or 
less amicable rivalry between the king and 
the wealthy nobles of his court, it is not 
surprising that under such auspices, at a 
period when art was cultivated for its own 
sake regardless of cost, an artistic people 
were able to produce such gems of beauty 
in porcelain as have never been equalled in 
the world's history before or since. 

In view of the immense amount of litera- 
ture on the subject of the history of Sevres 
as a porcelain factory, it is not necessary 
within the limits of a magazine article 
to dwell on facts which are probably 
familiar to most of our readers and easily 
ascertained in any text-book. It is pro- 
posed, therefore, only to draw attention to 
a few specimens which have been con- 
sidered as sufficiently important to justify a 
few words. 

We will only note that the factory at 
Vincennes was started about 1740 by two 
brothers Dubois, former workers in the 
Chantilly fabrique, that it became a royal 
manufactory about 1753, and in 1756 it 
was removed to Sevres. 

As an example of a very rare type the 
beautifully-painted picture, which is one 
of a pair (Plate I, fig. 2), is worthy of 
attention. The cup and saucer on the same 
plate (fig. 1), decorated with white panels 
reserved on a dark blue ground, are parti- 
cularly interesting, as the original paper 
label of the ' Sevres Magasin de Vente ' still 
remains pasted on the back of the saucer, 
proving that these pieces have never even 
been washed. It will interest the reader 
to know that one of these labels was pre- 
sented by Mr. Fitzhenry to the late Director 
of the Sevres Museum, as up to that time 
they actually did not possess a specimen 
for the museum library. The cup (fig. 4) 
is a very early specimen of Rose-Pompa- 
dour, bearing the date-letter for 1757, the 
year when this colour was first invented 
by Xrowet. 



T is, perhaps, not unfair to 
assume that Boccaccio's 

E\^t Latin work, ' De casibus vir- 
.^xvorum et feminarum illus- 
M trium,' which was written 
^-— T^ prohahly a few years earlier 

than 1364, but was not published till ten 
years later, not long before the poet's 
death, would have dropped into the limbo 
of oblivion had it not been for its transla- 
tions. In an English dress it lives in Lyd- 
gate's ' Fall of Princes,' written between 
the years 1430 and 1438 for Humphrey, 
duke of Gloucester. But the English poet 
did not go back to the original source ; he 
made use of a translation in French prose 
written at the beginning of the fifteenth 
century by Laurent de Premierfait. It is 
this French work with which we have to 
deal in the present article. 

Laurent de Premierfait, a simple clerk, 
taking his name from his native village of 
Premierfait, in the diocese of Troyes in the 
ancient county of Champagne, was one of 
the best known of the series of translators 
who found their occupation under the pro- 
tection of Charles the Fifth of France and 
his immediate successors, and of princes of 
the royal house who loved to be distin- 
guished as patrons of learning. Among 
other works,he translated the 'De Amicitia' 
and the ' De Senectute' of Cicero for Louis, 
due de Bourbon. But it is more particu- 
larly with the renderings of the works of 
Boccaccio that his name is connected. And 
yet Laurent de Premierfait was not an 
Italian scholar. In his own words, ' pource- 
que je suis Francois par naissance et con- 
versation, je ne scay pleinement langage 
Florentin.' But his want of knowledge of 
the Italian poet's native tongue was no ob- 
stacle to his undertaking the translation of 
even the ' Decameron.' This he accom- 
plished by the simple expedient of em- 


ploying a collaborator, one Antonio of 
Arezzo, a cordelier, who made a Latin 
version of the original, from which Pre- 
mierfait made his translation into French. 
The circumstances under which the 
work was done and which he himself de- 
scribes are not without interest. He had 
found a patron in the wealthy goldsmith 
and banker Bureau de Dampmartin ; and it 
was in Bureau's house in the Rue de la Cour- 
roierie in Paris that the two collaborators 
were maintained during the years 141 1 to 
1414. We will quote Laurent de Premier- 
fait's own words : — 

'Je qui depuis longtems suis demourant avec 
noble homme Bureau de Dampmartin, escuier, 
conseiller du Roy, et citoien de Paris, requis et 
demanday audit Bureau secours et provision pour 
ceste chose faire. Et il, de joieux visage ad- 
ministra audit frere [Antonio of Arezzo] et a moy 
toutes necessites, tant en vivres que en quelconques 
autres choses convenables pour despence et salaire 
de nous deux qui, comme dit est, translatasmes 
ledict livre de Florentin en Latin et de Latin en 
Francois en lostel dudict Bureau de Dampmartin.' 

The work was finished in 141 3, and was 
dedicated to Jean, due de Berry, son of 
Charles the Fifth. 

With the ' De casibus ' our translator had 
not had the same difficulty as with the 
' Decameron.' There was no need for colla- 
boration. The original was in Latin, and 
of that language Laurent de Premierfait 
was a competent master. In his preface 
to the 'Decameron' addressed to the due de 
Berry he refers to his previous translation 
and to 

'Jehan Boccace, acteur aussi du livre des mal- 
heureux cas de nobles hommes et femmes, con- 
tenant seulement histoires approuvees et choses 
serieuses ; lequel livre de vostre commandement 
nagueres fut translate par moy, et lequel livre, 
comme je croy, avez benignement receu et colloque 
entre vos autres nobles et precieux volumes.' 

Thus, then, as well for the ' De casibus * 
as for the 'Decameron,' the due de Berry 

k_ c p:«tiiic<*rf>iux eflFciflieii'br pzc *»«#'" CaCeiiiKUHcfcuCaw.tit poiiv omfv 




zA Rothschild MS. in the British Museum 

was Laurent de Premierfait's patron. For 

him our translator undertook 

' le dangereux et long travail de la translacion de 
ung tresexquiz et singulier volume des cas des 
nobles hommes et femmes escript et compille par 
Jehan Boccace de Certald, jadiz homme moult 
excellent et expert en anciennes histoires et toutes 
autres sciences humaines et divines.' 

It is to be noted that Premierfait's work 
is not a bare rendering of Boccaccio's text. 
The translators of his time and school did 
not consider that they were bound to be 
literal ; and our translator fails not to 
amplify his own text somewhat gene- 
rously. His work soon became popular ; 
and it seems that he issued a second edition 
or retranslation in 1409. As the fifteenth 
century advanced, and particularly in the 
second half of it, the ' Cas des nobles 
hommes et femmes ' was a not unusual 
subject for the large folios which were pro- 
duced in considerable numbers, in common 
with other works of similar character, both 
in France and the Low Countries, and 
were adorned with numerous miniatures of 
greater or less excellence. 

The form in which the illustrations of 
these illuminated manuscripts are usually 
presented is as follows : A large miniature 
stands at the head of each of the nine books 
into which the work is divided, generally 
filling half the page, and a series of small 
miniatures are introduced into the body of 
the text in illustration of particular stories. 
The misfortunes and violent ends of the 
unhappy princes and other illustrious per- 
sons who form the subjects of the narrative 
afforded ample scope for the imagination of 
the artist ; and, particularly in the smaller 
miniatures, the very direct interpretations 
of the cruel acts depicted would be very 
appalling if in most instances they were not 
so very ludicrous. Indeed, as we turn over 
the leaves of one of these illustrated volumes 
we may sup of horrors to the full, but as 
we close the book we are not very sensible 
of having had our feelings severely har- 
rowed. There is, in fact, little art, as a rule, 

in the general run of the smaller miniatures; 
they are simply illustrations. With the 
larger miniatures the case is usually different. 
On these the better artists were employed; 
and in the better class of manuscripts we 
not infrequently light on an example of 
real merit. 

The manuscript from which a series of 
such larger miniatures is here reproduced 
is the Additional MS. 35,321 in the British 
Museum. It forms part of the munificent 
bequest of the late Baron Ferdinand Roth- 
schild, which came to the trustees in 1 899. 
It is a very large folio volume of 32 1 leaves, 
measuring 16J inches by 1 il inches, and it 
contains the text of Premierfait's second 
translation of the ' De casibus,' which he 
finished in 1409. 

' Cy fine,' runs the colophon, ' le livre de Jehan 
Boccace des cas des maleureux nobles hommes 
et femmes, translate de Latin en Francois par 
moy Laurens de Premierfait, clerc du diocese de 
Troies. Et fut compile ceste translacion le xv. 
jour davril, mil cccc. et neuf ; cest assavoir le Lundi 
apres Pasques.' 

The period of the manuscript is the latter 
part of the fifteenth century, perhaps from 
1470 to 1480. It formerly belonged to the 
' cabinet de livres de Pontchartrain,' owned 
by Louis Phelypeaux, comte de Pontchar- 
train and chancellor of France, who died in 
1727. Of the earlier history of the volume 
nothing is known. 

In accordance with the usual setting, 
each of the nine books of the work is 
headed with a half-page miniature, and 
seventy-five smaller miniatures are scat- 
tered through the text. For our series the 
six best of the larger miniatures have been 
selected. They are the work of French 
artists, and are executed in the style that 
was developed in the school of the 
celebrated painter and miniaturist Jean 
Foucquet, of Tours, and his sons. The 
particular character of the series bears 
resemblance to that of the work which 
has been attributed to the hand of Fran- 
cois Foucquet the son, and which is to be 


*A Rothschild MS. in the British Museum 

seen, for example, in the tine manuscript 
of St. Augustine's 'Cite de Dieu ' in the 
Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris (MS. Franc, 
i S). This volume was executed for Charles 
de Gaucourt, in 1473, by a certain ' egre- 
gius pictor Franciscus,' who has been iden- 
tified by Monsieur L.Thuasne ('Revue des 
Bibliotheques,' 1898) as the painter Fran- 
cois Foucquet. This attribution has not 
been universally accepted as correct, but it 
is not necessary in this place to pause for a 
discussion of its merits. It is enough to 
cite the manuscript of the ' Cite de Dieu ' 
as representing the style of the school of 
art with which we group our volume. Of 
the same style, but, on the whole, superior to 
the miniatures before us, are those in the 
Valerius Maximus of the Harleian collec- 
tion in the British Museum (Nos. 4374-5) , a 
manuscript which belonged to the historian 
Philippe de Comines {see G. F. Warner, 
' Illuminated Manuscripts in the British 
Museum '). 

The realism which developed in the 
miniature painting of the fifteenth cen- 
turv had by this time fairly cast off the 
old traditions of earlier periods. In parti- 
cular, the landscape, which at the begin- 
ning of the century was usually represented 
by rocks and hills and trees of the most 
conventional type, had now become a real 
copy of nature, not always exact, it is true, 
but at least with a sense of perspective and 
atmospheric effect, and with a recognition 
of the horizon, which, strangely, it took so 
long to discover. But while the landscape 
was thus largely improved, yet, as though 
the ordinary artist was incapable of taking 
in more than one idea at a time, architec- 
tural perspective remains at fault ; and, 
again, in the endeavour to be fully realistic, 
the grace of the figure-drawing of the four- 
teenth century is altogether lost, and we are 
presented with clumsy rendering of the 
limbs, stiff draperies, and features, particu- 
larly in the case of men's faces, so laboured, 
with the view of giving expression, that the 

refinement, be it of youth or of age, is lost. 
The relative proportions of human figures 
to the surrounding objects is still not fully 
appreciated, and animal drawing is in its 
infancy. With regard to the last point, if 
style of drawing may be taken as an indi- 
cation of the kind of life to which the artist 
was accustomed, one would be tempted to 
think that the ordinary draughtsman of the 
fifteenth century was a stay-at-home who 
had never seen an animal in his life, but 
was in the habit of evolving his specimens 
from his inner consciousness. Nothing is 
more striking in the miniature painting of 
this period than the inability of the draughts- 
man to depict a horse. What a contrast are 
his clumsy creations to the freely-drawn 
figures of animal life scratched by primitive 
man on the rude surfaces of stone or horn 
or bone ! 

French miniature painting of this period 
of the fifteenth century is distinguished by 
a certain hardness of surface, which con- 
trasts disadvantageously with the depth of 
colour of the Flemish school ; and it is on 
account of this hard quality that, in order 
to get the high lights, the French artist has 
recourse to the meretricious practice of 
shading with gold, which, while at the 
period of our miniatures it is not too pro- 
minent, afterwards is applied to such a de- 
gree as to become an offence. The colours 
employed in the landscape and in the middle 
distance are generally subdued and har- 
monious, and the artist is often very suc- 
cessful in his treatment of atmosphere. But 
in the case of objects in the foreground and 
in the prominent figures there is a tendency 
to too great brilliancy and even crudeness 
in some of the colours. For example, in 
the miniatures before us, the artists have 
introduced in these details, among other 
colours, vivid blue and a particularly harsh 
green which overpower the rest. 

Of the six miniatures which have been 
selected for reproduction, 1 the first three may 

1 The reproductions are about half the size of the original 


■- ■ . -. 



J y,J^ >■ 




zA Rothschild MS. in the British Museum 

be attributed to one and the same artist, at 
least in the principal, if not in all, the details. 
In some he may have been assisted by other 
painters. The fourth and sixth miniatures 
are the work of another and less skilful hand ; 
and a third artist seems tohave been employed 
on the fifth miniature. The superiority of 
the work in the first three is obvious. 

The first miniature reproduced 2 stands 
at the head of the second book of the 
' Cas des malheureux nobles hommes et 
femmes,' and represents the career of Saul, 
king of Israel. In the foreground, on the 
left, within the farm-building, Saul, seated 
at table, is being anointed by Samuel, who 
is clad in a priest's vestments. We may 
quote the text : — 

'Cestui Saul par ung jour estoit alequerirlesasnes 
de son pere et les asnelles qui sestoient egarees. 
Et quant ne les trouva aucune part, il voulant 
outre enquerir ou elles estoient alees, Saul, par 
lenhortement dun enfant qui estoit avec luy, vint 
au prophete Samuel qui parloit par la bouche de 
Dieu. Apres ce que Samuel eut fait apprester a 
disner pour Saul et eut mis devant luy une espaule 
de mouton, Samuel par ladmonestrement de Dieu 
respandy sur la teste de Saul une burette de huile 
consacree et le oingny et ordonna pour estre roy 
des Juifz.' 

The asses are stabled under a shed, and 
sheep are folded within the wattled fence. 
The rent in the wall of the building may 
be noticed : a very common defect, it seems 
in cottages and mean buildings of the time, 
if we are to trust the accuracy of minia- 
tures. The battle scene on the right may 
be taken as representing the wars of Saul 
generally ; and the city in the background, 
introduced for artistic effect, must be re- 
garded as undergoing siege, as indicated by 
the two mortars in position. The battle 
of Mount Gilboa is in the background on 
the left ; and in the middle distance we 
witness the death of the defeated king. 

' Et arm que Saul ne venist vif es mains de ses 
ennemis, et que il ne fust moque par eulx, il se 
coucha sur la pointe de son espee et avec son sang 
il mist hors son esperit ; et combien que la mort 
de Saul fust mort de maleureux roy, toutesvoies 
fut elle dung fort et couraigeux homme ; car plus 
* Plate I, page 199.; 

laide ne plus deshonneste chose ne peut advenir 
a ung roy que destre loye de chaines et estre 
prisonnier de ses ennemis.' 

It is to be observed that the different 
scenes are marked off from each other by 
conventional rocks. 

The miniature is, on the whole, not an 
unpleasing example of its kind ; the group- 
ing is skilful, and the landscape is artistically 
handled. But the picture is marred by 
the disproportionate size of the combatants 
in the background — a fault in drawing 
which is so obvious to modern eyes, that 
one would wonder how it could have 
escaped those of the artist, did we not 
know how slow was the growth of per- 
spective in mediaeval art. 

In our second miniature, 3 which intro- 
duces the third book of Boccaccio's work, 
is represented the contest between Poverty 
and Fortune. The story Boccaccio tells us 
he heard in his youth, when attending the 
lectures of Andalone di Negro, the astro- 
nomer, at Naples. 

'Jay esprouve que vraye est la sentence dune fable 
que jadis je oy compter en jeunesse et dont il me 
souvient. Et pour ce quil me samble que cette 
fable fait assez proprement a mon presente enten- 
cion je la compteray de bon couraige tandis que 
nous reposons la fin de nostre second livre. Pour 
lors que je estoie jeune escolier estudiant a Naples 
soubz ung maistre en astronomie nomme maistre 
Andalus du Noir, qui lors estoit homme noble 
en science et honnourable en meurz et nez de la cite 
de Jennes, et qui en publicques escoles enseignoit 
les mouvemens du ciel et les cours et influences 
des estoilles et planectes, etc' 

The lecturer undertakes to prove, ' par 
une fable courtoise et ancienne,' that heaven 
and the stars are not to blame for a man's 
misfortune, but the man himself. 

It chanced that Poverty was sitting by 
the roadside when Fortune passed by and 
laughed. Whereupon Poverty ' se leva 
contre Fortune et luy monstra moult rude 
et aspre chere,' asking the reason for her 
merriment. Fortune replied that she 
laughed to see the other's wretched state, 
' qui ne es couverte que a moitie dune 

» Plate I, page 199. 


zA Rothschild MS. in the British {Museum 

flossoye faicte de tenues palestriaux ' — a 
rough garment of worn-out tatters. 

On this naturally follows a long alterca- 
tion, ending in a personal struggle, in which 
Poverty is victorious. 

' Povrete doncques, qui eut le genoul agu, foula 
la poitruie de Fortune, et luy mist lun des pies 
sur la gorge et luy serra forment.' 

But the conqueror is not ungenerous. 
Fortune is allowed to rise, and an agree- 
ment is come to that Misfortune is no 
longer to be at the disposal of Fortune, but 
is to be chained up. 

' Si te commande, Fortune, que en aucun lieu et 
tel que chascun puisse veoir tu loyes et attaches 
Malheur a une coulompne, afin que doresenavant 
Malheur ne puisse entrer en lostel de quelconcque 
personne, et que Malheur aussi ne se puisse partir 
de la coulompne ou du pel si non avec celui qui le 
destachera ; mais je vueil que tu puisses envoier 
le Boneur en lostel de quiconcques tu vouldras.' 

The scene of the lecture in the miniature 
is brought before us by the simple device 
of taking out the side of the room in which 
it is in progress ; the students, it will be 
observed, being by no means of youthful 
appearance. Fortune lies complacently 
flat on the ground, without sign of any 
derangement of her dress to show that she 
has just passed through a severe struggle 
with her opponent ; even her veil falls ex- 
tended in neat folds from her high-crowned 
hat. The city is, of course, a French city, 
built in the style of architecture familiar 
to the artist, although it professes to be the 
city of Naples. In the far distance a gallows, 
with a body hanging on it, no doubt repre- 
sents a very familiar object of the time. 

The fourth book is prefaced by the best 
executed miniature in the volume, the 
third of our series. 4 Here Boccaccio 
appears in his doctor's robes, and with his 
books about him, addressing a company of 
persons clad in different styles of costume, 
who fill the half of the room in which the 
scene is laid. The prologue of the fourth 
book first refers to the ill-fortune of Croesus, 
Tarquin, Xerxes, and Artaxerxes ; and the 

4 Plate II, page 203. 

three Asiatic monarchs are probably repre- 
sented in the miniature by the three figures 
wearing turbans. The rest of the company 
may be taken to stand generally for those 
who are included in the author's descrip- 
tion : 

' Jay devant moy ung monceau dystoires con- 
tenans les cas dune grant et desvoiee compaignie de 
maleureux gentilz hommes, mesement Ytaliens, 
lamour desquelz me rappellent et tant a fait que 
de la grant compaignie deux jay pris a racompter 
lystoire de celui de qui jaymoie mieulx racompter 
et escrire le cas, sans faire mencion des autres 
maleureux nobles.' 

The general effect of the grouping of 
this scene is aided by the pleasing architec- 
tural setting in which the miniature is 

The remaining three miniatures now 
claim attention. They appear to be by 
two hands, the fourth and sixth by the one 
and the fifth by the other ; at the same 
time they are all three so near in style that 
it is not impossible that all may be the 
work of one and the same artist, and the 
differences mere accidents of execution. It 
will be observed that they contrast with the 
former three chiefly in regard to the prin- 
cipal figures, which are here less skilfully 
treated and are more common-place ; while 
in the landscape and architectural details 
there is less to distinguish them. 

The subject of the fourth miniature is 

Boccaccio's interview with Fortune, 5 which 

introduces the sixth book. Fortune, ' qui 

est ung hydeux monstre,' suddenly appears 

before the author : 

' Elle avoit les yeux ardans, et sambloit quilz 
menachassent ceulx que elle regardoit. Fortune 
avoit la face cruelle et horrible. Elle avoit ses 
cheveulx espes, longs, et pendant sur sa bouche. 
Certes, je croy que Fortune en son corps avoit 
cent mains et autretant de bras pour donner et 
pour tollir aux hommes les biens mondains, et 
pour abatre en bas et pour lever en hault les 
hommes de ce monde. Fortune avoit robe de 
maintes et diverses couleurs; car nul homme ne 
la conquoist. Fortune avoit la voix aspre et si 
dure quil sembloit que elle eust bouche de fer, 
pour ce que elle menasse tous les plus grans du 
monde et si meet les menaces a effect.' 
5 Plate II, page 203. 

BOO A< vim \\li PETRARCH, 



~.n^~ c. ---•> 


• cr tJwtu'itHtirjmT »;ion cfo« 

PLATE 111. 

*A Rothschild MS. in the British Museum 

The artist has not followed the text in 
his delineation of the goddess ; he dis- 
regards her hundred arms and provides her 
only with the ordinary number, and he 
follows another tradition in bestowing on 
her a Janus-like head, darkly veiled in her 
angry mood. She opens with a long tirade : 
Boccaccio is labouring in vain if he thinks 
that he can find a remedy against her laws 
and can thus instruct his readers ; other and 
greater writers have tried and have failed. 
But a discreet and lengthy reply turns away 
her wrath, a reply of which we need only 
quote the flattering words which close it : 

' Je te prie et supplie, dame Fortune, que mon 
livre des cas des hommes soit par ta grace 
bienheureux et aggreable, et que mon nom, qui 
est obscur et descongneu aux hommes presens, 
soit esclarcy et congneu aux hommes avenir par 
le moien de ta resplendisseur.' 

The fickle dame of course is mollified and 
grants the petition, and then proceeds, with 
a glance at the unkind things that have been 
said about her in the course of the work, to 
discourse on the miseries wrought by the 
civil wars of Rome. Those are represented 
by the scene of street fighting within the 
walls of the city, which fills the larger part 
of the miniature. 

The next scene 6 stands at the head of 
the prologue to the eighth book. Wearied 
with his labours, the author falls asleep, 
then, rousing himself, he soliloquizes on 
the vanity and unprofitableness of human 
renown, and arrives at the comfortable con- 
clusion that the game is scarcely worth the 
candle, and that it is folly to wear himself 
out with literary toil. 

' Et de rechief je abaissay ma teste sur le coissin ; 
et lavoie ja dressee sur mon coubte pour moy 
lever du lit, et tantost il me sambla que devant 
moy estoit ung homme que Dieu me avoit envoie 
de je ne say quel pays. Cestui homme estoit moult 
attrempe en visaige et en maniere. II avoit gente 
face assez pale et joieuse. II portoit sur son chief 
unecouronne de laurier vert, et si estoit vestu dun 
noble et riche mantel. II estoit digne de tres grant 
reverence. Je ouvry et aguisay mes yeulx plus 
que autrefoys pour regarder cest homme. Si tost 
6 Plate III, page 207. 

que je fuz bien esveille je congneu que celui 
homme estoit norame Francois Petrac, mon tres 
bon maistre. Les admonnestemens de mon 
maistre Francois Petrac me ont tous dis aguil- 
lonne a cuvre de vertu. Je honnouray Fran- 
cois Petrac des le commencement de ma jeunesse.' 

A long homily follows from Petrarch on 
the wickedness of sloth, which of course has 
the desired effect in stimulating Boccaccio 
to new endeavours, who accordingly re- 
sumes his pen to continue the ' cas des 
nobles malheureux.' 

The artist has made up for the simplicity 
of the scene by the introduction of architec- 
tural detail and ornament, which effectively 
set off the scantily furnished chamber, in 
which, indeed, there is little room for any- 
thing but the bedstead of large dimensions. 
The execution is rather better than that of 
the other two miniatures, and affords some 
reason for attributing the painting to 
another hand. 

The last miniature of our series 7 intro- 
duces the ninth and concluding book of 
Boccaccio's work. It contains two scenes : 
the preaching of Mahomet and the death 
of Queen Brunehild. The subject in the 
foreground is explained in the following 
extracts : 

'Cestui Machomet engendre de innobles parens 
fut nez en une cite de Arabie nommee Mecca. 
Apres la mort de ses parens, il demoura en la 
garde et tutelle de Abdamanef son oncle. Sitost 
que Machomet fut parcreux, il commenca a adourer 
faulses ydoles et suivre vaines supersticions, ainsi 

come faisoient tous ceulx de sa lignie 

Machomet doncques nourry ung jeune coulon qui 
toute sa viande prenoit par accoustumance dedens 
les oreilles de Mahomet, ainsi comme il luy adminis- 
troit. Et, pour ce que le coulon constraint de fam 
voloit sur les epaules de Machomet et mectoit son 
bee dedens ses orailles, il donna entendre aux gens 
simples et rudes que le Saint Esperit parloit a luy 
en samblance dune coulombe, a la maniere ainsi 
comme il disoit de Jesu Crist le saint prophete, 
sur qui la coulombe descendy quant Saint Jehan 
le baptisoit. Et oultre Machomet affermoit que les 
paroles et les loix que il preschoit aux peuples il 
les recevoit de la bouche de Saint Esperit, qui en 
figure de coulombe parloit a luy. Et aussi il 
deceut les hommes champestres et ignorans qui a 

luy venoient en grans tourbes Mahomet 

1 Plate III, page 207. 


trf Rothschild MS. in the British Museum 

aussi eut ung toreau, qui par longue accoustumance 
fut par luy enseigniez en tant que il prenoit la 
viande de sa main et venoit a son appel. Ma- 
chomet doncques eut fait dieter et escrire la 
loy par ungclerc nomme Sergius, homme herite et 
qui ensuivoit les erreurs de lerite Nestoire. Et 
celle loy ainsi escripte en ung livre, que len dit 
Alcoran, le traitre Mahomet loya et attacha ce livre 
entre les cornes du thoreau dont jay parle, puis 
appella celui thoreau, qui tantost vint a luy et 
apporta le livre attachie entre les cornes. Parquoy 
le peuple creut et pensa que celle chose feust par- 
faicte par la vertu divine.' 

After continuing his discourseabout Ma- 
homet at some length, our author is inter- 
rupted by the appearance of queen Brune- 
hild, who desires to tell her story. After 
some demur this is allowed, and she pro- 
ceeds to give her own version of her various 
questionable deeds, in which she is amusingly 
corrected by Boccaccio, who exhibits an 
intimate knowledge of the events and con- 
victs the lady of continual departures from 
the truth. Finally she gives the details of 
her death as depicted in the background of 
the miniature. 

'Besoing nest que je me arreste a racompter 
plus de maulx par moy souffers. Je fuz a moitie 
desvestue et fuz hapee pour mectre a treslaide 
mort. Car par ung pie, une main, et par les 
crins je fuz loie aux queues de trois chevaulx 
effraiez et legiers, et fuz abandonnee a despecer 
par les detiremens des chevaulx qui tiroient, lun 
de ca, lautre de la. Je fuz despecee parmembres, 
et par mon sang je ordoiay tous les lieux par ou 
je fuz trainnee. Et par ainsi je mis hors mon 
ame par toutes les parties de mon corps detranchie, 
et ainsi je mouru entre les tourmens.' 

The story is followed by an interesting 
apology of the author, incidentally referring 
to the poverty of the French tongue, which 
deserves to be quoted : 

'Je Jehan Boccace, qui de Brunchilde ay ainsi 
escript le cas, je confesse que je nay pas use de 
tesmoingnaigeassez digne de foy. Carleshistoires 
franchoises, actendu la povresse du langaige qui 
est en vulgar ou confuz sans art et sans auctorite, 
ne sont par convenable destre receues entre 
histoires dignes de foy. Pour tant se len treuve 

en ce chapitre aucune chose qui ne soit pas assez 
vraye, je requier que celle soit imputee a limpor- 
tunite et constraingnant requeste de Brunchilde 
qui me pria que je escrivisse ainsy.' 

The miniature affords instances of the 
very indifferent animal drawing of the fif- 
teenth century, which has been noticed 
above. Mahomet's bull is a very sorry beast, 
and the horses which are so steadily carrying 
out the execution of the unfortunate queen 
can scarcely claim a title to the epithets 
' effraiez et legiers.' The very decent mode 
in which Brunehild is being torn in pieces 
is quite in the picture-book style of illus- 
trative art of the period. The court of 
Clotaire, who has passed judgement on the 
queen, disclosed on the right of the paint- 
ing, presents us with the stock monarch of 
the time clad in the conventional robes of 
royalty. We have seen the same kind of 
figure in our first miniature, slaying itself, 
as king Saul, on Mount Gilboa. 

Yet, with all its shortcomings, bad draw- 
ing, faulty perspectives, and incongruous 
details, we must not lose sight of the re- 
deeming points. For example, the land- 
scape has its merits, and the figure of the 
doctor or professor which does duty for 
Mahomet, is not without a certain dignity. 
It is no less true of the miniatures of the 
fifteenth century than of those of the earlier 
centuries, that we must endeavour to look 
at them with the eyes of contemporaries, if 
we are to appreciate their real value as works 
of art, and necessarily it is only by familiarity 
with them that we can succeed in this en- 
deavour. Each period has its particular 
faults, but, at the same time, each period 
has its particular merits. It is by study of 
our subjects that we acquire the critical 
faculty which unconsciously learns to con- 
done the faults, while it is quick to recog- 
nize the efforts of the artist to attain to a 
higher plane. 





E consciousness of time, was the basis of payment. Both books 

ignorance which comes 
from knowledge is pro- 
verbial, and a study of 
the works of the English 
furniture designers to- 
wards the close of the 
eighteenth century forms no exception to 
the rule ; every modicum of added know- 
ledge increases the difficulty in assigning 
any piece of actual furniture to one or other 
of even the best-known names. There are 
points of difference certainly, but they are 
by no means so marked or so invariable as 
would seem to have been generally supposed ; 
and, though it is probably easier to date 
accurately a piece of furniture made in the 
nineties than a similar piece constructed in 
the fifties or sixties, it is much more diffi- 
cult to feel any certainty in suggesting the 
name of its designer. One of the least 
understood of the later furniture makers is 
Shearer, who, in 1788, published the 
' Cabinet Makers' London Book of Prices,' 
or rather was chiefly responsible for it, as 
the book is printed by W. Brown and A. 
O'Neil ' For the London Society of Cabinet 
Makers.' His designs not only resemble the 
work of his contemporary, Hepplewhite, 
but very often have quite as strong an affinity 
to Sheraton's of some years later, with the 
result that, though he possessed strong origi- 
nality, his work is usually ascribed to the 
better-known men, just as at one time their 
names were lost in that of Chippendale. 

The professed intention of Hepplewhite's 
' Guide' is to give designs of the furniture 
in actual use at the time of its publication; 
that of the Society of Cabinet Makers was 
to avoid the disputes apt to arise between 
master and man when piece-work, and not 

1 For Articles I to VI, see Vol. IV, page 227 ; Vol. V, page 173 ; 
Vol. VI, pages 47, 210, 402; Vol. VII, page 41 (March, May, 
October, December, 1004; February, April, 1905). 

therefore dealt with many articles in com- 
mon use, and there is often but little attempt 
to differentiate them from the designs of 

There were several editions of the ' Book 
of Prices,' one being published as late as 
1825, but Shearer's work appears only in 
the first two editions, issued in 1788 and 
1793 respectively. After that the succeed- 
ing publications were adapted to the furni- 
ture of their own time, and resemble the 
earlier editions only in name. 

The book was largely accepted by the 
trade, not only in London but also in the 
provinces, where it was known as 'The 
London Book,' and many men still alive 
can remember the later editions being used 
in the workshops. The greater part of it 
is taken up by estimates of the working 
cost of the pieces described, with carefully 
prepared tables for such things as veneer- 
ing, moulding, panelling, etc., nearly every- 
thing in fact except the higher branches of 
decoration. There is no mention of the 
price of wood or materials, with which the 
workmen had nothing to do, so the lists as 
they stand show only the cost of the actual 
workmanship required for each article, but 
without such items as carving, brass-work, 
or decorative painting. Nearly all the 
plates in the book are signed, with the ex- 
ception of the frontispiece, which is dis- 
tinctly the worst and certainly did not 
emanate from Shearer. A woman in classic 
dress is leaning against a pillar, holding in 
one hand what appears to be a fasces, and 
in the other an open book showing a design. 
A snake is coiled round the pillar, while a 
winged cupid with square and compasses 
under his arm is presenting her with a scroll 
on which is inscribed ' Unanimity with 
Justice,' to which she appears to be paying 


Minor English Furniture Makers — Shearer 

as little attention as to the dangerous prox- 
imity of the snake. The lady is probably 
intended to represent an employer of labour, 
and the cupid the authors of the book. It 
is a somewhat weird production ; but in one 
way it is as true to its time as the rest of 
the plates, for the knowledge of classical 
lore, or the assumption of it, was then so 
common as to be almost a necessity. 

On the title page the authors state that, 
as their book is intended to be a guide to- 
wards the price of executing any piece of 
work, ' they have no plates of the more 
common work, that being what almost 
anyone may settle without the assistance of 
a drawing.' It may possibly be for this 
reason that no chairs are given, for, if they 
had been, the prices would have referred 
only to their construction without carving 
or decoration. The omission is to be re- 
gretted, for if Shearer's chairs were of the 
same class of design as the rest of his fur- 
niture the loss is very great indeed. 

Though the book was intended for the 
use of the trade, it is evident that the 
authors also catered for the general public. 
A few of the designs are not even mentioned 
in the letterpress, and, with the exception 
of the tables for inlay, none of the decora- 
tion. Great care has evidently been bestowed 
on the drawings, in most of which there is 
a marked retention of power coupled with 
a simplicity of line and such well-considered 
proportion as can only be matched else- 
where in the more restrained work of 

Shearer, however, had his limits, and 
they are strongly marked. No contemporary 
designer, not even Sheraton at his best, can 
be held to have surpassed him in the com- 
bination of daintiness and simplicity ; but 
he was far behind both Sheraton and Hep- 
plewhite in the application of the more 
florid form of ornament. What he possibly 
may have considered his chef d^ceuvre is a 
side-board, 2 the first of its kind (so far as 

2 No. i, Plate I, page 213. 

dated designs go) to be really a side-board 
and not a side-board table with drawers 
introduced. It may or may not have been 
the first attempt to combine a side-board 
table and the pedestals and vases which 
went with it into one article, but it is cer- 
tainly first as regards date of publication. 
Its interest, however, is more historical 
than artistic. It effectually disposes of the 
idea that we owe the side-board proper to 
Sheraton ; but it is one of the least convinc- 
ing of Shearer's designs, neither the decora- 
tion nor the construction being altogether 
pleasing. The pedestals, which do not quite 
reach the ground, are supported on feet 
which are not harmonious with the rest of 
the treatment, and neither of the alternative 
designs for vases is at all comparable to 
Hepplewhite's beautiful renderings of the 
same articles. 

In book-cases Shearer is very strong. 
His eye for proportion is indisputable, and 
it is only his occasionally uncertain use of 
inlay and ornament which would prevent 
us placing him first in this particular depart- 
ment. Even as these stand they are better 
than Hepplewhite's, and there can be little 
doubt of their influence on Sheraton. The 
specimen reproduced from the book 3 com- 
bines both his best and his worst qualities. 
Neither treatment of the circular form or 
inlay can be commended, though as regards 
the rest there is little to find fault with and 
much to be admired. The two designs for 
the pediment give the drawing a lop-sided 
look, but both are really good ; while the 
four variations for the tracery of the door 
are all more or less happy. This last was a 
department of cabinet making to which 
Shearer paid particular attention, and he 
would seem to have been responsible for the 
style of treatment. There is nothing quite 
like them in the ' Guide,' but it is certain 
that they more than suggested some of the 
designs given by Sheraton four years later. 
That marked No. 2 is almost exactly repro- 
ve 2, Plate I, page 213, 

•'■--/ ,t.-ffi,S/, ,, /, CM .-/ ~ ./■/>*/ r>i. , 



■ ■/.,./ /;,.: . 





Minor English Furniture Makers — Shearer 

duced in No. i, Plate 29, of the ' Drawing 
Book,' the only difference of any importance 
being that the pointed ornament in the 
centre of the top division was changed for 
something much heavier. In this instance 
there can be no doubt as to priority of 
design, but the same cannot be said for 
several of these by W. Casement in the 
second edition. They bear the same date as 
Sheraton's earliest, and the likeness between 
them is too marked to be the result of mere 
coincidence. Sheraton, with all the fuss 
he made about originality, was by no means 
above annexing anything which happened 
to suit his purpose ; but in this case the 
likelihood is all the other way. For one 
thing, Sheraton mentions the first edition of 
the ' Book of Prices' in his preface, but not 
the second (in which Casement's drawings 
appear), and for another, his additional eight 
designs, dated September of the following 
year, have no such definite resemblance ; 
though, on the other hand, it must be ad- 
mitted that, with one or two exceptions, they 
are neither up to his own standard or Case- 
ment's. In the account of the furniture at 
the Bradford Exhibition inTHE Burlington 
Magazine for August last, 4 there is an illus- 
tration of a secretaire and bookcase which 
may with practical certainty be said to have 
been executed either by Shearer himself or 
from the design now illustrated. As the 
photograph gives a better idea than the 
engraving of how such a piece of furniture 
actually appears, it is here reproduced 
again. 5 

Several of the plates by Shearer resemble 
similar articles illustrated in the ' Guide,' 
and in the second edition of the ' Book of 
Prices ' many of the added plates bear the 
signature ' Hepplewhite,' from which it 
has been argued that Shearer may have had 
something to do with the compilation of 
the ' Guide.' A careful comparison of the 
drawings does not lead to this conclusion, 
for even where the likeness is most apparent, 

4 Vol. V, pp. 4S2-503. 5 No. 3, Plate II, page 217. 

and the articles are precisely similar in 
construction (as happens more than once), 
Hepplewhite's rendering of such a thing 
as a leg of a table is heavy and lacking in 
grace when compared to Shearer's. It 
is, nevertheless, worthy of remark that 
Shearer himself supplied nothing new 
for the second edition of the ' Book of 
Prices,' and that several of the plates signed 
'Hepplewhite' resemble his style much 
more closely than anything in the 'Guide,' 
being, indeed, indistinguishable from his 
work both as regards their excellences and 
their faults. 

We know, through the research of 
Miss Constance Simon, 6 that George 
Hepplewhite, who was probably the 
founder of the firm of that name, died a 
year previous to the publication of the 
' Guide,' and the business was thereafter 
carried on by his widow Alice under the 
style of A. Hepplewhite & Co. It is of 
course possible that in 1792, the date on 
the earliest of the new plates, Shearer had 
become a member of the firm, and had 
therefore sunk his personality ; but in the 
few added plates in the succeeding editions 
of the ' Guide ' there is no resemblance to 
his style, and it is just as likely that when 
a second edition of the ' Book of Prices ' 
was contemplated the better-known firm 
either took it in hand or allowed their 
named to be used. 

One piece of furniture which is given 
by no one but Shearer is a lady's screen 
writing table. 7 It is a relic of the pre- 
tennis-and-hockey days, when complexions 
were jealously guarded indoors as well as 
out. These screens were made very light, 
being only six inches deep, to facilitate 
their being moved from one part of the 
room to another. On the lower half were 
two panelled doors with shelves inside, and 
the upper part of the front was let down and 
supported by ' quadrants ' to torm a writing 

6 ' English Furniture Designers of the Eighteenth Centurj' ' 
(A. H. Bullen). 1 No. 4, Plate II, page 217. 


Minor English Furniture Makers — Shearer 

table, disclosing when in position a nest 
of drawers and pigeon-holes. They were 
raised from the ground on light standards, 
presumably to allow the feet of the lady who 
used one to benefit by the fire from which 
her face had to be eternally shielded. 

The man who wishes to furnish a house 
entirely in eighteenth-century furniture 
will find some difficulty in fitting the 
wash-stands of the period to modern 
requirements. There are six of these in 
the ' Book of Prices,' all of them more 
suggestive of a doll's-house than of a real 
bedroom, though apart from their intended 
use they are nice enough articles of 
furniture. With writing tables, on the 
other hand, the choice is almost unlimited, 
many of them being not only more decora- 
tive than our own, but quite as useful. 
Letter-writing was a very different thing 
then from what it is now. People did not 
dash off elliptical sentences on a post-card 
in a hand-writing intended to baffle the 
curiosity of the letter carrier ; nor did they, 
as everyone knows who has gone through 
the contents of an old house, throw a letter 
in the fire the moment it was answered. 
Letter-writing was one of the polite arts, 
and everyone pretending to education or 
culture emulated the best models. Even 
Horace Walpole wrote careful notes of his 
intended replies on the backs of his friends' 
letters, and the ordinary correspondent 
made as careful a skeleton of the subject- 
matter of a proposed letter as if it were a 
school essay. Each sheet of paper being 
its own envelope, the length of a letter and 
the relative importance of each point had 
to be as carefully considered as if one were 
writing an exact column for a newspaper. 
Every man was not a Horace Walpole, 
nor every woman a Lady Mary Wortley- 
Montagu, but most people with a real 
place in society at least pretended to culti- 
vate the art, with the result that we have 
received an inheritance of an immense 
number of beautifully designed and per- 


fectly fitted writing tables or other articles 
adaptable to the purpose. In this book 
alone there are no less than sixteen examples, 
and in addition four separate drawings 
for alternative fittings. 

One of these (the first plate signed 
' Hepplewhite ') bears less resemblance to 
Shearer than most of the others, and 
though of little artistic merit is of interest 
as being, presumably, the first of the 
' Carlton ' shape, afterwards improved by 
Sheraton and other makers. In these a 
superstructure of drawers ten or twelve 
inches wide runs round the back and both 
sides, leaving a space in the middle for a 
rising writing-desk. The other designs 
include most of the forms then in use, 
while on one, though it is difficult to 
understand why, there is placed a shield- 
shaped looking-glass. 

Both Shearer and Hepplewhite, though 
for different reasons, inserted plates in their 
books which had no claim to originality. 
The Rudd's dressing table, given by both, 
owes its origin to an unknown designer, 
having been first constructed, as we are 
told in the ' Guide,' for ' a once popular 
character ' of that name. It is by no 
means a thing of beauty, being more 
remarkable for its ingenuity than for its 
appearance. The slightly different ren- 
derings of this article by Shearer and 
Hepplewhite are typical of their methods. 
Shearer's is severely plain ; and though 
Hepplewhite, as in most of his bedroom 
furniture, makes but little attempt at 
decoration, the drawing in the 'Guide' is 
of a much heavier and clumsier article. 

Shearer supports it on ' Marlboro ' legs, 
that is legs of a square tapered shape ending 
in a ' spade ' foot ; Hepplewhite more than 
doubles their thickness, representing legs 
strong enough, constructively, for the 
heaviest dining-table of that convivial 
period, and which seem somewhat out of 
place for the weight theys upport. 

Hepplewhite furniture taken as a whole 

■Ft'o. -i. 

7. on 








\ I 

Minor English Furniture Makers — Shearer 

is undoubtedly a revolt against the heavi- 
ness of the Chippendale period. Some- 
times he even leans to fragility, and it has 
been usual to consider him the prime mover 
in the evolution to lightness. As regards 
some of his furniture, particularly that 
which is intended for the drawing-room, 
there is a certain amount of justification 
for the contention ; at least, with such 
facts as are at our disposal, it cannot be 
absolutely denied. It is, however, possible, 
if indeed it is not likely, that the leader- 
ship of this evolution has been assigned to 
himsimplyfor lack, of other evidence. The 
* Book of Prices ' is the only publication 
of the kind contemporary with the first 
edition of the ' Guide,' and Shearer's 
avoidance of the drawing-room is as remark- 
able as his omission of chairs ; but where- 
ever it is possible to compare his designs 
with those of the ' Guide ' we invariably 
find an added lightness and grace. For 
purposesof comparison I illustrate two side- 
boards on almost identical lines 8 which 
explain the difference between the men in 
this particular better than can be done in 
words. From these it will be seen that it 
is Shearer rather than Hepplewhite who 
must be considered as the chief apostle of 
lightness ; for he took it to the extreme 
verge of safety. In the Hepplewhite side- 
board an appearance of lightness has evi- 
dently been aimed at in the two middle 
legs in a manner only found in his designs. 
These are not tapering squares as in 
Shearer's, but irregular parallelograms. 
Viewed from across a room, and not in the 
sudden perspective he affected in his draw- 
ings, the depth would not be noticeable, 
and they would appear to the eye as being 
considerably less massive than they really 
are, though even then by no means so light 
as Shearer's. Whether the extreme of 
fragility should be praised or blamed is a 
question that is open to argument ; but, 
after all, the proof of the pudding is in the 

8 Plate III, page 220. 

eating, and Shearer's furniture has so far 
stood the test of time. His reputation 
nevertheless has gained little by the fact. 
Actual pieces, either made by him or from 
his designs, are almost invariably ascribed 
to either Hepplewhite or Sheraton, while 
in a recently published book several illus- 
trations, taken straight from the ' Book of 
Prices,' are attributed to the latter designer. 
These side-boards show also another dif- 
ference between Hepplewhite and Shearer. 
In Shearer's drawing one end is designed 
as in the ' Guide,' but the other has an 
additional curvature very typical of the man 
who, for the most part, attempted to do 
by treatment of line what others did by 
ornamentation. His library table — a very 
different thing from Hepplewhite's ugly 
designs for the same purpose — is another 
example of this. It is a happy combina- 
tion of the curved forms of the Chippen- 
dale era, with the added reserve of the 
later taste. In his chests of drawers 9 he 
also makes use of the same treatment with 
good effect. 

A curious and somewhat rare form of 
dining table is that called by Shearer the 
' horse shoe.' 10 This was afterwards 
adopted by Sheraton, who designated it 
' Grecian,' probably from his treatment of 
the legs and also of the seats with which 
he surrounded it. It was made to extend 
to a half circle as shown on the diagram, 
the guests sitting round the outer circum- 
ference and being served from the inner. 

Whether Shearer influenced Hepplewhite 
or Hepplewhite Shearer is a question to 
which we are not likely to find a definite- 
answer ; yet as a considerable portion ot 
Sheraton's style was founded on Shearer's 
lines, the presumption is that if a man of 
such very decided personality was affected, 
Hepplewhite was no less indebted to this 
great but practically forgotten designer. 
{To be concluded?) 

9 No. 7, Plate II, page 217. 

10 No. 8, Plate II, page 217. 



PART I — HIS EARLY LIFE (Qontinued) 


HERE is nothing, then, 
inherently impossible in 
Vasari's statement, that 
Bernardetto was the early- 
patron of Andrea : at the 
least, that writer was 
strictly correct in saying 
that the estates of Bernardetto lay in the 
neighbourhood of Scarperia, from which 
San Piero a Sieve is distant only some five 
kilometres. Now Vasari expressly says that 
Andrea was born 

at a villetta (one of those little villas, half 'casa da 
signore,' and half farm-house, lying in its own 
land, which are characteristic of Tuscany), com- 
monly called II Castagno, not far distant from 
Scarperia ; 

whereas Milanesi, following Giuseppe 
Maria Brocchi in his 'Descrizione del Mu- 
gello,' 14 hastily concludes that the painter 
was born at San Martino a Castagno, a 
mountain-village lying under the precipi- 
tous heights of the Falterona, at the head 
of the grand and wild valley, which runs 
up from San Godenzo, under the shadow 
of" the Alpe di San Benedetto. This village, 
however, lies more than fifty kilometres dis- 
tant from Scarperia, on the farthest verge 
of the Mugello ; and it is extremely impro- 
bable that Bernardetto de' Medici would 
have heard of the doings of a peasant boy 
living in an inaccessible region, thus far 
removed from his villa. I have, moreover, 
carefully searched all the ' Denunzie al 
Castasto,' of the parish of San Martin a 
Castagno, for the year 1435, and I have 
failed to discover anything relating either 
to Andrea, or to his family. On the 
other hand, we possess one very signifi- 
cant piece of evidence regarding Andrea's 
connexion with Scarperia. Both the 
extant versions of the lost ' Libro di 

14 I.e., Firenze, 1748, p. 48. 

Billi,' 15 the ' Anonimo Gaddiano,' 16 and 
Vasari, 17 agree in recording that Andrea 
painted above the gateway of the Palace 
of the Vicars of the Republic, at Scarperia, 
' a naked Charity,' doubtless a fresco, which 
has long since perished. All such evi- 
dence then, as we possess, tends to confirm 
Vasari's account of the origins of Andrea. 
Certainly, Vasari never made any state- 
ment, unless he had it upon what seemed 
to him some sufficient authority. In this 
instance, his authority was no longer the 
lost ' Libro di Billi,' from which he appears 
to have derived the legend of the murder 
of Domenico Veneziano by Andrea. But 
Vasari might well have received such an 
account from Bernardetto's grandson, the 
Magnificent Ottaviano de' Medici, a great 
patron of the arts, with whom he was well 
acquainted, and who is frequently men- 
tioned in the pages of the ' Lives.' 

If then, as I think, we are to credit 
Vasari's story, it follows that Andrea must 
have been Bernardetto's junior by some 
years : so that if the latter was born, as he 
himself states, in 1395, the date of An- 
drea's birth cannot be placed earlier than 
the first decade of the fifteenth century. 
Indeed, if we suppose him to have been 
born c. 1 410, we are no longer met by the 
difficulty, which was the chief stumbling- 
block to our acceptance of Milanesi's 
legend, that for the first forty-four years 
of the life, not only have we no notice of 
him, but we have not even a single work 
by his hand which could be referred to 
this period of his career ; a thing incredible 
of a master, who was held in the highest 
esteem by his contemporaries. The earliest 
paintings by Andrea to which a date can be 
assigned, were the destroyed frescoes of the 

15 C. Frey : ' II Libro di Antonio Billi,' Berlin, 1892, pp. 22-3. 

16 C. Frey: '11 Codice Magliabechiano, cl. XVII. 17,' Berlin, 
1892, p. 99. 17 Ed. 1550, Vol. I, p. 416. 


Albizzi conspirators, executed apparently 
in 1434 : otherwise, all the extant works 
by his hand of which the date is known, 
or may be conjectured, are to be referred 
to a period subsequent to that year. From 
that time till the date of his death, we 
possess a whole series of notices and dated, 
or undated, works. 

Again, the supposition that the painter 
was born c. 1410, removes yet another 
difficulty which we had in accepting Mi- 
lanesi's legend. In the earliest of Andrea's 
extant works the influence of Donatello, 
and of Donatello in his maturity, is so pre- 
dominant and remarkable, that we cannot 

Andrea dal Castagno 

but conclude that Andrea tell under this 
influence at an early and impressionable 
period of his career. Had Donatello, as 
Milanesi would have us believe, been but 
two years older than Andrea, it is difficult 
to understand how so forcible and original 
a personality as the latter, could have re- 
mained so completely under that influence, 
at the age of fifty, as in that case he must 
have done. Whereas, if we suppose Andrea 
to have been, not the contemporary of 
Donatello, but his junior by upwards of 
twenty years, the influence which the latter 
exercised over him, becomes not only in- 
telligible, but illuminating. 


Having discussed the origins of Andrea's 
life, let us now turn to inquire into the 
origins of his art. The earliest date at 
which we hear of his activity as an artist 
is that of the year 1434, when he appears 
to have executed the effigies of the Albizzi 
conspirators, on the front of the Palazzo 
del Podesta, a building which afterwards 
served as the Palazzo del Bargello, by 
which name it is still known. Notices of 
these frescoes occur in both the extant 
versions of the ' Libro di Billi,' and among 
the collections of the ' Anonimo Gaddiano.' 
In the Codice Petrei, the notice runs thus: 

He painted on the face of the Palace of the 
Podesta of Florence, out of derision, in the like- 
ness of men hanged, divers citizens who had been 
banished by the State ; and from that time forth 
he was called Maestro Andreino degli Impiccati. 

In the Codice Strozziano, and in that of the 
Anonimo, the same notice occurs with some 
slight verbal changes. 1 Vasari in copying 
and expanding this notice, confuses these 
frescoes by Andrea, with those which Botti- 
celli painted in 1479, upon the face of the 
old Bargello, destroyed by II Cronaca in 
1495, to make room for Savonarola's great 
council chamber in the Palazzo Vecchio, 

1 C. Frey : ' II Libro di Antonio Billi,' Berlin, 1892, pp. 24-25. 
C. Frey : ' II Codice Msgliabechiano, cl. XVII, 17,' Berlin, 1892, 
p. 99. 

now known as the Sala dei Cinquecento. 
In the second edition of the ' Lives,' 
Vasari's notice runs thus : 

In the year 1478, when Giuliano de' Medici 
was killed, and Lorenzo, his brother, wounded, 
in Santa Maria del Fiore, by divers members of 
the Pazzi family and others, their adherents and 
fellow-conspirators, it was agreed by the Signory 
that all those who had taken part in that plot, 
should be painted in the likeness of traitors on 
the face of the Palace of the Podesta. Whence 
it was, that that work having been offered to 
Andrea, as the servant and as one under obli- 
gation to the Medici, he right willingly accepted 
it ; and having set himself to the work, executed 
it in so admirable a manner that it was a marvel. 
It would be impossible to describe how much art 
and judgement he showed in the persons por- 
trayed there, for the most part of the size of life, 
and hanging by the feet in strange attitudes, all 
various and most beautiful. This work, since it 
pleased the whole city, and particularly those 
who understood the matters of painting, was the 
reason that he was from henceforth no longer 
called Andrea dal Castagno, but Andrea degli 
Impiccati. 2 

Now Vasari, although he is in error in 
stating that the effigies painted upon the 
face of the Palazzo del Podesta were those 
of the Pazzi conspirators, has apparently 
preserved in this passage, an authentic de- 
scription of Andrea's frescoes : for the Pazzi 
conspirators, having been taken and killed, 

' Vasari, ed. 1568, vol. I, p. 399. 


Andrea dal Castagno 

were, as the ' Anonimo Gaddiano ' relates, 
painted by Botticelli hanging by the neck, 
with the one exception of Napoleone Fran- 
cesi, who alone escaped with his life, and 
who was represented hanging by one foot ; 3 
whereas the Albizzi conspirators, who had 
been banished the State, were, in accord- 
ance with a custom which had long pre- 
vailed at Florence, painted ' out of derision,' 
hanging by the feet. The last recorded 
instance of persons banished the State 
having been held up to infamy in this 
manner is that of the captains and rebels 
whose effigies were given to Andrea del 
Sarto to paint after the siege of Florence 
in 1 529.-* Several studies for these figures, 
hanging by one foot, are still preserved 
among the drawings in the Uffizi. Vasari, 
however, must have derived his account of 
these frescoes from others, for the effigies 
painted both bv Andrea dal Castagno and 
Sandro Botticelli, had been destroyed after 
the flight of Piero di Lorenzo de' Medici 
from Florence, in 1494, many years before 
Vasari's birth. But the notices which occur 
in two of the early chroniclers of the de- 
struction of these effigies, obviate any pos- 
sible confusion as to their place or subject. 
Giovanni Cambi, in his 'Istorie Floren- 
tine,' records that on November 14, 1494 
(three days before the entry of Charles VIII 
into Florence) , the effigies of the outlaws of 
the year 1434, painted on the Palazzo del 
Podesta, and those of the year 1478, painted 
on the Palazzo del Capitano [or del Bar- 
gello], were effaced, 5 and Jacopo Nardi 
records the same event almost in the same 
words. 6 

The decree of the Signoria recalling Co- 
simo de' Medici from exile was passed on 
October 2, 1434; and on the next day, 
Rinaldo degli Albizzi was banished, with 
his son Ormannozzo. On October 6, 

8 C Frey: 'II Codice Magliabechiano, cl. XVII, 17,' Berlin, 
1892, p. 105. 

* Vasari, ed. Sansoni, Vol. V, p. 53. 

4 I.e., printed in ' Delizie degli Eruditi Toscani,' Vol. XXI, 
p. 80. 

6 ' Historie di Fiorenza,' ed. 1582, p. 14, recto. 


Cosimo returned in triumph to Florence ; 
and as the chief object in holding the Albizzi 
and their followers up to infamy in these 
frescoes, was entirely of a political and par- 
tisan nature, there can be little doubt that 
they were executed with the same rapidity 
with which, as we know, Botticelli painted 
those of the Pazzi conspirators in 1478. 
We may, therefore, conclude with tolerable 
certainty, that they were painted during the 
latter part of the year 1434. Thus the first 
public work executed by Andrea of which 
any notice has come down to us, must virtu- 
ally, if not nominally, have been given to 
him by Cosimo himself, whose interest in 
the painter probably went back to the time 
when he was a boy, since Cosimo's ancestral 
possessions of Cafaggiolo and Trebbio, in 
the Mugello, adjoined the estates of Bernar- 
detto de' Medici. 

The earliest extant paintings by Andrea 
of which the date may be approximately 
ascertained, partly from documentary evi- 
dence, and partly from the character of the 
paintings themselves, are the series of 
frescoes in the suppressed convent of Sant' 
Appollonia at Florence. We search in 
vain for any notice of these paintings in 
the pages of Vasari, of the commentators, 
or of the older writers of guides and other 
topographical works; indeed, it is only 
since the building has passed into the 
keeping of the Italian Government, that 
attention has been drawn to these frescoes, 
and their real authorship has been recog- 
nized. The monastery of Sant' Appol- 
lonia, Virgin and Martyr, an abbey of 
Benedictine nuns, in the Via San Gallo, at 
Florence, was founded by Piero di Ser 
Mino de' Buonaccolti in 1339. In 1375, 
Neri Corsini, Bishop of Fiesole, united to 
the monastery the house of Santa Maria di 
Fonte Domini, in the diocese of Fiesole; 
but the nuns of Sant' Appollonia did not 
reach the height of their prosperity until 
the following century. 7 On October 12, 

7 G. Richa: ' Notizie delle Chiese Florentine,' Firenze. 1754, 
Vol. VIII, pp. 298-304. 

Photographs by Alimri.\ 


Andrea dal Castagno 

1429, Pope Martin V, seeing that the 
nuns, through the want of an infirmary, 
ran the risk of infection in times of the 
plague, empowered the archbishop or 
Florence, at the instance of the Abbess 
Cecilia de' Donati, to grant a faculty for the 
purchase of a house adjacent to the monas- 
tery, and belonging to the friars of Santa 
Maria a San Gallo, in order to erect such 
a building on the site. 8 Among the ar- 
chives of the monastery, now preserved in 
the Archivio di Stato at Florence, I find a 
book of accounts in which, as it appears 
from an entry on the first page, dated 1429, 
it was intended to set down — 

all the charges that shall be incurred on the fabric 
of that [monastery] , and particularly on an In- 
firmary, Refectory or Hall, Entrance, and Stairs 
and Dormitory, with their appurtenances thereto, 
by the Sister Cecilia di Pazzino di Messer Apardo 
Donati, at present Abbess of the aforesaid Monas- 
tery of Sant' Appollonia. 

From an entry on the next page, it 
appears that the nuns of Sant' Appollonia 
possessed four houses adjoining their mon- 
astery on the side towards the Porta San 
Gallo ; and that in the midst of this pro- 
perty, was the house and gardens belonging 
to the Spedale di San Gallo, for the pur- 
chase of which they had procured the 
faculty from Pope Martin V, in order to 
obtain a sufficient site for their new build- 
ings. Next follows a copy of the agree- 
ment drawn up on October 29, 1429, be- 
tween the Abbess Cecilia and ' Lorenzo 
di Giovanni da Ribuoia, maestro di mu- 
rare,' for the erection of these buildings : 
and further entries show that the demo- 
lition of the five houses preparatory to 
clearing the site was proceeding during 
the months of February and March, 
1429-30. After this, these accounts have 
been so incompletely kept, that they afford 
little or no insight into the progress of the 
work. 9 It would appear, however, from 
an indulgence of Eugenius IV, dated No- 
vember 4, 1434, that the new buildings 

» Doc. V, No. 512. » Doc. IV. 

had then been brought to completion, for 
among the altars cited in it is that of the 
' Pieta del Chiostro.' 10 The grant of this 
indulgence doubtlessly marks the full re- 
sumption of monastic life by the nuns, in 
their new house. 

The buildings of the Abbess Cecilia still 
remain for the most part in their original 
state, although, here and there, disfigured 
by modern accretions. Her ' refectorio 
ouero sala, androne, chiostro e schale,' 
those portions precisely of her work which 
possess for us an especial interest, are easily 
recognizable from the beautiful and early 
character of their architecture. They are 
designed in that first, pure phase of the 
Florentine Renaissance, in which the un- 
derlying gothic purpose and mediaeval 
sentiment constantly assert themselves be- 
neath the antique order and symmetry or 
their exterior. 

The frescoes by Andrea at Sant' Appol- 
lonia consist of a Pieta, in a lunette over 
the doorway leading to the little fore- 
court of the refectory ; and a Last Supper, 
with a Resurrection, Crucifixion, and En- 
tombment above, on the end wall of the 
refectory. The Pieta, which is difficult 
of access, is now in that part of the old 
monastery which serves as a military 
magazine ; the other frescoes, which are 
reproduced in the accompanying plate, are 
in the portion of the refectory attached to 
the little museo. All these frescoes were 
first ascribed to Andrea by Signor Caval- 
caselle, in the Italian edition of the 'History 
of Painting in Italy,' Vol. V, p. 99, where 
they are described at length. At the time 
when this volume first appeared, in 1892, 
the three upper frescoes had been recently 
discovered under the whitewash. 

Despite their damaged condition (large 
patches of the intonaco having fallen away), 
they are in a much more original state than 
the Last Supper below them, which bears 
the traces of repeated restoration. At first 

'• Doc. V, No. 534. 

r 227 

Andrea dal Castagno 

sight, these upper frescoes might appear to 
be of a somewhat earlier date than the Last 
Supper ; but this apparent difference must 
largely be due to the frequent retouches 
which the latter has undergone, and the 
darkening of its colour in the process of 
restoration. Certainly, the three frescoes 
of the Resurrection, the Crucifixion, and 
the Entombment, are among the very 
earliest works by Andrea which have come 
down to us. Other works of the same 
period are a series of panels, once forming 
a ' predella,' one of which, a Crucifixion, 
is now in the National Gallery, No. 1 1 38 ; 
and the somewhat earlier frescoes which 
formed the decoration of a private chapel 
near Florence, and which still remain there 
in private hands. 

The years immediately succeeding the 
rebuilding and enlargement of the monastery 
formed a period of great prosperity for the 
nuns of Sant' Appollonia, as may be seen 
fromRicha's account of the convent. 11 This 
fact, no less than the internal evidence 
of the paintings themselves, goes to prove 
that Andrea's frescoes were executed for 
the Abbess Cecilia, and that the earliest ot 
them were painted, as I think, not long 
after the completion of her buildings, 
c. 1434. Certainly, all these paintings are 
earlier in date than the circular window 
of the Deposition in the cathedral at 
Florence, for the cartoon of which Andrea 
was paid 50 lire piccioli, on February 26, 
1443-4. This is the earliest documented 
work by the master which has come down 
to us. 

It needs no very profound acquaintance 
with Italian art in the fifteenth century, to 
realize that in these frescoes of Andrea's, 
we have a phase of Florentine painting 
which is the very antithesis of the painting 
of Fra Angelico and Fra Filippo ; and that 
whereas the art of Fra Angelico and Fra 
Filippo is the logical outcome of the art 
of such masters as Masolino and Lorenzo 

11 I.e., Vol. VIII, p. 300, etc. 

Monaco, we must search in vain among 
the work of the painters who preceded 
Andrea, for that which can adequately 
account for the origin and development 
of his art. There is a moment in the 
career of Masaccio, when his manner 
so closely resembles that of his master, 
Masolino, that critics are still disputing to 
which of the two painters certain frescoes 
are to be attributed. But Andrea, in his 
very earliest works, appears so original a 
figure, that we are forced to look elsewhere 
than among the painters of his day, for the 
influences which went to form his manner. 
The frescoes at Sant' Appollonia are the 
work of a master who is entirely preoccu- 
pied with the study of naturalistic structure, 
form, and relief; but always as a mode of 
pictorial expression. The subject of this 
expression is invariably some ' passion of 
the mind,' forcibly rendered, and often with 
so much vehemence that, to our modern 
way of thinking, it seems at times to par- 
take of some colour of brutality. Again, 
in his search after the individual type, 
Andrea avoids that generalized breadth and 
ideality of conception, which in Giotto and 
Masaccio produces a grandeur and beauty of 
design, which is at times akin to the antique. 
Now, not only in these traits, but in the 
actual forms and characters, does the art 
of Andrea recall that of Donatello. His 
heads and hands, and, still more, the heavy 
folds of his draperies, as of a thick woollen 
cloth, are obviously founded upon a study 
of the works of that sculptor. It is im- 
possible to look attentively at the figures 
in the frescoes at Sant' Appollonia without 
recalling such works of Donatello's as the 
St. Mark on the exterior of Or San Michele, 
or the later series of prophets on the cam- 
panile of the cathedral, which, for the 
most part, were executed between 141 5 
and 1425. Nor is this resemblance to be 
traced only in the heads and draperies : the 
figure of Christ upon the Cross at Sant' 
Appollonia, is so closely studied from the 


Crucifix by Donatello in Santa Croce, that 
Andrea here appears definitely to attempt 
in painting what the older master had 
achieved in sculpture. 

Again, all the architectural ornaments 
of the open chamber in which Christ and 
the Apostles are seated, are designed wholly 
in that very individual manner which 
Donatello founded upon antique Roman 
ornament, and of which the marble 
tabernacle of Or San Michele, which now 
contains Verrocchio's bronze, is the most 
remarkable example. 

But great as was Donatello's influence 
over Andrea, we must look, elsewhere for the 
master from whom he directly acquired the 
practice and technique of painting. Cer- 
tainly, such a master could not have been 
Paolo Uccello : for throughout his life, 
Andrea remained ignorant of the first 
principles of perspective ; and it is incon- 
ceivable that so gifted a creature as he 
could have worked in Paolo's ' bottega ' 
without acquiring the elementary prin- 
ciple of the vanishing point. In the fresco 
of the Last Supper, at Sant' Appollonia, 
the lines of the inlaid frieze on the lateral 
walls of the open chamber, in which 
Christ and the Apostle are seated, instead 
of converging to the point of sight, appear 
to diverge. Similar errors, showing the same 
ignorance of the then newly discovered 
science of perspective, occur in the draw- 
ing of the architectural forms of the sepul- 
chral fresco of Niccolo da Tolentino, in the 
cathedral at Florence, a work executed in 
1456, the last year but one of Andrea's 
life. Uccello, on the other hand, evinces 
a profound acquaintance with the science 
of perspective in his very earliest works. 
The black and white spaces of the parti- 
coloured string-course which divides the 
fresco of the Creation from that of the 
Fall, in the Chiostro Verde, at Santa Maria 
Novella, are correctly diminished in accord- 
ance with the laws of perspective. Yet 
these frescoes must have been executed 

Andrea dal Castagno 

prior to Uccello's journey to Venice in 
1425. In what measure Uccello may have 
indirectly influenced Andrea, in the course 
of his career, is a wholly different ques- 

I have yet to allude to certain traits 
which go to distinguish these earlier paint- 
ings, as I take them, from Andrea's later 
works. These are principally traits of 
motive and sentiment : of motive such as 
the dishevelled figure of the Magdalene at 
the foot of the Cross, or of the violent 
gestures andmovementsof the flying angels, 
in the frescoes of the refectory at Sant' 
Appollonia, traits which carry us back to 
certain Giottesque painters, as Bernardo 
Daddi and others ; and of sentiment such 
as the extreme ruggedness of conception 
which marks the figures of the Apostles in 
the Last Supper, a trait equally Giottesque 
in its origin, which is largely modified in 
Andrea's later works, such as the figures ot 
the Sybils and Famous Men, now preserved 
in the Museo di Sant' Appollonia. May 
these traits be interpreted to signify, that 
the master from whom Andrea learned his 
craft as a painter, was one of the late 
'Giotteschi ' ? 

It is, perhaps, as a colourist that the 
originality of Andrea as a painter is most 
obvious and significant. Wholly unlike 
Fra Angelico, who still employs the pure 
and brilliant pigments of the Giottesque 
masters, though transfused by that skyey 
tint of his, which seems some actual re- 
flection of his vision of heavenly things, 
Andreadoesnot even attempt, with Lorenzo 
Monaco or Fra Filippo, to reduce such a 
palette to a colour-scheme, whose harmony 
is the result of a certain fusion, rather than 
an exquisite contrast, of its elements. Nor 
does he, like Massaccio, while following 
essentially the methods of his master, 
Masolino, seek to render the pigments ot 
the Giottesque painters, not less decora- 
tive in efFect, but more expressive of the 
effect of colour in external nature. On the 


Andrea dal Castagno 

contrary, he employs a palette which does 
not appear to have been derived from the 
practice of any of his predecessors. The 
naturalism with which Andrea attempts to 
render the colour of ' the outward shows 
of things ' is even more original and unpre- 
cedented than his rendering of form. A 
clear leaf-green, deep purples, a bricky red 
inclining at times to purple, and a heavy, 
golden yellow, are the predominant local 
tints of the upper frescoes in the refectory 
at Sant' Appollonia. Blue is used but spar- 
ingly ; gold not at all. But the most re- 
markable trait of their colouring is the 
device by which the painter seeks to effect 
a fusion of his pigments, despite the limita- 
tions of the medium in which he is work- 
ing. He employs it in the figure on the 

left of the group of the three Maries, who 
stand on the left of the Cross ; where he 
colours the mantle a clear green, shot with 
a deep purple in the shadows. Again, in 
the lower fresco of the Last Supper, the 
green draperies of St. James and the smalt 
blue draperies of St. Thomas are both shot 
with purple in the shadows. 

But my space is already gone, and I have 
been able to touch but hurriedly upon a few 
of the more significant and characteristic 
traits of these frescoes : still, perhaps, I 
have been able to show that, obscure as 
may appear the development of Andrea's 
manner, and the chronology of his works, 
they are questions which, despite their 
difficulty, we may yet in great measure hope 
to solve. 



Firenze: R. Archivio di Stato; Arch, delle Decime : Quar- 
tiere, Santo Spirito ; Gonfalone, Scala ; Filza, 1431 ; N° verde, 
333 ; fol. 4 recto, Denunzia di Andrea di Bartolommeo' detto 

Gofalone della iscala 
quartiere disanto ispirito 
Andrea dibartolomeo sitruoua descritto 

alcatasto neldetto gofalone insoldi tre sold] 3 
Andrea predetto e una pouerissima 
p«sona eistato questo anno infermo 
trallo ispedale disanta raaria nuoua 
eloispedale depizocheri piu demese 
quatro e a lefra scritte sustanzie 
In prima una chasetta posta nepopolo 
di santo andrea alinari luogo detto 
alinari intorno intorno uia dua pe- 
zuoli diuigna poste nel detto popolo 
frailoro uochaboli ecofini 
Anchora upezuolo diuigna choboscho 
euna meza chasetta poste nepopolo 
disapagolo aema luogo detto anifor- 
zati frailoro uochaboli ecofini lauo- 
rali santi del gregia popolo disanto 
andrea alinari e auisi ricolto suso 
ilterzo [? primo] anno barili undici 
diuino esecondo anno barili quatro 
diuino. elterzo anno barili cinque 
upochodolio isterzato idetti tre anni 
barili sette eraeno - - - uino barili 7 

olio umezo orcfo - olio mezo orcio 

Andrea detto anni quaranta o piu anni 40 
adebito tutti icatasti eacatoni sono 

fiorini sette soldi tredici aoro fiorinj 7 sold] 13 aoro 

Nona nechasa neletto nemaseritia 
in firenze ese infermasse licouiene 
ire alospedale recoma«dauisi perla 
amore didio 
fol. 19 tergo, 

quar" Santo Spirito G° Schala Andrea 

di bartolomeo deto burbanza - sold) 3 
Recho Bernardo di sir saluestro adi 
2C;Gienaro [1430-1] 


Firenze: R. Archivio di Stato; Arch, delle Decime; Quar- 
tiere, Santo Spirito; Gonfalone, Scala; Campione 1430; 
N° verde 393, fol. 170 tergo, 

Denunzia of ' Andrea dj Bartolomeo decto burbanza.' 

Firenze ; R. Archivio di Stato ; Arch, delle Decime, Quartiere 
Santo Spirito ; Gonfalone, Scala ; Campione 1427, N° verde 64, 
fol. 210 tergo, 

+ M cccc° xxvij 
Sustanzie dj 
Andrea dj bartolomeo detto burbanza. A diprestanzone 

Vna Chasetta dalauoratore posta nel popolo disanto andrea 
allinarj luogho detto linarj apn'w via aij° & iij° & iiij° dant" 
dicione quaratesj. 
Pezzi 4 diterra cho[n] j 1 chasetta apartene cioe ladetta 
chasetta posta nel popolo disan pagholo aema cholloro 
vochaboli & confini chome appare per lasua scritfa G 
N°c. 14. 
Lauora jdetti beni Nerj dj bartolo edomenicho dipiero 

Rende Lanno 
Vino bar//;' 10 asoldj 22 ilbarile lire n 
Lengnie chatasta J aXire j soldj 10 lacatasta lire — soldj^io 
Soma lire 11 soldj 10 sono a.soldj 80 per iiorino — iiorinj 2 

soldj 17 danarj 6 
Vale a Ragione dj 7 perc" Iiorinj 31 soldj 2 


Andrea sopradetto dannj 37 iiorinj 200 

Somma il suo valsente disopra iiorinj 31 soldj 2 
A Somma ptrincharicho dunabocha iiorinj 200 
Postolj perluficio soldj iij 

Firenze: R. Archivio di Stato; Conventisoppressi, N° grosso82, 
Sant' Appollonia, N° 10 ; Ricordi, Debitori e Creditori, Spese_di 
Fabbrica, Compre, Fitti, Vendite, &c. dal 1429 al 1515. 
fol. 1 recto, 

Alnome didio Amen Anno dowinj M cccc xxviiij 

Qvi Apresso Jnquesto libro Siscriuera psllo Maestro Antonio 

dj Saluj damarcalla frate dj Santo sptri'ro difirenfe dei 

fratj heremitanj dellordiwe disancto Agostino, Confessore 

alpresente delle donne Emonistero dj Su«cra Appollonia 



popolo djsancfo lorenzo difirence Jnuia Sangallo Ari- 
uerentia didio Edella Vergine Maria sua Madre Edisanc/a 
appollonia Auocata didcc.'o Monistero // Tucte lespese 
Sifarawno Jnhedificio diquello Espetialmente in Vna in- 
fermeria refectorio ouero sala Androne chiostro eschale 
E dormitorio consuoj Aconcj apresso. Per Suora Cecilia 
di pa<;cino dimessrr apardo donatj Alpresente badessa 
disopradfcfo monistero dj sancta Appollonia Conuolonta 
Econsentimento ditucte laltre Suore donne didtcto Monis- 
tero Kper ognaltra spesa occorresse p^r decto Monistero 
ol. i tergo, 

Ricordo chelsopra decto Monistero disancta appollonia 
Aueua quattro casette allato dalla parte djsopra uerso 
laporta disanc/o gallo fralle qualj uera Vna casa chonorto 
dello spedale dj Sancfo gallo & sanca quella no« poteuano 
fare elsopradtcfo lauorio & hedi6cio, fudibisongnio lacom- 
prassono dal decro spedale, funne meccano Ser Michele 
spedalingho dj Sancta maria Nuoua dj firence per pregio 
dj fiorinj dugento doro nettj aldecto spedale / Etucte 
lespese occorressono in corte pdla licentia didicta uendita 
Eanche gabelle & carte &c. pagasse eldecto monistero, 
fudibisongnio chella d«c/a badessa Suora Cecilia mandasse 
in corte diroma Esuplicasse alsancto padre desse licentia 
al prior; Messjc bernardo dello spedale di sancto gallo 
potesse ladecta casa uenders aldecto monistero dj sa«c/a 
appollonia Epi-ttanto cauo dj corte Vna bolla della quale 
questo e eltenor* Ecopia 

[Here follows the text of the Bull, dated, ' v Jdns ottubris 
Pontificatus nostrj Anno duodecimo,' i.e. n October 1429.] 

ol. 3 tergo, 

Ricordo che adj xxviij dottobre Mccccxxviiij" Suora Cecilia 
badessa deldccto Monistero di Sancta. Appollonia Allogho 
allorenco dj giouannj da Ribuoia Maestro dj murare 
ellauorio Et hedificio dispone difare in acrescimento 

Andrea dal Castagno 

didicta monistero per Vna scripta soscripta dimano delluna 
parte & dellaltra della quale la copia e Questa. 

[Here follows a. copy of the agreement.) 
fol. 6 recto, 

' Spese fatte pfrfare disfar* Cinque case allato ald«c/o 
monistero di Sancta appollonia ' &c. 

[The first entry is for work done on ' 8 dj febraio i429p*rinsino 
adi 24 dj marzo dtcto anno.' After this, few or none of the 
entries relate to the expenses of the new monastery ] 

DOC. V. 

Firenze: R. Archivio di Stato ; Conventi Soppressi, N°"grosso 
82, Sant' Appollonia, N" 1, ' Spoglio delle Cartapecora esistenti 
nel Venerab. Monasterio di S. Appollonia.' 

N° 512. 12 Ott'<-' 1429. 

Martino V. a cagioneche le Monache non avendo infermeria 
venivano a comunicarsi il male nel tempo del mal con- 
tagioso .... ad istanza della Badessa Cecilia, commette 
all' Arciv° fior" . . . . di dar facolta di comprare una casa 
contigua di proprieta di Frati di S. M« a S. Gallo per 
farui la d" Infermeria. . . . 

N° 534. 4 gbre 1434. 

Indulgenza plenaria (simile a quella del 1439) colla sola 
varieta che il 3' Altare e la Pieta del chiostro di S. Appol- 
lonia. data l'anno 3 di Eugenio IV. 

N° 557. 27 Apn'le (1439 pare) anno 8°. 

Indulgenza plenaria e delle chiese di Roma, concessa ne' 
respetti 8 giorni delle d" Chiese, alle Monache, novizie, 
ed alle serventi di S. Appoll 1 che visitano un' altare, e 
l'altar del coro, e il crocifisso del Chiostro, dicendo ad 
ogni altare de sud' un Miserere, un' Ave, un Pater, e 
1' orazione Deus omnium fidelium pastorum 


iLTHOUGH Boucher's name 
is generally to be found in the 
lists of miniaturists appended 
to the works of those specialists 
(who have lately written on 
this still imperfectly-explored 
sub-section of painting, he 

,has hardly ever been seriously 

considered from this point of view. One's first im- 
pulse is, indeed, to put down en bloc the miniatures 
currently ascribed to him to the charming person 
who so skilfully copied in miniature many of his 
paintings — that is, toMarie-JeanneBuseau, Madame 
Boucher. I must frankly own that, with the ex- 
ception of the portrait now to be discussed, I have 
never seen — ce qui s'appelle de mes yenx vu — a 
miniature that could seriously be ascribed to the 
dazzlingly brilliant master of decoration, who was 
also on occasion genre-painter, and more rarely 
portraitist ; but who, as a rule, counterfeited only 
the fair sex. In the catalogue of the great exhi- 
tion of miniatures held at the South Kensington 
Museum in 1865, 1 find the following two entries: 
No. 141, Boucher and His Wife, by Himself, vel- 
lum (lent by Mr. George Bonner), and No. 147, 
Yanloo and His Wife, by Boucher, vellum (same 
collection). Unfortunately I have never seen the 
miniatures so summarily described, and as to their 
1 Reproduced, Plate I, page 232. 

present whereabouts can say nothing. The cata- 
logue does not say whether they bore the signature 
of Boucher. The Vanloo of the miniature is no 
doubt Carle Vanloo, with whom Boucher made 
the obligatory journey to Italy — he who shared 
with the Pompadour's favourite painter the ob- 
loquy of later times, and is responsible for the 
now obsolete verb vanlotiser, which summed up the 
art of Boucher's brother-painter more contemptu- 
ously than did the still subsisting marivaudage, 
the exquisitely-finished prose of Marivaux. This 
portrait of Boucher's enthusiastic and discerning 
patroness, the Marquise de Pompadour, in the 
Wallace Collection (No. 89, Catalogue of Minia- 
tures), I hold to be beyond doubt the work of 
the master himself, and, what is more, a portrait 
of the Marquise differing essentially from any 
other that his brush has given to the world. 
But, again, I shall no doubt be asked whether 
it is not in the highest degree improbable that 
the foremost if not the greatest painter of France, 
when at the very zenith of fame — at the moment 
when he was carrying out with the boldest and 
most practised of brushes those vast and splendid 
decorative compositions Le Lever du Soleil and 
Le Coucher du Soleil now at Hertford House 
— should quietly settle down to execute a mi- 
niature of such relatively small dimensions, of 
such exquisite refinement and delicacy as is 
this one. But against improbabilities we must 


A Miniature by Francois Boucher 

strive to set up what amounts to a certainty, 
based on the design and technique of the little 
piece. The touch in its vivacity, its assurance, is 
Boucher's very own ; the sharp high-lights on the 
boldly-broken draperies of satin are his, not less 
distinctive of his manner and his individuality be- 
ing the scheme of colour, the brilliant, half-conven- 
tional treatment of the landscape, the treatment, 
too, of the gaudy, unreal flowers. The transparent 
shadows with their ambre tone, are, moreover, in 
his best manner, and the famous artist sets his 
imprimatur on the whole with the signature in the 
left-hand corner— ' F. Boucher ' — this correspond- 
ing exactly to the signature of several of the 
paintings in the Wallace Collection, and being 
manifestly his own writing with the brush. 
Surely no mere limner, be he ever so much a 
master of his craft, has this vivacity, this breadth 
in littleness, this sense of largeness and space, 
that makes us almost forget the extreme exiguity 
of the dimensions. These qualities are just those 
which the copyist, even working under the eye of 
the originator, does not get. And moreover, 
unless I am greatly mistaken, there is extant no 
portrait of Madame de Pompadour of exactly this 
type from which a reduced copy could have been 
taken. Jacques Charlier, the noted miniaturist 
and gouache painter, did admirable copies of and 
adaptations from Boucher's compositions, to- 
gether with some things of which it is not easy to 
say whether they are merely inspired by the 
peintre du roi or stolen from him. The Wallace 
Collection contains an extraordinarily complete 
collection of these delicately-touched blond-toned 
gouaches, from which it may easily be seen how 
wide a gulf separates the rather mechanical and 
monotonous dexterity of Charlier from the true 
brilliance, the true impulse, which burst forth in 
the little Madame de Pompadour of his exemplar. 
Nearer to this last than anything else in the Wal- 
lace Collection is the Lady in a Costume of Pom- 
padour fashion (No. 102 in the Catalogue of 
Miniatures), which has a piquancy, an iniimite 
that are all its own. Yet between the technique of 
even this sprightly little piece and the Madame 
de Pompadour, its near neighbour here, a gulf 
yawns. The latter must have been a wholly ex- 
ceptional effort on the part of the king's painter, 
who was also, and above all, the court painter of 
the favourite. In conception and style, in ar- 
rangement, it stands midway between two well- 
known portraits in oils. These are the Marquise 
au Jardin, of which one version is in the collec- 
tion of Baron Alphonse de Rothschild, and another 
in the Jones collection at South Kensington, and the 
larger and more sumptuous Marquise sur sa Chaise- 
Longue, once in the collection of the earl of 
Lonsdale, and now at Waddesdon, in that of 
Miss Alice de Rothschild. Identical with this last 
in costume and pose, but perhaps more living, 
closer knit in the modelling and execution, a trifle 


more happily individualized, too, is the three- 
quarter length portrait in the National Gallery of 
Scotland. Of this last there is a fairly accurate 
miniature copy in the Wallace Collection (No. 79 
in the Catalogue of Miniatures), and it is instruc- 
tive to see how dull and lifeless it looks by the 
side of the original which we are now discussing. 
Another portrait differing wholly in design from 
those comprised in this group is that very attrac- 
tive oil painting No. 418 in the Wallace Collection 
(Gallery XVIII) which depicts the Marquise stand- 
ing wide-eyed and self-conscious — anxious to please 
yet somewhat weary — in a leafy bower that encloses 
a marble Nymph and Cupid of the true Boucher 
type. Here she looks in her supreme elegance 
the woman who feels the responsibilities and no 
longer enjoys the delights of her difficult position. 
The exquisite fashion of her demi-toilette of peach- 
blossom silk, trimmed with white or silver gauze, 
proves her once more to have been the best- 
dressed woman and the least fagotee of her time. 
In the miniature of the Wallace Collection there 
is a great resemblance of mould and feature to the 
famous life-size pastel portrait by Latour, which 
was at the Salon of 1755, and is now in the Louvre. 
And yet nothing could well be in more striking 
contrast than the langour and ennui of Latour's 
Marquise, posing for the woman of learning and 
accomplishment easily worn, and the fresh, charm- 
ing coquetry of our Pompadour, with her piquant 
costume of blue and white satin — midway between 
that of the comedy shepherdess and the great 
lady — her dainty feet, naked and sandalled, her 
garlands and enwoven chains of fresh flowers, her 
general air of satisfaction with self and with life. 

I should judge the miniature to have been 
executed some years before the ornate semi-official 
portrait of Waddesdon, with its subtle suggestion 
offadeur and physical langour peeping forth under 
the well-sustained air of the court beauty en titre. 
This last was in the Salon of 1757, where, with 
other things, it was noted by the pencil of G. de 
St. Aubin. A repetition, signed and dated 1758, 
is in the collection of Baron Adolphe de Roths- 
child. The miniature of the Wallace Collection 
is, quite apart from its rarity and its exquisiteness 
of quality, one of the most individual and charm- 
ing portraits extant of the elegant and accom- 
plished woman who was so well able to attract 
admiration and regard of a certain kind, so little 
able to evoke genuine sympathy of the more 
emotional order. Claude Phillips. 


The four paintings here reproduced adorn the 

shutters of a triptych, the central panel of which 

no doubt represented the taking down of our Lord 

2 Reproduced, Plate II, page 235. Oak : h. o ra £65 ; b. o™ 275- 

« x o z 

a < ?! 

H a * < 

n o 

B U o 

S 5 5 

<■> s 

Z C 2 H tt. B tn 

Shutters of a Triptych by Gerard David 

from the Cross, or more probably the Deposition. 
It is not known where this central panel now is 
or whether it has been destroyed. The shutters 
were acquired by the late earl of Ashburnham in the 
early part of the last century, and passed from his 
collection into that of the late Mr. Henry Willett, 
of Brighton, from whom they were purchased by 
the late Mr. Rudolph Kann, of Paris, and there is 
now little chance of their returning to this country. 
When we reflect on the very inadequate manner 
in which the early Netherlandish masters, with 
the exception of John van Eyck and Gerard 
David, are represented in the National Gallery, 
and the many opportunities of acquiring authentic 
works that have occurred and been neglected 
during the last twenty years, it makes us feel 
rather ashamed of the manner in which our 
gallery is managed. But to return to our subject: 
The shutters have been sawn in their thickness 
and parquetted. The Annunciation is represented 
on what was the exterior. The archangel and the 
Virgin stand facing each other; Gabriel, on the 
dexter side, clad in an alb girt with a tasselled 
cord, holds a sceptre in his left hand, and with his 
right raised and outstretched has just delivered 
his message. Mary, attired in a simple dress and 
mantle, with a half-closed book in her left hand 
and her right raised, bows her head in token 
of her submission to the divine will ; the Holy 
Dove is flying down to her. These two charming 
figures, remarkable for their simplicity and ex- 
quisite purity, have hardly been surpassed by any 
master. They are painted in grisaille, the flesh 
lightly tinted and the hair heightened with gold ; 
the angel here and in the Annunciation of the 
Sigmaringen Museum 3 are painted from the same 
model, and both in pose and attire closely 
resemble each other. 

Interior. — In the foreground of the dexter panel 
the Carriage of the Cross is represented, a com- 
position of four figures. Our Lord, crowned with 
thorns and clad in a dark grey robe, his arms 
round the transverse beam of the Cross, is on the 
point of falling beneath its weight. Behind him 
an old man with grey hair and beard, Simon of 
Cyrene, is endeavouring to diminish the weight of 
the burden by lifting and supporting the cross ; he 
wears a greenish-blue tunic with a purple hood. 
On his left is a soldier who, grinding his teeth 
with a vicious look, raises his hand to strike the 
Saviour. Another in front with a threatening 
gesture tugs at the rope with which our Lord is 
girt to make him advance. In the immediate 
front are a couple of flowering plants and a dog 
running at full speed. On a height in the back- 
ground Christ is seen hanging on the cross 
between the thieves, with Mary Magdalene stand- 
ing at the foot looking up, and on the left the 
Virgin Mother, Mary Cleophas, and St. John, the 

s Exhibited at Bruges in 1902, No. 12S of the catalogue. Photo- 
graphed by Bruckmann. 

last kneeling; to the right, at some little distance, 
are Longinus and the centurion. 

The Resurrection is represented on the other 
panel. The risen Saviour, clad in a crimson 
mantle, stands before the sepulchre hewn out in 
the side of a rock. His right hand is raised as in 
the act of blessing ; with the left he holds a cross 
with a white banner charged with a red cross. 
On the right a soldier, fast asleep, is seated on a 
mound, with his arms crossed resting on his 
knees ; another, on the left, apparently only half 
awake, grasps his lance with both hands ; a third, 
wrapped in a cloak, lying at full length in the fore- 
ground, has just awoke, and is raising his hand to 
shade his eyes. On a road in the half distance 
our Lord and the two disciples are seen journeying 
towards a castellated building on a height in the 
background. Through one of the windows they 
are seen at table, our Lord in the act of breaking 
bread. The details of the soldier's costume are 
well rendered. This work appears to have been 
painted towards the close of" the fifteenth cen- 

W. H. James Whale. 




This masterpiece by Ver Meer of Delft, which by 
the kindness of the owner, Mrs. Joseph, we have 
been permitted to reproduce as a frontispiece, is 
well-known to all students of that now famous 
painter. It is strange to think that only fifteen 
or twenty years ago the name of Ver Meer was 
hardly remembered, much less regarded as a rival 
in honour to those of De Hoogh and Terborch. 
It is unfair to press comparisons between three 
such consummate masters of genre, but it is evi- 
dent that, while De Hoogh conceals his art by his 
splendid sincerity, and Terborch in his best works 
by his exquisite taste, Ver Meer has no such 
shyness. At a glance we can recognize his mar- 
vellous brushwork, his sense of pattern, his 
astonishing feeling of light and atmosphere. He 
is always determined that his point shall not be 
mistaken, and so forces his sitter upon the obser- 
vation by unusual breadth, unusual vividness, 
unusual contrast, or by an unusual point of vision, 
often by one much nearer to the spectator than 
was the practice of his contemporaries. Of this 
trait of character The Soldier and the Laughing 
Girl is a magnificent example ; one feels that 
Sargent might have viewed the scene so. It may 
too, perhaps, explain the reason why Ver Meer, 
of all the great Dutchmen, is the one with 
whom the modern mind is most completely 

< Reproduced, frontispiece, page 172. 


The ''Virgin of Salamanca"* 

The recent exhibition at the Burlington Fine 
Art Club of the picture now illustrated, and that 
of other works by or attributed to the same 
painter at the exhibition of ' Les primitifs 
Francais,' in Paris last year, have added greatly 
to the interest taken in the works and personality 
of this important early master. 

An ancient replica of this composition, with 
some variations, indicating the later date of pro- 
duction of the picture, has, moreover, been recently 
added by bequest to the Museum of the Louvre, 
and French art critics are now advancing the 
theory that the master was one of the chief 
luminaries of the early French school. 

There does not, however, seem to be any valid 
evidence in support of that assumption. There 
are, on the other hand, direct and significant 
indications connecting the painter with an adjoin- 
ing country — the Spanish Peninsula. Nearly all 
the works of this master, of which the original 
provenance has, in recent times, been discovered, 
have, as has been already noted by the German 
art critic, Von Tschudi, been traced to Spain. 
The present picture was acquired in that country 
many years ago. 

More directly relevant and important, however, 
is the fact that there is internal evidence in the 
present work, of a direct circumstantial nature, to 
the effect that the painter, whoever he was, 
whether of Flemish, French or Spanish nationality, 
had visited and worked, and indeed, probably had 
his ultimate home in a particular part of the 

In a further communication this evidence will 
be discussed and illustrated by reference to other 
works of the master, or his following, of which 
no note has hitherto been taken. 

For convenience of reference, and on the basis 
of evidence which will be adduced later on, the 
picture now illustrated is entitled ' The Virgin 
of Salamanca.' 

J. C. Robinson. 



Among the most interesting ornaments of the 
garments unearthed in the cemeteries of Upper 
and Middle Egypt are the woven silk panels and 
bands sometimes found on tunics of the Byzantine 
period. The decorations of the earlier Roman 
epoch were mostly wrought into the garments 
themselves, but these silk pieces were woven 
entirely separate from the robes to which they 
were afterwards sewn. They have mostly survived 
as fragments. The common practice among 
searchers in the cemeteries has been to strip off 

5 Reproduced, Plate III, page 239. 

the ornaments from the robes — greatly to the 
detriment of their historical value — and to discard 
the rest as worthless. The museum at South Ken- 
sington has, however, been fortunate in securing 
a complete linen tunic, still preserving its silken 
ornaments, though in a somewhat frayed condition. 
It belongs to a period when the toga or pallium had 
fallen into disuse for common wear, and the tunic 
was worn as an outer garment. It is about 4 ft. 6 in. 
long, of ample proportions, and provided with long 
sleeves. The woven silk ornaments consist of two 
narrow bands, or clavi, passing over the shoulders, 
and ending on both front and back near the waist. 
Circular medallions (orbiculi) are applied below, 
and the sleeves have rectangular panels over the 
wrists. The colour is purple, the patterns being 
in white. On the bands and the medallions are 
conventional plant forms. The more interesting 
ornament is found on the sleeves. It consists of 
a mounted horseman holding aloft a sceptre or 
mace, and attacked from below by a foot-soldier 
with a long spear. In the lower corner is a long- 
necked bird, perhaps a stork. Above the horseman 
is the word zaxapiov. The design is a favourite 
one ; the museum already possesses two or three 
examples, woven to different scales. The tunic 
probably dates from the sixth or seventh century ; 
possibly from the fifth. 6 The last-named century 
is perhaps too early, as the secret of silk cultivation 
was then unknown in the west, and the precious 
material was of necessity used in a sparing 
manner. As to the locality of production, the 
Greek inscription points to a Byzantine origin, 
and this is strengthened by the fact that similar 
silk weavings sometimes have Christian subjects 
and symbols {e.g. St. Michael and the Dragon, the 
Cross, the A and O). But the term Byzantine 
must be used in a wide sense. They may have 
been woven at Alexandria, or in one of the Greek 
cities of Asia ; it is even possible that they were 
produced in the royal weaving factory at Con- 
stantinople. It is evident that they were expressly 
woven for decorating a tunic. The clavus, with 
its roundel and narrow connecting band, is all 
woven in one piece, the parts cut away having 
been without ornament. 

A. F. Kendrick. 


This series of portraits of personages who died 
between 1625 and 1714 undoubtedly did not con- 
tain many pictures of high artistic importance, 
and the works exhibited were too often damaged 
by repainting, but those who saw the collection 
are not likely to forget it, if only from the parts 

6 Dr. Forrer (Romische und Byzantinische SeidenTextilicn, PI. vii.) 
attributes the piece with the horseman to the fourth or fifth 
century, but he has been misled by an imperfect example into re- 
placing the initial Z by M, and has assigned the date accordingly. 






which many of the originals played in the most 
disturbed and dramatic epoch of our history. To 
the student of English painting, however, the 
collection was far more instructive than if it had 
been composed entirely of works by well-known 
artists, since it was possible to form from it a fair 
general idea of the state of painting in England 
during the seventeenth century. 

In the metropolis we see the fashionable studios 
of Van Dyck, Lely, and Kneller, each surrounded 
by a crowd of pupils, drapery painters, and 
copyists, English and foreign. Then we have the 
foreigner working in England, from the skilful 
professional such as Oliver de Crats to the peri- 
patetic journeyman who travelled from town to 
town exploiting his smaller talent. Last we have 
the local English painters such as Taylor of 
Oxford and Gandy of Exeter; the one untrained 
and clumsy, but once at least showing an em- 
phasis and grandeur which make the coming of a 
Reynolds seem hardly wonderful ; the other the 
actual master of Reynolds who taught him much 
which he remembered and practised to the end of 
his life. Those responsible for the exhibition and 
the catalogue have done a most valuable piece of 
work, and their example might well be followed in 
other quarters. 


There has lately passed away Gilbert Marks, 
silversmith, an artist of delicate grace and charm, 
whose name will probably take high rank in the 
estimation of the collector and connoisseur. 
Mr. Marks's career, though brief — for he has died 
before passing the middle age — was a protest 
against the ordinary conditions under which the 
modern silversmith has to work. He insisted that 
the smith must be at once the designer, the artist, 
and craftsman. He would have no dies, no 
machinery, no repetitions ; every piece that left 
his hand was an original, and of no essential part of 
any piece is there any duplicate. He would have 
no polishing that would destroy the beauty of the 
metal's natural colour, no turning that would re- 
move the marks of the tool or injure the modelling. 
H is pieces are not the mere vessels of silver that are 
annually set before the public of to-day, but works 
of art which in their beauty of design and handling 
repay the torment and the love of the craftsman. 
He was not alone in his efforts; but there are 
not many such as he — still fewer who regarded 
their art as a noble and inspired thing. He 
despised the showy and pretentious products of 
the shops which in these days suffer so greatly 
from the paralysing conditions of the ordinary 
silversmith's workshop and from the fatal repres- 
sion of the trade union — which are stamped by 
machinery, cast by the score, reproduced to order 
by electrotype, without more pride taken in the 
manufacture of them than attends the production 

Gilbert IMarJ^s : Silversmith 

of an American desk. For these things have no 
more artistic quality in them than is brought to 
them by the original designer, who rarely sees, 
much less touches, the work itself. 

Gilbert Marks was wholly original in his designs. 
Gifted with a dainty imagination, with pure feeling 
for form and line, and, to harmonize all, a passion 
for simplicity, he bent his craftsmanship to the pro- 
duction of a series of beautiful objects which cannot 
fall far short of 750 or 800 pieces, all of them in the 
hands of collectors. The last decade of his life 
was his finest period, during which he realized the 
fancy and refinement of his design by the intelli- 
gence of his work. Fish or lizards, for example, 
would provide him with a delightful motif of deco- 
ration, but simple flowers — wild ones for choice — 
are his principal theme ; and the strong strain of 
field-poetry in his nature adapted them to arrange- 
ments elegant and appropriate. What more 
natural than that a rose-water dish should bear a 
border of loves and rose-garlands ? That on a 
beer-beaker there should be beaten up a decoration 
of cunningly devised hops ? That a punch-bowl 
should be embellished with a tracery of poppies ? 
His design was nearly always pure and felicitous, 
and the execution sound. 

The silver-lover who is something more than a 
worshipper of the hall-mark must recognize the 
beauty and power that lay in the hammer, the 
raising tools and tracers of a repousse worker such 
as Marks ; and appreciate the apparent ease with 
which he could work the yielding metal, play 
with his pattern and his ornament, and bring it 
up to accents of sharpness or caress it into 
liquid meltingness. On bowl, beaker, tazza, cup, 
and dish, we have the pomegranate, the thistle, 
blackberry, or what not — as unlike the dull 
monotony of the million-struck fiddle-pattern 
spoon as Marks himself was unlike the ordinary 
Birmingham craftsman. It is the principle of 
undying Greece and Etruria which we find in 
work such as his — a touch of that art which alone 
survives from ancient civilizations, and which alone 
brings those nations face to face with ours — the 
concrete testimony of ancient glories that other- 
wise live but in the page of history. M. H. S. 


All students of Italian painting will rejoice to 
hear that there is at last some chance of the col- 
lection of pictures in the Museo Civico at Verona 
being cared for, preserved from the decay which 
was rapidly overtaking them, and rearranged in 
new galleries, better extended and better lighted. 
The gallery of Verona has for long been a bye- 
word for neglect and mismanagement. The very 
title of Museo Civico, comprising as it does besides 
the gallery of pictures a valuable collection of 
Roman sculptures and other remains, was a per- 
manent reproach to the municipality of Verona. 


The Verona Gallery 

In no other gallery can the works of the Veronese 
school be studied in its entirety, and to many 
students the splendid series of paintings by Stefano 
di Zevio, Liberale, Morone, Giolfino, Girolamo 
dai Libri, Paolo Morando da Cavazzola, and 
Caroto, to say nothing of Paolo Caliari, and even 
Titian, must have often come as a surprise and a 
source of unexpected interest, sadly tempered, 
however, by the deplorable condition into which 
the pictures have been allowed to lapse, and the 
utter neglect of all the first requirements of a 
public picture-gallery. 

This is now, we may hope, to be remedied. For 
many years the civic authorities of Verona had 
dispensed with the services of a director, small 
as the salary usually is which may be attached to 
such a post in Italy. But even paintings, like the 
worm in the proverb, will turn at last and protest, 
and the said authorities, as in the somewhat 
analogous case of the McLellan collection of 
pictures at Glasgow, have awoken to some sense 
of the importance of their gallery. 

Their first duty was to find a director brave 
enough to face the gigantic task before him, and 
to give up probably the remaining years of his life 
to this duty, with but scanty hope of any pecuniary 
reward or perhaps even the thanks of his fellow 
citizens. Fortunately there was at hand Cavaliere 
Pietro Sgulmero, lately vice-librarian and vice- 
inspector of the monuments of Verona, whose 
knowledge of Verona and its contents is probably 
unsurpassed. Cavaliere Sgulmero would probably 
not satisfy the demands of those who think that 
only a painter can be qualified to direct a picture- 
gallery; but he has addressed himself to the task 
with all the equipment of a fine intelligence, deep- 
seated knowledge, and true patriotic enthusiasm. 

The collection has hitherto been lodged in a 
portion of the Palazzo Pompei on the Adige 
opposite to the beautiful church of San Zermo 
Maggiore. It has been found possible to adapt 
two or three large galleries already existing in the 
palace, and it is proposed to extend the galleries 
by building over the adjoining garden. 

The collection will now be sorted and rearranged 
in proper divisions and due chronology, a special 
feature being made of the works of Paolo Caliari. 
The work of restoration, which will occupy many 
years to come, has been placed in the hands of 
competent local artists, in whom confidence can 
be placed, and who are under Cavaliere Sgulmero's 
immediate observation. A catalogue will in due 
course of time be prepared, and the gallery, when 
completed, should become one of the most in- 
teresting in north Italy. The ground floor of the 
palace will be occupied by the Roman collections 
and an important collection of natural science 
belonging to the town. 

The only danger lies in the disinclination of 
civic authorities to disburse money in this direc- 
tion. Money is at all times scarce in Italy, and 


the Socialist element, which is at present very 
powerful, both in general and local politics, is 
opposed to anything like expenditure on art or 
culture or any form of so-called luxury. 

In spite of such forebodings, all readers of The 
Burlington Magazine will surely wish Cavaliere 
Sgulmero all good fortune in his enterprise, and 
visitors to Verona will no doubt not lose the 
chance of encouraging him in his work. 

Lionel Cust. 


Almost a hundred years ago Italy, and more par- 
ticularly Rome, was the ideal of German artists. 
This love of a locality where the possibility for 
work was so much greater than in the North 
estranged many of the best men from their native 
land, and from Carstens or Cornelius down to 
Feuerbach they felt happy only while abroad. 
What they produced after their return failed to be 
in touch with the country and civilization amid 
which they produced it, and perhaps this is the 
main cause of the deficiencies of these artists. 
This yearning for Rome did not fall in with a 
period of national prosperity, or we should cer- 
tainly have opened an academy there, such as the 
French nation has kept up to this day. Perhaps 
this may be looked upon rather as a stroke of good 
fortune, for according to reports the French 
Academy at Rome is an establishment without 
any real raison d'etre nowadays, and has fulfilled 
its mission long ago. 

There are at the present day three German 
establishments connected with art maintained in 
Italy. The oldest is the Imperial German Archaeo- 
logical Institute. Its reputation is a fine one, and 
its achievements are well known in other countries 
as well as our own. It enjoys the special patronage 
of the present emperor. 

The second establishment is the Institute for 
the History of Art, in Florence. It is maintained 
by a small state subsidy and the subscriptions of 
a society formed to support it ; the University of 
Leipzig contributes likewise, I believe, some pecu- 
niary aid. The principal aim is to furnish German 
and other art historians who are interested in the 
study of Italian art with the help of a large library 
and other material which students are unable to 
take with them on their journey across the Alps. 
There are pleasant accommodations for work, and, 
generally speaking, the student will find the insti- 
tute a valuable haven to start from even if the 
object of his research should not actually be con- 
tained within the walls of Florence itself. Pro- 
fessor Brockhaus, formerly of the Leipzig Univer- 
sity, has come into residence as head of the estab- 
lishment. Since a semester at the institute in 
Florence has been counted, under certain condi- 
tions, as a semester at one of the German univer- 
sities, there have always been one or two younger 

German zArt Institutions in Italy 

students there. With their help) the institute is 
also made to serve in a limited manner as a bureau 
of information for questions pertaining to the his- 
tory of Italian art. The institute is upon the 
point of publishing its first volume of studies. 

The third establishment is of quite recent foun- 
dation. The new Deutsche Ktinstlerbund, with 
its headquarters at Weimar, has just bought the 
Villa Romana at Florence and is going to refashion 
it into a studio building for German artists. There 
will be six such studios to commence with, and all 
the necessary further accommodation for the artists 
who are to take possession of them. The Kunstler- 

bund intends to abandon the distribution of prizes 
and medals at its exhibition and replace these by 
assigning these studios for a fixed period of time 
instead. Then, at last, German artists will have 
a fine opportunity of studying the nude model in 
the open air, an opportunity sorely missed in 
northern climates. This new venture is principally 
the work of Max Klinger, whose energy and dis- 
interestedness in pushing the affair to a happy 
consummation are especially to be lauded, because 
twice before, when he was bent on carrying 
out the same plan, his intentions were frustrated 
in a most distressing manner. H. W. S. 


Art Education 

f\YO movements are tending 
towards the advancement of 
art in the United States : the 
formation of Municipal Art 
Societies in various cities 
which are more or less closely 
associated with the leagues 
for civic improvement, and a 
spirit of co-operation among 
existing art societies. The Fine Arts Federation of 
New York is the most powerful influence in this 
latter direction, including as it does thirteen art 
societies, each one being entitled to three represen- 
tatives at the meetings. The purpose of eight of 
these societies is to hold an annual exhibition, yet 
New York has few galleries able to accommodate 
them, and there seems to be a feeling that the chief 
requisite for the advancement of art and the pros- 
perity of the artist is that a large building be 
erected and endowed, wherein one large annual 
exhibition could be held and where the various 
societies should have their headquarters. It is 
a question whether the best solution of the 
problem would not rather be the ability to hold 
many small exhibitions under the same roof and at 
the same time. Thus each society would maintain 
its individual existence, and yet they might co- 
operate in many ways. 

A call for co-operation among the museums has 
been issued by the Director of the Pennsylvania 
Museum, Edwin A. Barber, and the following is 
quoted from the monthly bulletin of the museum : 
The time has arrived when the museums of this country, in 
order to keep abreast with modern progress, must enter into 
closer relations with each other than have existed in the past. 
Heretofore the work of museums has been of a more or less 
desultory character, and each curator has been a law unto 
himself. The physician, the educator, the librarian, the 
specialist, who holds aloof from his fellow workers, is left 
behind in the race, his methods become antiquated and his 
usefulness abridged. In this age of organization, of conventions 
and congresses, the best effort of the individual results only in 
an insignificant contribution to the total of human knowledge. 
Men meet at stated periods to communicate their discoveries to 
their fellows and to learn what has been accomplished by others 
in wider fields. 

The suggestion is here offered that curators of our various 
museums, from Boston to San Francisco, meet annually for the 
consideration of subjects relating to the most effective adminis- 
tration of public museums. By holding these meetings in turn 
at the various cities where important museums exist, a knowledge 
of what is being accomplished throughout the United States will 
be obtained, and the entire museum system of the country will 
be greatly benefited. The Pennsylvania Museum and School of 
Industrial Art is ready to take the initiative, and the curator will 
be glad to receive the views of the directors and curators of 
other museums on the subject. 

Another step in this direction is the proposition 
which emanated from Professor Nicholas Murray 
Butler, president of Columbia University, New 
York, looking toward the establishment of a 
great art school within the grounds of the univer- 
sity, which should be a combination of the present 
School of Architecture of Columbia, the Art 
Department of Teachers College, the schools of 
the National Academy of Design and of the 
Metropolitan Museum. 

Then, too, there is a movement tending toward 
the establishment of national art schools. The 
first practical step in this direction has been the 
granting by Congress on March i, 1905, of a 
charter to the American Academy in Rome. The 
Villa Mirafiori has been purchased, and efforts are 
being made to secure an endowment fund of 
one million dollars. Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan, 
Mr. Henry Walters, Mr. William K. Vanderbilt, 
and Harvard University, through Mr. Henry L. 
Higginson, have each given one hundred thousand 

The other Mecca of all artists is Paris, and 
while many schools in the United States have 
scholarships to enable talented pupils to study in 
that city, a National Institute is contemplated, 
and only awaits the action of Congress to make it 
an accomplished fact. Through the efforts of 
Miss Matilda Smedley, the city of Paris has 
given the institute a plot of ground, and in re- 
cognition of this gift it is to be hoped that at an 
early session Congress will vote the desired 
appropriation of $250,000 for the erection of 
a building. The plan is a very broad one, and in- 
cludes an appropriation by each state to send one 


iArt in ^America 

or more pupils to the American National Art 
Institute in Paris, passing first through a National 
School to be located at Washington. 

Metropolitan Museum of Art 

The thirty-fifth annual report of the museum 
shows that 1904 marked an epoch in its history. 
Three deaths occurred among the trustees. 
Samuel P. Avery, one of the original trustees, died 
on August 12 ; Frederick W. Rhinelander, pre- 
sident of the museum, died on September 25 ; and 
Louis P. di Cesnola, for twenty-five years the 
director and secretary of the museum, on 
November 20. This has led to an entire re- 
organization. The present officers are J. Pierpont 
Morgan, president ; Rutherford Stuyvesent, first 
vice-president ; John Steward Kennedy, second 
vice-president ; Robert W. de Forest, secretary ; 
and John Crosby Brown, treasurer. 

The future policy of the museum is outlined, 
beginning with the appointment of Sir Caspar 
Purdon Clarke as director. The next step will 
be the complete organization of the museum into 
a greater number of departments and securing for 
each department a thoroughly capable curator. 
For the first time the museum is in a position 
to build up the collection according to a compre- 
hensive plan, and it will be the aim of the trustees 
to assemble beautiful objects and display them 
harmoniously, grouping the masterpieces of dif- 
ferent countries and times in such relation and 
sequence as to illustrate the history of art in the 
broadest sense, to make plain its teachings, and to 
inspire and direct its national development. 

Special stress is laid on the need of a collection 
of American art, and a list is published of fifty- 
seven names of some of the best-known deceased 
American painters who either are not at all, or 
are not adequately, represented in the museum. 
By thus making public the wants of the museum 
it is hoped that the generosity and patriotism 
of our private citizens, who own the finest works 
of art, will lead them ' to give to their ownership 
a public use.' 

Necessary legislation has been secured for the 
extension of the museum by a new wing at an 
expense not to exceed $1,250,000. Messrs. McKim, 
Mead and White have been selected as architects. 

During 1904 the museum has substantially 
realized the full amount of Jacob S. Rogers's 
bequest, amounting to $4,904,811, assuring an 
annual income of over $200,000 for ' the purchase 
of rare and desirable art objects and books for the 

Some of the important donations of the year 
are : the ' Adams Gold Vase,' the gift of Edward 
D. Adams ; A Street in Venice and The Candy 
Vendor, by Robert Blum, presented by Wm. J. 
Baer and the estate of Alfred Corning Clark; 
four paintings were presented by George A. Hearn, 


the portrait of Baron Arnold Le Roye by Van 
Dyck, portrait of a lady by Beechey, a seaport 
by Claude Lorrain, and a landscape with figures 
by Richard Wilson ; 128 musical instruments were 
added to her collection by Mrs. John Crosby 
Brown; and a collection of 4,210 objects known 
as the Farman collection, consisting of Greek, 
Roman, and Egyptian coins and other antique 
art objects, was given by D. O. Mills. 

The most important purchase from the income 
of the Rogers fund was the Dino collection of 
arms and armour. Three paintings were also 
added to the collections : Christ and Virgin, by 
Mostaert ; A Nativity by Greco ; and a head 
by Greuze. Other purchases from this fund 
include thirty-seven specimens of European 
faience of the sixteenth century ; The Entomb- 
ment of Christ, an enamelled terra-cotta group 
dated 1487 ; a large mosaic of Roman workman- 
ship ; a collection of Japanese armour ; and 140 
books for the library. 

Lewis and Clark Exhibition 

Scarcely a year passes without an exhibition 
being held in some part of this vast country, and 
no exhibition is complete without a department 
of art. The exhibition commemorating the 
Lewis and Clark expedition, the pioneer settlers 
of the western section of the United States, was 
formally opened at Portland, Oregon, on the 1st 
of June, and will continue to be the centre of 
attraction until the 15th of October. 

The division of Fine Arts is ably managed by 
the well-known painter, Frank Vincent DuMond. 
The exhibition of paintings was collected en- 
tirely by invitation, and is not confined to any 
one period or nationality. There are character- 
istic examples of the early French and English 
masters, and the Barbizon school is extremely 
well represented. One of the most interesting 
canvases is the famous Millet, The Man with 
the Hoe, which is owned by Mr. W. S. Crocker, 
of San Francisco. Every phase of the Impres- 
sionist movement is shown, from Manet and 
Degas to the Americans Theodore Robinson and 
Childe Hassan. There are portraits by the early 
American painters, excellent examples of the trio 
of great American landscape painters of the nine- 
teenth century, Innes, Wyant, and Homer Martin, 
and several portraits by Sargent. Whistler is 
also represented by several characteristic works, 
and all the prominent men of to-day have at least 
one good picture on exhibition. 

The Fine Arts building is a fire-proof structure 
consisting of seven galleries, each about twenty- 
five by thirty-five feet, and built around two sides 
of a square, with the entrance in the angle. 
Although this is only a temporary building, after 
the close of the exhibition a permanent art gallery 
will be established in Portland, and Mr. DuMond 

will superintend the installation of the paintings 
before leaving the Pacific coast to return to his 
work in New York. 


For the fourth time American art students will 
be given an opportunity to compete for the 
Lazarus scholarship for the study of mural 
painting. As may be recalled, the fund carries 
$1,000 a year for three years. The primary con- 
ditions are that the competitor be an American 
citizen, a man, and unmarried. Furthermore, the 
candidate must pass preliminary examinations in 
perspective and artistic anatomy, and paint a 
presentable nude from the life. These examina- 
tions will be held at the National Academy of 
Design, in the city of New York, during the week 
beginning Monday, October 23, 1905, at nine 
o'clock a.m. 

Those passing the ordeal will then be confronted 

z/frt in ^America 

by a second examination, which will begin on 
Monday, October 30, 1905, under conditions 
hereafter to be indicated. 

The National Sculpture Society, through the 
generosity of its Honorary President, Mr. J. Q. A. 
Ward, and that of one of its lay members, 
Mr. I. W. Drummond, is offering two prizes, one 
of five hundred dollars and one of two hundred 
dollars, for a competition in portraiture. The 
first prize is to be awarded to the best portrait in 
the round, the second prize to the best portrait 
in relief. 

Works entered for this competition are to be 
judged in the early part of November, 1905, by a 
jury selected by the society at large. A pro- 
spectus governing the competition may be had by 
addressing the Secretary of the National Sculpture 
Society at 215, West 57th Street, New York. 

(For list of exhibitions in the United States see 
' Exhibitions open during June.') 



Gentlemen, — 

Will you permit me to call the attention 
of the wide and influential circle of your readers 
to the urgent need of public intervention for the 
preservation of Thames scenery ? 

Every year the upper Thames is losing something 
of what is left of its primitive charm. Through- 
out by far the greater part of the river from Ted- 
dington to Oxford there is hardly a mile in which 
some lamentable injury to the natural beauty of 
the valley has not been perpetrated, and most of 
the mischief has been done within the past few 
years. Every year there are more ugly and 
obtrusive boat-houses, more blazing advertise- 
ments, more squalid-looking sheds and factories, 
more execrable iron bridges, more vulgar ' villas.' 
Year after year 'improvements' keep nibbling 
away some of the most delightful characteristics 
of the river, and nobody has any adequate power 
to interfere. 

The Thames Conservancy is the only body 
having any authority on the river; but it is no 
part of the conservators' business to look after 
aesthetic matters ; and even if it were their recog- 
nized business, they are, as a body, not the men to 
do it. The thirty or forty members are business 
men, the greater part of them at any rate, of the 
most ' practical ' and utilitarian type. They can- 
not be expected to see with the eye of the land- 
scape artist, or to estimate the value of what 
for the majority of them probably has no exis- 

Of course a board of business men for the busi- 
ness management of the river is indispensable; 

but what seems to be required is something of the 
kind that has been suggested by Sir W. B. Rich- 
mond, R. A., for the advising of the London County 
Council upon all proposals involving questions of 
artistic knowledge and taste. He would set up a 
Committee of Reference, consisting of recognized 
authorities, whose function it should be to consider 
all schemes for public improvements or alterations 
from the artistic point of view. That is precisely 
what is wanted for the guidance and advising of 
the Thames Conservancy. 

But it is obvious that it would be of no use to 
set up a committee of advice unless the Con- 
servators were empowered to act upon the advice, 
and some legislation would be necessary. When 
recently there seemed a possibility of the Govern- 
ment carrying a ' Port of London Bill ' the Thames 
Preservation League presented a memorial asking 
that something should be done in this direction 
by the insertion of clauses empowering the river 
authority to carry out the recommendations of a 
Select Committee of the House of Commons 
which in 1884 strongly urged the desirability of 
giving power to purchase portions of the river 
bank where necessary for the public enjoyment 
and the preservation of the natural beauty of the 

When, some years ago, the River Charles at 
Boston seemed to be in similar peril of ruin, the 
Bostonians resolved that it should not be, and 
they bought out all rights in the river and its 
banks and have preserved and developed it as a 
delightful ' water-park.' We poor Britons cannot 
afford to buy our Thames. Such heroic remedies 
are not for us ; but we might at any rate set up an 
authority with the competency and the legal power 
to prevent the destruction of that natural beauty 


Letters to the Editors 

which will become more and more precious to our 
people just in proportion as they become educated 
and refined, and which is in itself a means of 
education and refinement beyond all price. 

G. F. Millin. 



I have just seen with alarm that Harring- 
ton House — the beautiful old town house of the 
Harringtons — is to be sold by auction in less than 
a month. 

Though within a stone's throw of Trafalgar 
Square it is so hidden that few who have not 
visited Craig's Court even know of its existence. 

Unless prompt action is taken I have no doubt 
that this fine eighteenth-century house will be 
swallowed up by one of the monster hotels in 
Northumberland Avenue. 

The old-world garden, which once overlooked 
the river, has already been shorn of its glorie9 — 
one big tree alone remaining. 

In a recent article on London architecture Mr. 
Street, after speaking of our old inns, asks ' are 
we going to let our old houses suffer the same 
fate ? ' It would be difficult to find one more 
worthy of preservation than this. 

Julian Sampson. 

*„* We trust that this appeal will not be in vain. The 
opportunity is one for a wealthy lover of art to show his public 
spirit in default of the legislation so much needed to prevent the 
destruction of ancient buildings. 



Miniatures. By Dudley Heath. Methuen. 
25s. net. 

We have read this book with genuine pleasure. 
It is not without faults, but the faults are for the 
most part trivial, and are far more than counter- 
balanced by conspicuous merits, which make it 
deserve a place both on the collector's bookshelf 
beside his Propert, and also in the studio of every 
living miniature painter. 

The defects of the book are due chiefly to the im- 
possibility of fully covering a wide and cosmo- 
politan area, and to a certain technical inexperi- 
ence which has passed misprints such as ' Elector 
Galatine,' not to mention slips in figures, and 
omissions in the index. We doubt if the latest 
authorities on French illumination will think that 
Mr. Heath has done justice to Pol de Limbourg, 
or if Professor Giles would consider the treat- 
ment of Chinese art to be quite adequate. Nor is 
it possible always to agree with the author when 
writing upon the more familiar and restricted 
field of English portrait miniatures. Mr. Heath, 
for example, appreciates the greatness of Holbein, 
but he does not venture to separate quite sharply 
the half-dozen miniatures which must certainly be 
his from those which just fall short of that un- 
surpassable perfection. The duke of Buccleuch's 
version of Holbein's portrait should certainly have 
been compared with -that at Hertford House, and 
the notice of John Bettes should have mentioned 
his picture in the National Gallery. The ques- 
tions at issue are troublesome, but for that very 
reason we regret that they should not be tackled 
more thoroughly when a critic so observant and 
independent is brought face to face with them. 
A methodical classification and comparison, with 
the help if necessary of photographic enlarge- 
ments, of the miniatures passing under Holbein's 
name might have invaluable results. We think, 


too, that if the rigorous justice which Mr. Heath 
metes out to the weaker work of Hilliard were 
also applied to Isaac Oliver, the latter would fare 
badly, but these are almost the only cases in which 
his critical balance seems at fault. 

Thus he appreciates John Hoskins, though in 
the illustrations we miss the robust sincerity of 
the Windsor Charles I. ; his reverence for the 
incomparable Samuel Cooper is all that could be 
desired, and he rightly emphasizes the great merits 
of Nathaniel Dixon. Thomas Flatman, Lawrence 
Crosse, and Bernard Lens are also justly placed. 

It is in his criticism of the miniatures of 
the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, how- 
ever, that Mr. Heath's taste and frankness 
show best. We wish these chapters could 
be read and taken to heart by all the adver- 
tising tradesmen and feeble young ladies who 
during the last ten years have made miniature 
painting the handmaid of the photograph and the 
fashion plate. Judged by their works five-sixths 
of our living miniaturists are unlikely to come 
across any good book on the subject, and if they 
do so are too ill equipped to make use of it. Yet 
if these artists combine to degrade their art, how 
can the silly society women who patronize them 
be taught to know better ? We rejoice to hear 
that some attempt is being made by the Society 
of Miniature Painters towards a more serious 
standard of work, as much as we do to see that 
one miniature painter at least understands that 
Holbein and Cooper are the classical models to 
whom the miniaturist of the future must refer. 
Mr. Heath's analysis of the brilliant Cosway 
and his overrated satellites Engleheart and the 
Plimers is an excellent piece of criticism, indeed 
a little more praise for Edridge and the omission 
of two or three of the specimens of modern work 
are the only improvements we would wish to 
suggest in this large section of the book. 
Mr. Heath, in short, differs from previous writers 


on the subject in possession not only of technical 
knowledge, but also that much rarer thing, a sense 
of the eternal and absolute difference between art 
that is great and art that is pretty. 

Most of the illustrations are taken from 
examples in famous private collections which 
have not been reproduced hitherto. They are not 
always so clear as those in Mr. Foster's volumes, 
but Holbein is the only artist who really suffers, 
and the moderate price of the book forbids any 
grumbling. That its comparative cheapness may 
succeed in making it popular is what every lover 
of the great British tradition of miniature painting 

ought to wish. 


Critical Studies and Fragments. By the 
late S. Arthur Strong, M.A. With a memoir 
by Lord Balcarres, M.P. Duckworth. 16s. 
The untimely death of the late librarian to the 
House of Lords removed from literary and politi- 
cal life a personality that well deserved a perman- 
ent memorial ; but that such a memorial in these 
days of compromise and advertisement should be 
false neither to facts nor to friendship is a singular 
piece of good fortune. 

The task both of the anonymous editor and of 
the writer of the memoir was a delicate one. 
Professor Strong's incessant activities encroached 
upon many widely different fields of study, yet his 
writings seldom took a more elaborate form than 
that of a preface or a review. The collection of 
these scattered fragments, often published anony- 
mously, into a connected whole has been achieved 
with great skill, and the result is approximately 
complete. It is also remarkable. Any reader of 
the book, with special knowledge of one or two of 
the many subjects handled so easily by Professor 
Strong, may perhaps question whether his intel- 
lect was so universally profound as it was wide in 
range and brilliant in intuition — a point to which 
occasional slips in intricate matters of art criticism 
are really less relevant than the shallow review of 
M. Maspero's ' Dawn of Civilization ' — but no one 
can question his uncommon gifts as a writer. 
When quite sure of his ground, Professor Strong 
wrote with a wealth of metaphor, an epigrammatic 
conciseness, and, in his combative moods, with a 
sardonic humour that parvis componere magna 
might almost be termed Voltairean. 

The memoir also is a model of its kind. The 
sternest critic could hardly deny that the analysis 
of Professor Strong's character is acute, felicitous, 
and impartial. It was doubtless from the Latin 
element in his ancestry that he inherited, together 
with his insight and logical width of interest, the 
political instinct which, though it is often latent 
in the Anglo-Saxon, is seldom frankly expressed 
by him. In an English man of letters this instinct 

must inevitably lead to misconception, to suspicion 
perhaps of wire-pulling, even when accompanied 
by an outspoken disdain of concealment and com- 
promise. No better proof of the attractiveness of 
Professor Strong's real nature could be adduced 
than the fact that the friends both great and small 
whom he openly pressed into his service regarded 
their employment as a privilege, and not the least 
of their regrets at his early death must be the 
feeling that in the government of Orientals for 
which he was preparing himself, his ambitions 
would have found the scope they had so long 
been seeking. 

The three fine portraits by M. Legros, Sir 
Charles Holroyd, and the Countess Fcodora 
Gleichen, are the best possible illustrations for the 
memoir. Each artist depicts the striking face 
from a different point of view; each shows the 
character in a new aspect. Only by seeing the 
three together can we reconstruct that complex 

nlederlandisches kijnstler - lexikon auf 
Grund archivalischer Fokschungen 


Vierte Lieferung. Wien, 1905. 
The fourth number of this excellent dictionary 
brings the notices of artists down to David. We 
continue our notes. Cleve. M. Hulin (Cat. 
critique, p. xxiv) considers him a pupil of John, 
son of Justus of Haarlem, the painter of the altar- 
piece at Calcar, and thinks that he was already a 
master painter when he removed to Antwerp in 
1511. Peter De Clievere died in 1546. There is 
no reason for doubting the authorship of the trip- 
tych from the Meyer and Willett collections 
exhibited at Bruges, reproduced in my monograph 
on Gerard David (1895). The writing on the back 
stating it to be by Cornelia Cnoop is in the same 
hand as that on the back of the two miniatures 
by her husband in the Bruges Museum. All three 
were formerly in the abbey of our Lady of the 

Besides Cornelius, who died in 1561, and Caspar, 
who died in 1641, there were a number of other 
glass painters of the name of Coedyck at Bruges: 
Victor, 1545-1557 ; Caspar, 1554-1568; Wolfart, 

i555- I 5S4; and Peter > I 557- I 5»4- 

Under Coene no mention is made of James 
Coene, a painter and illuminator of Bruges who 
resided for some time in Paris, and was through 
French influence invited to Milan and was engaged 
with two assistants to make drawings of the cathe- 
dral, but after a short period was dismissed. 
Marcellus Cofferman's best work, St. Mary 
Magdalene, is now in the possession of Don Pablo 
Bosch at Madrid. Another signed picture repre- 
senting St. Katherine was sold at Christie's in 


The real name of Cornelius of Lyons is Cornelius 
Van der Capelle. He appears to have removed 



from the Hague to Antwerp and worked under 
Quentin Metsys. In 1534 he painted the portrait 
of a receiver of town dues — John Obrechts ? — in 
his office, weighing a coin ; a woman by his side is 
turning over the leaves of a book, and a young 
man is coming in with a letter. This picture, 
signed Cornelius Van der Capelle, was in 1863 in 
the possession of M. J. B. Meyer at Bonn. Hav- 
ing embraced Lutheran opinions Cornelius fled to 
France, where he was appointed painter to the 
Dauphin in 1540. In 1547 he obtained letters of 
naturalization, was named painter to the King, 
and settled in Lyons. In the collection of Baron 
Oppenheim at Cologne is a painting of a receiver 
of taxes in his office, attributed to Quentin Metsys, 
but really by Cornelius, for on the leaf of the re- 
ceiver's open ledger is this entry in capital 
letters: — le roy doict a/maistre corneille/ 


In 1548 Cornelius drew the 

portraits of Queen Katherine and the lords and 
ladies of her court who accompanied her to Lyons. 
He was reconciled to the Church on December 2, 
1569, and continued to work at Lyons until his 
death in 1574-5. He left a son of the same name 
and a daughter ; the latter, according to Antoine 
Du Verdier, painted divinement bien (Notes and 
Queries, 3 S., vi, 374; Revue de VArt Chretien, 
4 S., x, 120; N. Rondot, ' Les Protestants a 
Lyon au dix-septieme siecle,' p. 13). As to 
Albert Cornelis, the words et chevalier are an 
absurd addition to the text of the guild register. 
Peter Coustain was painter to the Dukes Philip 
and Charles from 1453 to 1481 ; in 1461 he poly- 
chromed two statues of St. Philip and St. Elisa- 
beth of Thuringia. In 1467 he painted two panels, 
one with Christ on the Cross with the Blessed 
Virgin and St. John, and the other with the Blessed 
Virgin and Child, for which he was paid 40s. ; 
these were placed at the head and foot of the 
catafalque at Duke Philip's funeral. 

Crabbe's best work, a fine shrine of silver-gilt 
adorned with statuettes and enamelled escucheons, 
is in the church of St. Basil at Bruges. In this 
shrine the relic of the Holy Blood is carried at 
the annual procession ; it was completed in April 

The saints on the shutters of the triptych at 
Liverpool, attributed to Daret, are the patrons, 
not of St. John's Hospital, but of St. Julian's 
Hospice at Bruges. W. H. J. W. 

John N. Rhodes. A Yorkshire Painter, 1809- 
1842. By William H. Thorp. R. Jackson, 
The subject of this memoir is but little known 
outside his native city, and his work, though some- 
times skilful and indicative of talent, is unequal 
in quality. His more able pictures look like 
rather weak imitations of the rustic trifles of 

William Collins. His painting can never occupy 
a very important place in the English school, and 
although the younger Rhodes died at the early 
age of thirty-three, there does not seem to be 
much reason for thinking that his art was likely 
to have developed much further than it had done 
before that time. Nevertheless, Mr. Thorp's 
book is of considerable interest, not only because 
it is pleasantly written, but because it is a valu- 
able contribution to the history of art in Leeds. 
Until we have a good many more such local 
histories our knowledge of the ramifications of 
English painting will be far from complete, and 
we wish that some enthusiastic student in such a 
place as Bath or Ipswich would follow the good 
example which Mr. Thorp has set. 


Scottish Pewter-ware and Pewterers. By 
L. Ingleby Wood. Edinburgh : George A. 
Morton. London : Simpkin, Marshall & Co. 
15s. net. 

By keeping himself strictly within the limits of 
his subject Mr. Ingleby Wood has produced an 
excellent account of pewter-making in Scotland. 
We have no dissertations on Chinese alloys, on the 
Flemish metal-worker's art, or on the aesthetic 
value of pewter set upon old oak dressers, but the 
history of the Scottish pewterers and their art is 
set out for us simply and in good detail. 

The use of pewter was in its day a luxury, 
and luxuries came laggard toward Scotland, the 
London pewterers being established for a century 
and a half before their Scottish brethren began 

Old Scottish pewter is national in its simplicity, 
the Pirley Pig, a money-box in which the council 
of Dundee collected fines from absent members, 
being remarkable for its ornament. This curious 
piece, saved from a heap of old metal in 1839, 
makes perhaps the most interesting of Mr. Wood's 
many illustrations. It is a covered bowl, six inches 
across, with engraved decorations, strapwork, and 
rosettes, with three shields of arms, and a fourth 
shield with the initials of baillies of Dundee. But 
for the most part the illustrations show pewter- 
ware severely free from all ornament. The 
national piece is certainly the ' tappit hen,' a tall 
pewter measure of three English pints, with a 
handle and, as a rule, a knopped cover. The 
quaigh, a shallow drinking cup, with two plain 
ears, is very rarely found in pewter, although 
Mr. Wood gives two examples. The mere 
collector, careless of aught but filling divisions in 
a show-case, may occupy himself in Scotland with 
the Communion tokens which are still found in use 
in remote places, strange little pewter tickets 
bearing the initials or badge of the parish, without 
production of which catechised members of the 
reformed kirk might not present themselves at the 



Communion table. Communion cups, flagons, and 
broad dishes make a great figure amongst the 
pewter pieces of a country in which silver was rare. 
Mr. Wood, besides describing in detail the most 
characteristic examples of Scottish pewter ware, 
catalogues pieces in the national museums and in 
the episcopal churches. He gives lists of free 
pewterers and apprentice pewterers and describes 
their ' touches.' Town by town he records the 
history of the incorporated hammermen, amongst 
whom the pewterers are found, and here he adds 
manj' notes of value to the antiquary as to the 
collector. As his work ends with a carefully made 
index it should long remain a text-book as useful 
as it is unpretentiously learned. O. B. 

The Preservation of Antiquities. By Dr. 
Friedrich Rathgen, translated by George A. 
Auden, M.A., M.D., and Harold A. Auden, 
M.Sc, W.Sc. Cambridge University Press. 
4s. 6d. net. 
This book should be as invaluable to those who 
possess curiosities and antiquities as Professor 
Church's well-known hand-book on the chemistry 
of painting is to artists. The book is modestly 
described as a hand-book for curators, but it is one 
which ought to be in the hands of every collector 
who sets the smallest value upon his possessions. 
Although the causes of decay are dealt with from 
a chemical point of view, the methods of preserva- 
tion are treated from a thoroughly practical 
standpoint, so that those who have no knowledge 
of the problems of chemistry involved can use the 
volume with perfect safety. The destruction of 
antique marbles and of plaster casts by the rusting 
of the irons inserted to support them, a very 
common cause of trouble, ought, perhaps, to have 
been discussed. 

The Brooches of Many Nations. By Harriet 
A. Heaton. Edited by J. Potter Briscoe, 
F.R.H.S. With 78 illustrations by the 
Authoress. London : Simpkin, Marshall, 
Hamilton, Kent & Co. 6s. net. 
The story of the development of the brooch, its 
form and ornament, might well form the subject 
of a useful monograph for the use of the artist or 
antiquary, but Miss Heaton's book seems to us 
unnecessary. Its archaeology is at second hand, and 
uncritical at that, and its literary style takes the 
form of that enthusiasm which becomes tiresome 
when expressed by the unskilled pen. Such an 
opening as ' In the brave old days, when men and 
women of spirit sought vent for their energy in 
martial deeds ; when men detested a blank in 
their swords [whatever that may mean] as much 
as a blank in their lives,' does not call us 
encouragingly to the study of a chapter upon 
Scandinavian fibulas, a thin chapter put together, as 
it appears, from easily accessible sources. The 
seventy-eight illustrations, line-blocks from pen 
drawings, follow the lines of their subjects with 

care and accuracy ; but seeing the press of books 
which come about us, we cannot discover here in 
text or illustration Miss Heaton's excuse for 
adding another quarto to the crowd. O. B. 


Catalog of the Gardiner Greene Hub- 
bard Collection of Engravings Pre- 
sented to the Library of Congress by 
Mrs. G. G. H. Compiled by Arthur Jeffrey 
Parsons. Washington : Government Printing 
Office, 1905. 
The Division of Prints in the Library of Con- 
gress, which before 1898 possessed little but 
American engravings coming to it largely under 
the copyright law, is to be congratulated on the 
gift of a collection which, within its 2,707 num- 
bers (including 17 drawings), is as fairly represen- 
tative as it well might be. Its value in a public 
institution is even enhanced by the fact that a 
very considerable number of second and third 
rate engravers are represented, so that it will form 
a solid nucleus in view of further additions for 
which the gift in some way provides. 

To judge from the catalogue before us, the col- 
lector's artistic interest often yielded to the his- 
torical, and the portraits, to which there is a 
useful index, are a distinct feature, those of 
Frederick the Great and Napoleon alone amount- 
ing to some four hundred. Though the masters 
of line — notably Diirer — are better represented, 
there is a sound selection, in almost every school, 
of original etchings, ranging from Rembrandt to 
Zorn. Possibly secondary considerations may 
account for the somewhat over-abundant mass of 
line and mezzotint reproductions of paintings in 
themselves of little artistic value. In this latter 
respect the catalogue shows a praiseworthy clear- 
ness in the method by which the master after 
whom the engraver worked is indicated in promi- 
nent position and different type. As a book of 
reference the alphabetical order which is followed 
has its advantages, but the historical division, which 
would of course have made the second index of 
masters arranged according to schools superfluous, 
would on the whole have been more helpful to 
the student. It is pleasing to find that the some- 
what full references given to the various catalogues 
— as far as we have been able to test them — are 
almost invariably correct. Unfortunately a con- 
siderable number of authorities have been omitted 
— one might instance Parthey's Hollar, Thau- 
sing's Diirer, Wibiral's Vandyck ' Iconography,' 
Kristeller's Mantegna, Seidlitz's Rembrandt. Re- 
ference to the latter reminds us of the loose way 
in which impressions of Rembrandt etchings are 
described, e.g., a vague ' tenth state ' suffices for 
the description of the ' Rembrandt drawing at a 
window.' It is evident, though not stated, that 
Rovinski is taken as the authority, but in this as 
in certain other like cases, Rovinski's division is 



more than questionable. Among the omissions, 
the fact that Immerzeel has not been consulted 
in the more modern supplement (though even this 
is now some forty years old) of Kramm would 
account for the looseness of speaking of Cornelis 
van Dalen as though there were not two engravers 
of the name. That the catalogue does not aim at 
being critical may be instanced by the fact that the 
aquatint portrait of Cromwell by ' Jan van de 
Velde II,' which is thus accepted in its entirety as 
more than half a century prior to Le Prince, is 
passed without notice. Moreover, consultation of 
modern critical literature would hardly have left 
' Dirk van Star ' without a name. General lack 
of measurements and of signatures, and occasional 
information such as 'with the mark of an unknown 
collector,' ' state not described ' (without descrip- 
tion) are tantalizing, considering the fact that so 
many students are denied the opportunity of con- 
sulting the collection at first hand. 

There are some well chosen and excellent re- 
productions in collotype. It passed the compiler's 
notice, however, that one of these, a small ' Pre- 
sentation of the Virgin ' (described as ' Anon. 
Italian sixteenth century '), is merely a reduced 
copy of a woodcut by Altdorfer. A. M. H. 

Catalogue of the Collection of English 
Porcelain in the Department of British 
and Medieval Antiquities and Ethno- 
graphy of the British Museum. By R. 
L. Hobson, B.A., assistant in the department. 
London : printed by order of the Trustees, 
1905. 4to. pp. xxvi, 161 ; with xxxviii pi. 
(some col.) and 104 text illustrations. £1 10s. 
A companion volume to the ' Catalogue of English 
Pottery and Earthenware,' published two years 
ago, has just been issued by the Trustees of the 
British Museum. The care of preparing an 
exhaustive Guide-book to the small but most select 
collection of English Porcelain exhibited in the 
Ceramic room, has been entrusted to the as- 
sistant curator, Mr. R. L. Hobson. Much credit 
is to be given to the writer for the accuracy and 
completeness displayed in the descriptive part of 
the work ; one cannot say, however, that he has 
been equally successful in his treatment of the 
historical notices. One might have expected that 
a book, elaborated under the exceptional conditions 
in which the compiler was placed by his position, 
would contain a few hitherto unpublished state- 
ments, or at least give us some ingenious interpre- 
tation of the so far misunderstood old documents 
through which more than one standing problem 
might receive a plausible solution. The reader 
cannot help feeling disappointed in that respect. 
He has to be satisfied with a highly cautious and 
somewhat diffuse reiteration of the commonplace 
information that has so often done duty in books 
of the same order. 

We hear that the MS. passed through the 


hands of several conscientious revisers before it 
received the Imprimatur. Revision could, doubt- 
less, do much in the way of modifying or excising 
all controvertible matter, but it could not impart 
to this bulky catalogue anything more than a stern 
character of official respectability. 


Apollon-Gavlgruppen fra Zeustemplet I 


N. K. Skovgaard. (With a translation in 
German.) Kopenhagen, 1905. London : 
Williams and Norgate. 7s. 6d. net. 
Mr. Skovgaard in this monograph attempts a 
rearrangement of the Western pediment of the 
Temple of Zeus at Olympia on artistic rather 
than archaeological lines. In the main he accepts 
the arrangement of Professor Treu, which has been 
hitherto generally adopted, but with some im- 
portant variations which may be seen at a glance 
by comparing the two arrangements on the plate. 
The principle he adopts is to follow the ' Linien- 
wirkung,' and to see how the principal lines of the 
composition strike or should strike the eye. The 
chief result obtained on this system is that the 
two groups of a centaur carrying off a woman on 
each side of the central figure are now reversed. 
Artistically, however, this does not seem to be an 
improvement, as it will be seen to break into the 
ascending lines of the pediment space, a principle 
always observed by the Greeks in their temple- 

In estimating the sculptures as a whole the 
writer supports Treu's contention that they have 
been too much under-estimated ; but though he is 
perhaps right in pointing this out, few will go so 
far as to urge with him their superiority in com- 
position to the pediments of the Parthenon. His 
final conclusion is that both the pediments were 
probably the work of one artist whom he does 
not venture to name ; obvious defects of execution 
are to be accounted for by supposing that they 
are due to assistants of inferior calibre. 

H. B. W. 
Dream Come True. By Laurence Binyon, 
with woodcut by the author and decorations 
by Lucien Pissarro, The Brook, Hammer- 
smith. 15s. net. 
We have before called attention to the charming 
productions of Mr. Pissarro's Eragny Press, in 
which the art of original wood engraving survives 
in company with typography of thegreatest beauty; 
so we can give no higher praise to the little book 
before us than that it is entirely worthy of its 
author and publisher. Those who have watched 
the growth of Mr. Binyon's genius will know that 
the lofty poet of the ' Death of Adam ' is also the 
possessor of a passionate intimate lyrical gift. His 
talent as a draughtsman has long been recognized 


by his personal friends, and the justice of that 
recognition has never been more conclusively 
proved than by the little woodcut which serves as 
a frontispiece to the present volume. In spite of 
the small scale and bold cutting, the print has an 
airiness and serenity which are, alas, too rare. 
Indication of Houses of Historical Interest 
in London. Parts I, II, III. Published for 
the L.C.C. by P. S. King and Son. One 
penny each. 
On the recommendation of its Historical Records 
and Buildings Committee, the London County 
Council three years ago took over the work for- 
merly undertaken by the Society of Arts of indi- 
cating by memorial tablets the residences of 
celebrated men and women in London. These 
interesting and useful records of the work of the 
Committee up to the present give the reasons in 
each case why the houses have been selected. The 
selection often involves a considerable amount of 
historical and topographical research, and changes 
in numbers, etc., add to the difficulties. There is 
little to be said about a work so obviously deserving 
unqualified commendation. 
Norway. By Nico Jungman. Text by Beatrix 

Jungman. A. & C. Black. 20s. net. 
A gossiping chronicle of very small beer in the 
manner of the book on Holland by the same 
author and artist, which we noticed a few months 
ago. Such merit as Mr. Jungman's work once 
possessed seems to have been lost through haste 
and carelessness, and very few of the pictures in 
this book are worth the pains spent upon them by 
the publishers. 

Nuremberg. Painted by Arthur G. Bell; de- 
scribed by Mrs. Arthur G. Bell. Black. 
7s. 6d. net. 
A pleasantly-written book about Nuremberg of 
the dark ages, with its dungeons and torture - 
chambers; Nuremberg of the Renaissance, with 
its artists and craftsmen; and Nuremberg of to- 
day, with its factories and beer-gardens. Every 
chapter tells a legend or two, and every illustra- 
tion is devoted to some relic of mediaeval or Re- 
naissance architecture. We have seen better 
specimens of colour-printing. The writer has no 
very high standard of accuracy, especially _ in 
regard to names ; and we wonder why, in writing 
of a town so typically Teutonic, she should persist 
in calling the Lorenzkirche ' San Lorenzo.' 
Rome. Painted by Alberto Pisa. Text by M. A. 
R. Tuker and Hope Malleson. A. and C. 
Black. 20s. net. 
This is one of the best volumes of Messrs. Black's 
pretty series which we have seen. The opening 
chapters perhaps attempt rather too much, and so 
leave only a confused impression upon the reader's 
mind ; but the rest of the book is a thoroughly 
good piece of work, not very profound perhaps, but 
written with far more local knowledge and insight 

than is commonly found in books of the kind. 
The peculiarities of the Roman character in its 
attitude towards religion and life are admirably 
indicated, and the book will thus be not only a 
pleasant souvenir for those who already know 
Rome, but should also be of considerable use to 
those who wish to know it. The illustrations 
show no special sense of design or colour, but 
have the merit of being straightforward and un- 

Practical Hints on Painting 'Composition' 
Landscape and Etching. By Henry F. W. 
Ganz. Gibbings. 2s. 6d. net. 
A series of notes, chiefly technical in character, 
rather incoherently arranged, and illustrated by 
the author's sketches. The critical statements 
are frequently loose, but the book may give some 
practical hints to learners if they do not expect 
too much. 


Apollon-Gaulgruppen. By N. K. Skovgaard. Williams and 
Norgate. 7s. 6d. net. 

Ex Libris. By A. de Riquer. Williams and Norgate. 

The Master of Game. Edited by W. A. Baillie-Grohman. 
Ballantyne, Hanson and Co. £6 6s. 

Siena. By Casmir von Chledowski. Berlin : Bruno Cassirer. 

The Langham Series of Art Monographs— Italian Archi- 
tecture. By J. Wood Brown, M. A. A. Siegle. 

The Langham Series of Art Monographs— Rome. By 
Albert Zacher. A. Siegle. is. 6d. net. 

English Table Glass. By Percy Bate. George Newnes, 
Ltd. 7s. 6d. net. 

Practical Hints on Painting 'Composition ' Landscape and 
Etching. By Henry F. W. Ganz. Gibbings & Co. 
2s. 6d. net. 

Grammar of Greek Art. By Percy Gardner, Litt.D. Mac- 
millan and Co. 7s. 6d. net. 

The Gardiner Greene Hdbbard Collection of Engravings. 
Arthur J. Parsons. Washington: Government Printing 

An Introduction to the History of Chinese Pictorial 
Art. By Herbert A. Giles, M.A., LL.D. Kelby and 
Walsh, Ltd., Shanghai. 

Robert Adam. By Percy Fitzgerald, M.A., F.S.A. T. Fisher 
Unwin. ios. 6d. net. 

The Preservation of Antiquities. Translated by George 
A. Auden and Harold A. Auden from the German of 
Dr. Friedrich Rathgen. University Press, Cambridge. 
4s. 6d. net. 

The Royal Academy Exhibitors, 1769-1904. Vol. I. Abbayne 
to Carrington. By Algernon Graves, F.S.A. George 
Bell and Sons, and Henry Graves and Co., Ltd. £2 2s. net. 

Dream Come True. By Laurence Binyon. With woodcut by 
author, and decoration by Lucien Pissarro, The Brook, 
Hammersmith. 15s. net. 

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Co., New York. 1 dollar 50 cents. 

Le Correspondant, Paris. La Rassegna Nazionale, Florence. 
Die Graphischen Kiinste, Vienna. The Kokka, Tokyo. 
Die Kunst, Munich. The Craftsman, Syracuse, New 
York. Gazette des Beaux-Arts, Paris. La Chronique des 
Arts et de la Curiosity, Paris. Onze Kunst, Amsterdam. 
Sztuka, Wydawca. La Revue de l'Art, Paris. The Nine- 
teenth Century and After. The Monthly Review. The 
Fortnightly Review. The National Review. The Gentle- 
man's Magazine. The Contemporary Review. The Rapid 
Review. The Review of Reviews. The Anglo-Russian. 

Vente D'Estampes Anciennes et de Dessins. MM. Frederik 
Muller and Co., Amsterdam. 




Fodcher (A.). L'Art Greco-Bouddhique du Gandhara. fetude 
sur les origines de l'influence classique dans l'art boud- 
dhique de l'Inde et de l'Extreme-Orient, Vol.1. (11x7) 
Paris (Leroux). Complete in two vols., many illustrations. 

Lapauze (H.). Melanges sur l'Art Francais. (8x5) Paris 
(Hachette), 5 fr. Reprinted essays upon La Tour, Ingres, 
Carries, the French Academy at Rome, ' Le droit 
d'entree dans les M usees,' etc. 


Bceswillwald (E.), Cagnat (R.), and Ballu (A.). Timgad, 
une cite 1 africaine sous l'empire romain. (14x11) Paris 
(Leroux). Completion of the eight parts published since 
1892. 44 plates, plans, etc. 

Hall (R. N.). Great Zimbabwe, Mashonaland, Rhodesia: an 
account of two years' examination work in 1902-4. (9 x 6) 
London (Methuen), 21s. net. Illustrated. 

Beltramelli (A.). Da Commachio ad Argenta : le lagune e 
le bocche del Po. (11x7) Bergamo (Istituto d'Arti 
grafiche), 4 1. ' Italia Artistica ' ; 134 illustrations. 

Alinari (V.). F-glises et couvents de Florence. (7 x 5) Flor- 
ence (Alinari), 5 fr. Illustrated. An illustrated pocket- 
guide of 287 pp. 

Gallenga Stuart (R. A.). Perugia. (11x7) Bergamo 
(Istituto d'Arti grafiche), 4 1. ' Italia Artistica ' ; 169 illus- 

Wall (J. C). Shrines of British saints. (9x5) London 
(Methuen's Antiquary's Books). Illustrated. 


Sparrow (W. S.). Women Painters of the World. From the 
time of Caterina Vigri, 1413-63, to Rosa Bonheur and the 
present day. (12x8) London (Hodder and Stoughton), 
7s. 6d. net. 

Clement (C. E.). Women Painters of the World. From the 
Seventh Century B.C. to the Twentieth Century a.d. (8 x 5) 
Boston (Houghton, Mifflin), $2.50. 32 plates. 

Hodgson (J. H.) and Eaton (F. A.). The Royal Academy and 
its Members, 1768-1830. (9 x 6) London (Murray), 21s. net. 
10 plates. 

Fitzgerald (P.). Robert Adam, artist and architect ; his 
works and his system. (11x8) London; Illustrated. 

Bastelaer (R. van). Peter Bruegel l'ancien, son oeuvre et son 
temps, suivie d'un catalogue raisonne de son ceuvre dessine 
et grave ; et d'un catalogue raisonne de son oeuvre peint par 
G. H. de Loo. (13 x 10) Bruxelles (Van Oest). Pt. 1, 

24 pp. 18 plates in heliogravure and phototype. 
Robaut (A.). L'oeuvre de Corot. Catalogue raisonne et 

illustre\ precede' de l'histoire de Corot et de ses oeuvres, 
par E. Moreau-Nelaton. Vols. I— II. (15x11) Paris 
(Floury) ; Vol. I. contains the biography ; Vol. II. the cata- 
logue, with a reproduction of each item ; to be completed in 
4 vols., each 400 fr. 

Pottier (E ). Douris et les Peintres de Vases Grecs. (9x6) 
Paris (Laurens), 2 fr. 50. ' Les Grands Artistes.' 24 illus- 

Laban (F.). Heinrich Friedrich Fiiger der Portratminiaturist. 
(Jahrbuch der Kgl. Preussischen Kunstsammlungen, xxvi, 
pp. 1-27.) With many reproductions of miniatures and 
studies, some in colour. 

Eabriczy (C. von). Giuliano da Majano in Macerata. (Jahr- 
buch der Kgl. Preussischen Kunstsammlungen, xxvi, 40-46.) 

Van Eeghen (P.) and Van der Kellen (J. P.). Het Werk van 
Jan en Casper Luyken. 2 vols. (12 x 8) Amsterdam 
(Muller). With 56 reproductions of studies, prints, etc. 

Collignon (M.). Lysippe. (9 x 6) Paris (Laurens), 2 fr. 50. 
■ Les Grands Artistes.' 24 illustrations. 

Jordan (M.). Das Werk Adolf Menzels, 1815-1905. Mit einer 
Biographie des Kiinstlers. (12x9) Miinchen (Bruckmann), 
ios. Illustrated. 

Perrot (G.). Praxitele. (9x6) Paris (Laurens), 2 fr. 50. 'Les 
Grands Artistes.' 24 illustrations. 

Qcarre-Reybourbon (L.). Arnould de Vuez, peintre lillois, 
1644-1720. (10x7). Lille (Lefebvre-Ducrocq) ; 17 plates. 

Puchstein (O.). Fiihrer durch die Ruinen von Baalbek. 

(7 x 5) Berlin (Reimer), 2 fr. 40 pp., illustrated. 
Baudot (A. de) and Perrault-Dabot (A.). Les cathedrales de 

France. Fascicule I. (17 x 13) Paris (Schmid ; Laurens), 

25 fr. 25 photogravure plates. 

Soil de Moriame (E.-J.). L'Habitation Tournaisienne du 
xi e au xvm e siecle. Vol.1. (9x6) Tournai (Casterman). 
Forms a vol. of the annales of the Tourna_, ..rcnaeoio 5 i- 
cal Society. Illustrated. 


Cremer (F. G.). Zur Oelmaltechnik des Alten. (9 x 6) Dussel- 
dorf (Voss), 8 m. 

Peters (J. P.) and Thiersch (H.). Painted Tombs in the Ne- 
cropolis of Marissa (Mareshah). Edited by S. A. Cook. 
(11x8) London (Palestine Exploration Fund), 42s. net. 
22 plates, some in colour. 

Suida (W.). Einige florentinische Maler aus der Zeit des Uber- 
gangs vom Duecento ins Trecento : I. Die Madonna Ruccellai. 
(Jahrbuch der Kgl. Preussischen Kunstsammlungen, xxvi, 
pp. 28-39.) Illustrated. 

Suida (W.). Florentinische Maler um die Mitte des xiv. Jahr- 
hunderts. (12 x 8) Strassburg (Heitz), 8 m. 

Studies upon Orcagna, Nardo di Cione, Giovanni da 
Milano, etc., with 35 plates. 

Gramm (J.). Spatmittelalterliche Wandgemalde im Konstanzer 
Minister. (10 x 6) Strassburg (Heitz), 6 m. 20 plates. 

MEDER(J.)and Schonbrunner (J. von). Zeichnungen Albrecht 
Diirers in der Albertina zu Wien, in Nachbildungen. 
(ig x 14) Berlin (Grote) ; Vol. IV. (plates 448-588) of the 
late Dr. Lippmann's publication. 

Bruck (R.). Das Skizzenbuch von Albrecht Diirer in der 
kbnigl. offentl. Bibliothek zu Dresden. (14 x 10) Strass- 
burg (Heitz). 160 phototypes. 

Ganz (P.). Handzeichnungen schweizerischer Meister des 
xv.-xvm. Jahrhunderts. (15x12) London (Williams and 
Norgate). Pt. I., 15 plates; 10 fr. 

Heath (D.). Miniatures. (10 x 7) London (Methuen), 25s. net, 
43 plates, 1 1 in colour. ' Connoisseur's Library.' 

Hawkesbury (Lord). Catalogue of the Portraits, Miniatures, 
etc. at Castle Howard and Naworth Castle. (In the Trans- 
actions of the East Riding Antiquarian Society, vol. xi, 
pp. 35-122). Hull (A. Brown) : with 19 plates. 


Sturgis (R.). The Appreciation of Sculpture. (10x6) London 
(Batsford), 7s. 6d. net. 80 illustrations. 

Goldschmidt (A.). Elfenbeinreliefs aus der Zeit Karls des 
Grossen. (Jahrbuch der Kgl. Preussischen Kunstsamm- 
lungen, xxvi, 47-67.) Illustrated. 

Bradley (J. W.). Illuminated Manuscripts. London (Methuen). 

2s. 6d. net. Illustrated. 
Le Musee des Enluminures. fidite' par Pol de Mont. (17 x 13) 

Haarlem (Kleinmann). Part I. of this publication is devoted 

to the Berry Hours at Brussels ; reproductions in photo- 

Cockerell (S. C). The Book of Hours of Yolande of Flanders, 

a manuscript of the fourteenth century in the Library of 

H.Y.Thompson. (13x10) London (printed by Whitting- 

ham). 7 photogravure plates : 24 pp. 
Sarrazin (A.). Histoire de Rouen d'apres les miniatures des 

manuscrits. (10 x 7) Rouen (Cagniard). Illustrations. 

Rosenberg (M.). Aegyptische Einlage in Gold und Silber. 

(14x11) Frankfurt am Main (Keller). 16 pp., 26 illustra- 
Dalton (O. M.). Franks Bequest ; The Treasure of the Oxus, 

with other objects from Ancient Persia and India, (n x 9) 

London (British Museum). 29 phototype plates, and text 


Museo civico di Torino. Sezione arte antica. Cento tavole 

riproducenti circa 700 oggetti. (19 x 13) Torino (Sambuy). 

Phototypes (antique to renaissance periods). 
Molin (A. de). Histoire documentaire de la manufacture de 

Porcelaine de Nyon, 1781-1813. (13 x 10) Lausanne 

(Bridel). Illustrations, including 10 coloured plates. 
Schmerber (H.). Die Schlange des Paradieses. (12x8) 

Strassburg (Heitz), 2 m. 50. ' Zur Kunstgeschichte des 

Auslandes.' 3 plates. 
Whall (C. W.). Stained Glass Work : A text book for students 

and workers in glass. (7 x 5) London (Hogg), 5s. net. 

Lethabv's ' Artistic Craft Series.' Illustrated. 



■/,,//„■ /,,-u, >.„■•■„ ■ ■/' //' •/^/"■- 'H< r//,,,,,,, r. 





► T the far end of the 
Great Hall of the Palace 
of Westminster, St. Ste- 
phen's Chapel, of which 
the beautiful undercroft, 
although terribly restored, 
still exists, jutted out at right angles 
towards the river. Beyond St. Stephen's, 
and parallel to it on the other side of a 
court, stood the famous Great Chamber 
of the King, otherwise called the Cham- 
ber of St. Edward or the Painted Chamber. 
For centuries the title Painted Chamber had 
been only a name, when, in the year 1 800, 
some of the paintings were found on the 
walls behind tapestries which had long 
shrouded them. 1 

Later they were again covered up with 
whitewash and blue paper, until they were 
once more brought to light in 18 19, when 
further alterations were made to the cham- 
ber. The paintings were soon after finally 
obliterated, except some on the jambs of 
the windows, which were allowed to re- 
main in what had become the Court of 
Requests. The chamber and its paintings 
were wholly destroyed after the fire of 
1834. A careful account of them, how- 
ever, by John Gage Rokewode, was pub- 
lished by the Society of Antiquaries, 
together with some coloured engravings 
from drawings made in 18 19 by that 
master draughtsman, C. A. Stothard. 2 

His original drawings are preserved in 
the library of the Societv of Antiquaries ; 
they are more delicate than the engravings, 
and the parts which in the original paint- 
ings were of gilt gesso work are repre- 
sented by raised and burnished gold. 

1 John Carter, writing just before, says "certain markings on 
various parts of the walls appear like ornamental compartments, 
whose colours are hid by many coats of whitewash," Gent. Mag., 
1819, p. 422. He there describes the tapestries in detail, and 
sketches of them are preserved in the Crowle Collection in the 
British Museum. 

2 Vctusta Monumenta, Vol. VI. 

The Burlington Magazine, No. :S. Vol. VII— July 1905. 

Amongst the recent acquisitions at the 
South Kensington Art Library are several 
other coloured drawings from the same 
paintings, which were once in the collection 
of Wm. Burges. 

The finding of this new material for an 
account of what was the pre-eminent work 
of the painters of the Early English school 
is the immediate cause of this study of the 
subject. They are described as ' Spoilt 
drawings by Mr. Crocker.' Turning to 
Rokewode's text I found that Mr. Crocker 
was ' Master of the Works ' during the 
alterations of 1819, and in a footnote to a 
description of one of the engravings a 
reference is made to Mr. Crocker's draw- 
ings of the same subject in the Douce Col- 
lection in the Bodleian Library. Mrs. E. N. 
P. Moor was good enough to follow up this 
clue for me, and found eighteen highly 
finished drawings, and three copies of 
long inscriptions, accompanied by a key- 
plan and elevations of the walls, showing 
the positions which the several paintings 
occupied, together with a short MS. ac- 
count written 'by Edward Crocker, 1820.' 
This collection, which I have now 
examined, is preserved in the University 
Galleries. The drawings are exquisitely 
accurate, and fully coloured and gilded, 
the raised gesso work being represented 
in relief. They are drawn to a scale of 
1 J inches to a foot, and the inscriptions 
are half full size. 3 

The chamber was raisedabove an under- 
croft of Norman work, and its walls were 
partly of that time, but it was altered into 
elegant early gothic about 1230. I had 
written thus, assigning the date from the 

3 On the back of one of these is written ' Drawn by the en- 
couragement of Sir Gregory Page Tanner, Bart. ... by 
Edw. Crocker, junr., Clerk of the Works.' The drawings 
resemble Stothard's in many respects. I am allowed to repro- 
duce three of the drawings from negatives by the photographer 
to the University Galleries, and I must here express my thanks 
to Mr. A. Macdonald for much kind interest and assistance. 


The Painted Chamber at Westminster 

t^ 2 ^ 






A f 








•: 10 \Ki 





y ? 

- „■.„■, ,;.M 

3 .S 


Figs, i and 2. — Elevations of North and South sides of the Painted Chamber showing the position of the paintings copied by Stothard with 
reference numbers to the engravings. X and Y additional paintings copied by Crocker. A, B, C inscriptions. 

two-light windows, when I found records 
that in 123 1-2 Peter de Luton and other 
carpenters were to choose and fell timber 
at Havering for the King's Great Chamber 
at Westminster Palace, and that in 1232—3 
Odo the goldsmith (the general keeper 
of the Westminster works) was com- 
manded to receive William de Ruter and 
Hugh de Abbendon, carpenters, to do 
the king's work at Westminster. 4 The 
chamber was first painted soon after it was 
built, for we hear of a ' great history ' 
painted there as early as 1237. But these 
paintings were superseded in the latter half 

* Close Rolls, Hen. III. 

of the century by those we are about to 
describe. In 1307 we find the name 
camera depicta in use for this chamber at 
Westminster. 5 

It was of noble size, 80 feet 6 inches 
long, 26 feet wide, and 31 feet high, and 
its walls, ceiling, fireplace, and the stone- 
work of its windows were painted all over 
with stories and patterns. A large, accu- 
rate plan of the room made by W. Capon in 
1799 is preserved in the Crace Collection 
at the British Museum. 6 This plan shows 
the details of the windows and doors and 

' As early as 1233 a ' painted chamber ' at Winchester Castle 
is mentioned. « Maps, xi, 47. 

The Painted Chamber at Westminster 

the spiral staircase at the south-east corner. 
Even the black and yellow tiles of the 
floor are represented. Two perspective 
engravings of the interior accompany 
Rokewode's account, and in Carter's 
' Details of English Architecture and 
Painting' some other particulars, includ- 
ing a plan of the wooden ceiling, are 
given. This ceiling was boarded all over 
like a floor, and on it were set a number 
of large, flat, quatrefoil bosses, one of which 
I have found, without description, in the 
basement of the Soane Museum. At the 
east end, towards the river, were two 
windows; the north and south sides are 
shown in our diagrams amended from 
Crocker's drawings 7 (Figs, i and 2). Near 
the north-east corner was a door which seems 
to have led to the king's oratory, and close 
to it on the left was a small quatrefoil 
opening which was doubtless placed there 
so that the king might readily see the 
altar from his bed, which I hope to show 
was placed directly in front of the import- 
ant picture of the Coronation of Edward 
the Confessor, through a corner of which 
the opening was pierced, as may be seen 
in Stothard's engraving. 8 

The four principal chambers in the 
palace were the great and little halls and the 
king's and queen's chambers. The latter 
two were occasionally, like the former, 
used for banquets. It is certain that the 
king's chamber and the Painted Chamber 
are one, but Rokewode does not seem to 
assert that it was the king's bed-chamber, 
although he implies as much ; there can- 
not, however, be a doubt that the bed- 
chamber of Henry III. and the Edwards 
was the Painted Chamber. 9 Rokewode 
shows that the king's oratory was certainly 
at its north-east angle, and the oratory is 

' Capon's plan is the authority for the door at north-west 
corner, and Rokewode's text, p. 14, for the position of the door 
in north-east angle, which seems to have communicated with a 
stair similar to that at south-east angle. 

8 See our Fig. 1. Crocker says ' it is probable both door and 
opening were connected with the oratory.' See also Capon's 
remarks in Vttusta Monumenta. 

* See Rokewode, in V. M., Vol. VI, pp. 9, 10, 13. 

more than once spoken of in the documents 
as close to, or behind, the king's bed, 
'juxta lectum Rs.' — ' retro lectum.' Again, 
finally, the opening which we have just 
mentioned can be no other than the ' king's 
round window ' which is mentioned in an 
order of 1236, and which is expressly said 
to have been juxta lectum regis in the 
king's chamber. 10 

To the left was the fireplace, which was 
altered in Tudor times, but some records 
show that the earlier one had a painting on 
the hood above it. Further to the left, in 
the same north wall, were three two- 
light windows, and in the south wall there 
appear to have been four similar windows, 
two of which were closed before the 
paintings which chiefly concern us were 

Through the rolls of accounts we know 
of a series of decorations in the king's 
chamber earlier than most of those which 
were discovered in 18 19. In 1236 it was 
ordered that it should be painted of a good 
green colour in the manner of a curtain 
and that in the gable over the door should 
be written this motto, ' Ke ne dune ke ne 
tine ne pret ke desire.' (Qui ne donne ce 
qu'il tient, ne prend ce qu'il desire). In 
the year following we read of the ' great 
history' in the same chamber. Rokewode 
gives these references, and in the Close 
Rolls for 1243 and 1244 I find additional 
orders for two large lions to be painted 
face to face, and for the four Evangelists 
to be painted, the image of St. John to the 
east, St. Matthew to the west, St. Luke to 
the south, and St. Mark to the north, 
Another mandate ordered that the chamber 
should be wainscoted, and the pillars about 
the king's bed painted green and gold. 

In 1252, Master William, the king's 
painter, was employed in repairing the 
paintings ; the fireplace was rebuilt in 
1259, and Master William and his men 
then received 43s. 2d. for painting a 

i° V.M., Vol. VI. p. 7. " V.M., Vol. VI. p. 7. 


The Painted Chamber at Westminster 

'Jesse' (tree) on the hood (mantle) above 
it, and for repairing and cleaning the 
paintings. William's two assistants were 
Richard Painter and John de Radinge, who 
received 6d. a day for painting the wall on 
either side of the chimney. 12 At the south- 
east corner of the room, one of the windows 
blocked when the second series of paintings 
was done was found to have on its jamb a 
painted green curtain. 13 Crocker says 
this ' was certainly older than any of the 
rest,' and it doubtless forms a remnant of 
the earlier series. 

On 7 February 1262, a serious fire oc- 
curred, in which the lesser hall, the cham- 
ber, the chapel, etc., were burnt; 14 the 
figure paintings, which we know by copies, 
therefore belong to the time immediately 

There were two commands relating to 
paintings issued in 1263, which Rokewode 
by error puts in inverse order, post-dating 
the earlier by a year. The first is dated 
17 September, 1263. 15 In it, William of 
Gloucester, citizen of London, is ordered 
to provide gold for the completion of some 
paintings in the king's chamber by the 
Feast of St. Edward, that is, October 13, 
and the finishing required cannot have 
demanded much work. On November 10 
of the same year l6 there was an order for 
the issue of money for paintings in the 
king's chamber and the chapel behind the 
king's bed, to be finished by Christmas. 
Other mandates of 1265 and 1267 refer to 
materials for making and completing 
paintings in the chamber, and in three 
issued during the latter year the artist en- 
gaged on the work is named, ' Master 
Walter, our painter.' Further payments 
were made for gold and colours for the 
pictures in the years 1268-69-70-71. All 
these notices are cited by Rokewode. 

»s Issue Rolls, 43 Hen. III. 
" See V.M., Vol. vi, PI. xx, Fig. 22. 

11 I find this definitely stated in Riley's ' Chronicles of the 
Mayors and Sheriffs,' p. 54. 

15 Close Roll, 48 Hen. Ill, membrane 2. 

16 Close Roll, 48 Hen. Ill, membrane 10. 


Eastlake brought to notice further accounts 
for the years 1 274-7 (second to fifth year, 
Edward I.) for colours, oil,varnish, and gold. 
Another item in the last of these years was 
for a load of charcoal for drying the paint- 
ings in the king's chamber, 3s. 8d. — a con- 
siderable sum, equivalent to, say £3 10s. 

This great drying, we may well suppose, 
marks the completion of the work, which 
may safely be dated as executed in sections 
during the fifteen years from 1262 to 
1277. A considerable political event was 
consummated in the chamber in 1 278, and 
this also may be held to be contributory 
evidence as to its then being completed. 
Alexander, 'late king of Scotland,' came to 
the king in the chamber at Westminster, 
and took the oath, ' I, Alexander, king of 
Scotland, become the liege-man of Sir 
Edward, king of England, against all 
men,' etc. (Close Roll, 6 Ed.^ I.) We 
may safely assign the inception and inspira- 
tion of the paintings to the art-loving king, 
Henry III., who died 1 272. One account 
in 1256 describes how the king 'ordained' 
a painting for the palace in consultation 
with Master William, his painter. 

When we again hear of the paintings, 
in 1288 and 1292-4, Master Walter, King 
Edward's painter, was engaged ' circa 
emendacionem pictorie in magna camera 
regis.' In the account of 1294, Thomas, 
son of the master, appears working as one 
of the nine men employed. In 1307, the 
king's painter, ' Master Thomas de West- 
minster, son of Walter, before mentioned,' 17 
and others, were engaged in amending 
divers defects in the ' Camera Depicta,' in 
the ceiling, walls, and windows, and also on 
paintings in the ' Camera Marculfy ' and 
other chambers, and on the ship in which 
the king (Edward II.) crossed to France 
for his wedding. 

In 1322, while the chamber was still 
in its brilliant perfection, it was visited by 
two travelling friars, Simon, and Hugh the 

'< G. Rokewode, pp. n and 12. 



The Painted Chamber at Westminster 

illuminator, who have left a description of 
what they saw. ' Near the monastery stands 
the most famous royal palace of England, 
in which is the celebrated chamber, on the 
walls of which all the warlike pictures of 
the whole Bible are painted with ineffable 
skill, and explained and completed by a 
regular series of texts beautifully written in 
French, to the great admiration of the 


W baratlef 

Fio. 3. — Specimen of the inscriptions, about quarter full size. 

These inscriptions, of which, as said 
above, fragments are preserved at Oxford, 
were in an admirable form of black letter, of 
which Fig. 3 is a specimen, being a part 
of one of the clearest fragments : — 

14 rets anttocbus entca en cgtptc a grant est . . . 
mut oe batatles en gtre le re tbolome oe cgtpte . . . 
citees garntes & mist tut ala spee e a gref .... 

They may be the work of William the 
Scribe, whose name appears in the accounts 
for 1292. 

When the chamber was explored evi- 
dence even of the destroyed thirteenth 
century fireplace was discovered. It ap- 
pears that at the time when it was replaced 
by the Tudor one, some new windows were 
also cut through the upper part of the walls 
and the stones of the original fireplace were 
taken to block up some of the early two- 
light windows. Stothard says that a quan- 
tity of wrought stone, painted on the 

surface, had been used for this purpose. 
' I selected from them,' he says, ' a com- 
plete series of subjects representing the em- 
ployments of the twelve months of the 
year, which, I am inclined to believe, orna- 
mented the frieze of the original chimney- 
piece. The form and the arrangement of 
the stones confirm me in this conjecture ; 
the whole of these subjects might have been 
put together and perfectly restored.' 18 

The labours of the twelve months, com- 
prising mowing, reaping, gathering fruits, 
etc., figured in a series of panels, are well 
known to us in the calendars of MSS. and 
other sources. In this relation I cannot 
help recalling here the subject which in 
1 240 Henry ordered to be painted over the 
fireplace of the queen's chamber, 'A figure 
of Winter,which by its sad countenance and 
miserable distortion of body may be likened 
to winter itself.' I9 

On the walls of our chamber the paint- 
ings were arranged in a succession of bands 
(see Figs. 1 and 2), and the inscriptions 
were in narrower bands, about 1 1 inches 
wide, between them. These spaces, thus 
fretted over in black on white, must have 
been of great value in setting off the bril- 
liantly illuminated paintings. A similar 
system obtained in St. Stephen's Chapel, as 
may be seen on the fragments preserved in 
the British Museum. There were six 
bands of paintings in all, which increased 
in width upwards in order. Beneath them 
the dado was painted like a green curtain. 
Capon, in 1799, found the remains of this 
on the west wall: 'The fringe on the bottom 
well painted and the folding well under- 
stood.' 20 The lowest band contained the 
story of Joab, Abner, and David ; the next, 
events from the second book of the Macca- 
bees, one scene being inscribed ' La Mere 
and vii filtz.' In the third band were the 
stories of Abimelech and Jotham, with 
their names written over their heads, of 

18 V M. Vol. VI. page 2. 13 Ibid, page 20. 

'» Ibid. Vol. V. 


The Painted Chamber at Westminster 

Hezekiah'and Isaiah, of the Assyrians (called 
Arabians), of the captivity of Jehoiachin, 
and of the destruction of the Temple (' le 
Temple de Jerl'm'). The fourth band had 
the stories of Elijah and Elisha. The fifth 
band had the acts of Judas Maccabeus, and 
the sixth the story of Antiochus. 21 

On the jambs of the windows were large 
figures of the Virtues, and in one place of 
Edward the Confessor and the Pilgrim. 
Stothard's engravings Figs, i, 3, 14, and 
16 are not represented amongst Crocker's 
drawings, and the latter gives two large 

figures not en- 
graved. The two 
series agree remark- 
ably, although there 
are slight variations, 
Crocker's being, on 
the whole, the fuller. 
Of most of the com- 
positions which 
have been engraved 
I will not give any 
description. The 
two drawings not 
represented by en- 
gravings are the 
upper part of one of 
the Virtues, and a 
knight under a ca- 
nopy, which latter 
came from a space 
between the fire- 
place and the Coro- 
nation group. It 
was a fine figure 
over 5 feet high, clad in mail and hold- 
ing a shield and spear, and probably re- 
presented some military saint like St. 
Eustace, guarding the king's bed, by 
which it stood 22 (Fig. 4). Crocker's 
drawing of the Virtue is lettered VERITE. 
She had a sword upraised in her right hand 

al Crocker gives the passages from the Bible referred to in the 

» « At Winchester Castle in 1251 the king ordered ' the guards 
of the bed of Solomon ' to be painted by his bed. St. Eustace 
was figured as a knight in St. Stephen's chapel. 


FIG. 4. — From Crocker's drawing 
of painting at Y. 

and a golden target charged with a red 
cross in the other. Her robe was red and 
her 'kerchief a delicate blue. The figure 
of Falsehood, on which she must have been 
trampling, had been destroyed, and what 
remained of the Virtue herself was much 
injured. It is, however, interesting to get 
a third-named figure of this Psychomachia. 
Some of the series were found on the win- 
dows of both the north and south sides of 
the chamber, and this distribution shows 
that there were probably eight Virtues in 
all. The four which were found were all 
crowned, armed with mail, and bore shields 
and various weapons (see Plates). 

Crocker's beautiful drawings of the three 
Virtues, also engraved after Stothard, give 
some few further indications of details. 
On the left jamb of the middle window on 
the south side was LARGESCE trampling 
down COVOTISE, a man weighed down by 
many money-bags hung around his neck, 
and choked with more gold which is being 
poured down his throat, while he falls back 
into his own strong-box. On the right 
jamb DEBONERETE was birching IRA, 2 3 a 
woman with one blind eye, who was tearing 
her hair. The shield carried by the Virtue 
was a magnificently drawn example of he- 
raldry — England with the difference of two 
bars. The Virtues were noble figures, 
seven feet high, serene and smiling. Be- 
neath both the Vices were low predella 
subjects not shown by Stothard. The fourth 
Virtue, as shown by the fragment in the re- 
presentations, was as beautiful as any. It 
is made out in more detail in Crocker's 
drawing than in the engraving. She bore 
a spear and a round target on which was a 
cross and four lions on a green field. As- 
suming that the bearings had some signifi- 
cance, I shall call this Fortitude. It may 
be noted that Largesse significantly hid the 
blazon of her shield, and the lions and bars 

M It may be noticed that in Chaucer's ' Parson's Tale ' we find 
the same names of Virtues and Vices. ' The remedy against Ira 
is a virtue that men clepen Mansuetude, that is Debonairetee.' 
Again, ' The root of all harms is Coveitise.' ' And another manner 
of remedy against Avarice is reasonable Largesse.' 

The Painted Chamber at Westminster 

of Debonnairete may mean strength in 
patience. In regard to this last-named 
figure I cannot forbear to quote a passage 
from Ruskin's ' Ariadne Florentina ' : — 

' It is entirely conceived in colour and 
calculated for decorative effect. There is 
no more light and shade in it than in a 
Queen of Hearts in a pack of cards ; all 
that the painter at first wants you to see 
is that the young lady has a white fore- 
head, and a golden crown, and a fair neck, 
and a violet robe, and a crimson shield 
with golden leopards on it ; and that 
behind her is clear blue sky. Then, 
further, he wants you to read her name, 
" Debonnairete," which, when you have 
read, he further expects you to consider 
what it is to be debonnaire': — 

' She was not brown nor dun of hue 
But white as snowe fallen new, 
With eyen glad, and browes bent, 
Her hair down to her heles went, 
And she was as simple as dove on tree, 
Full debonnair of heart was she.' 

On the jambs of the first window on the 
south side was represented Henry the 
Third's favourite subject, the Confessor 
giving his ring to the pilgrim. This 
window was exactly opposite the king's 
bed, behind which was the magnificent 
picture of the Confessor's Coronation. 

All the figures on the jambs were asso- 
ciated with painted tracery-canopies, and 
patterns all over the stonework of the 
windows. Over each canopy, and filling 
one side of the arch, was the figure of an 
angel with drooping wings, in garments of 
blue with gilt patterns, and holding a 
crown, on a red ground. 24 This composi- 
tion is best explained in the engraving after 
a drawing by Stephanoff, 25 where we see 
on the curving undersides of the arch of the 
window angels holding crowns above the 
triumphant Virtues underneath. 

Thepicture of theCoronation of theCon- 
fessor was 10 feet 8 inches long by nearly 

« Gent. Mag., Vol. 5. New S. 

" Original Drawing 1821, in Library of S.K.M., but engraving 
of S. W. Reynolds is fuller. 

6 feet high, and was the most splendid one 
in the chamber. On the background was 
EDWARD. It appears far more perfect in 
Crocker's large drawing than in the engrav- 
ing (see Plate II). The drawing is exqui- 
sitely minute and faithful to the mediaeval 
spirit. The group of bishops to the right are 
shown as almost complete, and the whole 
is of the highest value as a document. The 
quatrefoil opening into the oratory, which 
was included in the area of this picture, 
was surrounded by painted buttresses and 
a gable, so that it looked like the rose 
window of a church. The canopy work 
over the coronation pic- 
ture was especially in- 
teresting, as from the 
drawing we can see that 
inlays of glass were re- 
presented in it, and also 
gold foliage on blue 
glass, exactly like the 
decorations of the cele- 
brated retable of the 
Abbey now in the 
Jerusalem Chamber. 26 

Raised gesso - work 
gilded was lavishly used 
here and there on most 
of the pictures. The 
crowns of the Virtues 
were exquisitely embossed in this man- 
ner, and the canopy-work and margins 
were also patterned in gesso (Fig. 5). The 
tabernacles of Stothard's Fig. 5 were 
especially handsome. The colour through- 
out was of the highest pitch of harmonious 
brilliance — the backgrounds all of pure 
ultramarine and vermilion, on which full 
greens, purples, blues, crimsons, and white 
and black, were relieved by passages of 
delicate rose and grey violet. The faces 
were slightly dark in tone, the cheeks 
touched with crimson ; the eyes were 

M Master Walter used similar inlays on the coronation 


Flo. j.— Pattern of gesso- 
work from the margin 
of one of the window 

The Painted Chamber at Westminster 

white with black pupils and a bright blue 
circle around the outer rim of the iris, they 
thus told in a very striking way. 

Let us turn lor a moment to see our 
chamber as a completely painted whole. 
The Virtues and the coronation picture 
were the best lighted, and in every way the 
most important centres of interest. Un- 
rolled on the rest of the walls were fierce 
battle scenes ; a press of knights on richly 
caparisoned horses forming a contused mass 
oi mail, heraldic tunics, gold helmets, and 
blazoned shields, with uplifted swords, 
trumpets, and banners cutting against the 
blue skv ; here were groups of pinnacled 
towers and castles, and there, again, inte- 
riors were represented within panels of gilt 
tabernacle work. The first impression 
must have been of the active stimulus of 
colour from these painted stories all as 
clear and bright as stained glass. The walls 
were a romantic illuminated book of great 

The workmanship, we may say with 
certainty, was, of its kind, of the highest 
technical excellence, the delineation being 
as swift and as sure as a Greek or Chinese 
vase-painter's. Comparing the delicately 
tinted yet brilliant colour shown even by 
the copies with other existing examples of 
the best work of the time — the altar-paint- 
ing in St. Faith's Chapel and the retable, 
both at Westminster, the beautiful retable 
of English work off. 1300 in the Cluny 
Museum (No. 1,664), tne ^ ater Norwich 
retable, and also the fragments from 
St. Stephen's Chapel now at the British 
Museum — we can see that the painting 
must have been of true tempera brought 
up in successive semi-transparent films, and 
finally varnished, and this is confirmed by 
the accounts of materials bought tor the 
work. The gilding, Rokewode says, was 
found burnished upon a raised composition 
under which was tinfoil, used for the pur- 
pose of protecting it from damp. One of 
Stothard's original drawings shows the mail 


of one of the pictures as silvered, and this 
is confirmed by the account in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine, which speaks of silver and 
gold enriched with stucco patterns. 

In the accounts of the Painted Chamber, 
size ('cole ') is the only medium mentioned, 
but Eastlake has shown that in 1277 
Master William was, in another place, 
using honey, white wine (1 gallon, 3^.!), 
and eggs, the most approved of tempera 
vehicles. 27 In the account of 1289 the 
following materials are mentioned : white 
lead, varnish (solid, by the pound), oil (for 
mixing the varnish), red lead, tinfoil, size, 
gold and silver leaf, red ochre, vermilion, 
indigo, azure, green, vessels, cloth, plaster, 
thread, etc. 28 That azure was a precious 
colour is shown by the fact that a painting 
was ordered at Guildford Castle about this 
time, ' without gold or azure.' In the 
Westminster accounts, says Eastlake, pura 
ivzura at 26 shillings a pound is distin- 
guished from bis azura at five shillings. 
The green curtain of the dado seems to have 
been in oil-paint.-' 

It was Stothard's view, expressed before 
the evidence of the documents was known, 
that ' the whole of the subjects had been at 
least twice re-painted ; the last decoration 
was certainly not earlier than Edward I. 
. . . The last time the gilder was more 
employed than the painter.' 3 ° The docu- 
ments corroborate his view as to re- 

We have seen that Master William, 
king's painter to Henry III., was engaged in 
the Painted Chamber in 1259, a few years 
before our paintings were begun, and that 
Master Walter, also king's painter, was 
actually engaged on them in 1267. In 
this year (1267) Henry III. addressed a 
mandate to the bailiffs of London to ' pay 

-" Eastlake, Vol 1. page 109 

2a Ibid., pa^es 53, 54. In the 1307 account we find red and 
white varnish, red lead, orpiment, oker, and brun mentioned, 
also pakthred for making lines, and a provision pro factiom et 
reparacionc bru ihorum. 

T > As to oil painting — 'distempre de oyle ' — see Riley's Liber 
Customat "><:, page lviii. 

11 V M., Vol. VI, page 14. 




'The Painted Chamber at Westminster 

to Master Walter, our painter, 20 marks 
for pictures in our great chamber at West- 
minster : and that ye by no means omit to 
do it.' 31 We know further that Walter, 
who is called Walter of Durham in another 
document of 1272, belonged to a later 
generation than William, who is heard of 
as early as 1240. Walter remained painter 
toEdward I. as late asi 301, when hepainted 
the coronation chair preserved at the Abbey, 
on which are still some vestiges of pat- 
terned work in gilt gesso. It is possible 
to suppose that the scheme for the chamber 
was arranged by Master William the 
painter, in conjunction with the king, but 
I cannot agree with Stothard and Roke- 
wode that the designs date from a time 
before the fire of 1262. I may also men- 
tion that Rokewode is certainly mistaken 
in speaking of Odo of Westminster and 
his son Edward as painters. The former 
was a goldsmith, the latter the king's clerk. 
The accounts for 1292 and 1294 show 
that Master Walter was receiving one shil- 
ling a day, and give the names of a large 
number of other painters engaged on the 
work, of whom John of Soninghull and 
Richard Essex seem to have been paid at 
the same rate as the master, while the rest 
received 6d. or 5d. a day. 32 

The picture of St. Faith, mentioned 
above, is of earlier style than the paintings 
of the chamber, and from the known 
dates of works at the Abbey we may pro- 
bably assign it to the decade 1250—60. On 
the left-hand side of it can be seen a small 
kneeling figure of a Benedictine monk in 
the well-known posture of the donor of a 
picture. This is probably none other than 
William the painter himself, who in some 
of the documents is described as ' Monk 
of Westminster.' 33 Besides the coronation 
chair slight vestiges of a painting by 

81 Walpole's ' Anecdotes of Painting.' 

82 The original Rolls are at the Record Office. Q. R. Works, 
20 & 22 Edw. I. See 467, 2 & 3, and 467, 6, d. In all about 
thirty painters are named in these and another roll of the same 
time : Add. MS. 24548 in the British Museum. 

33 Compare Matthew of Paris in MS. Royal 4 C VII. 

Master Walter are to be seen on the base- 
ment of the tomb of Queen Eleanor in the 
Abbey Church, and the splendid retable, 
now in Jerusalem Chamber, may also pro- 
bably be his work. Some dignified paint- 
ings of kings filling panels in the back of 
the sedilia of the church are, we may 
suppose, the work of Master Thomas, son 
of Walter, for the sedilia of the church 
was set up in 1307. It was in this very 
year, as we have seen, that Master Thomas 
of Westminster was engaged on work in 
the chamber, repairing various defects ' in 
divers ystories,' and working on divers draw- 
ings; he was assisted by about a dozen 
other painters. He and three or four other 
masters received only 6d. a day. 34 

I have described above, as fully as may 
be, the general distribution of the paint- 
ings on the walls of the King's Great 
Chamber. So many of those paintings, of 
which copies have been preserved, clustered 
about the central south window, which 
was itself substantially perfect at the time 
the records were made, that it would be 
quite easy to make a practically correct 
restored drawing of a length of this side 
of the chamber. 35 If thiswere done it would 
form a valuable memorial of the work of 
the Westminster masters of painting, of 
whom Master William and Master Walter 
stand as the Cimabue and Giotto. 

* # * * 

While the above has been in type I have 
found an important entry in regard to the 
Painted Chamber in some miscellaneous 
accounts, chiefly relating to the Abbey 
church, printed in Scott's 'Gleanings' 
(p. 113) : — Here it appears that in 1272 
Master William, painter and monkof West- 
minster, was paid twenty marks for the 
painted tabernacle around the king's bed 
in his chamber. The surmise that Master 
William was engaged on the decorations 
of the Painted Chamber is thus justified. 

SJ The original account, only partly extracted, is Add. MS. 
30263 at the British Museum. 

** Stothard's Fig. i also came from the lowest row on this side 




IF the artistic history of 
lpewter deserves, as it does, 
'study and illustration, surely 
Jead has an equal claim. In 
jsome of it> uses pewter is 
£i>— y y--**ra silver's poor relation and its 
substitute, but lead stands by itself. It 
takes no rarer metal's place, and has values 
all its own. No valid comparison is, how- 
ever, possible, for the pewterer was a 
domestic craftsman, the leadworker an 
architectural. Lead rainwater pipe heads 
show a characteristic English metal worked 
into its most characteristic English form. 
Foreign craftsmen equalled their English 
contemporaries in many uses of lead, and 
surpassed them in its application to medi- 
aeval roofing. In the lead fonts of Nor- 
man times, and the lead gutters, pipes, pipe 
heads and cisterns of the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries, the Englishman not only 
was supreme but had practically no com- 

Rainwater leadwork divides itself 
roughly into two great periods, one ex- 
tending from the earliest examples of the 
middle of the sixteenth century until about 
1640, and the other including the work of 
the second half of the seventeenth and the 
first half of the eighteenth centuries. 
After 1750 there is nothing of much 
interest except a few local schools, as for 
example those of Aberdeen and of Shrop- 
shire. There the craft, instead of dying 
down into simple dullness, sometimes bor- 
rowed conventions from other sources, such 
as plasterwork, and produced examples 
often lacking a sense of material, but not 
without decorative charm. 

The first period, with which I shall here 
deal, beginning before the Renaissance 
touched the plumber's art, and continuing 
until the new ideas were beginning to be 

felt, may fairly be called the Augustan age of 
English leadwork. During the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries the English crafts- 
man in lead had apparently lost the emi- 
nence which the lead fonts of the twelfth 
century had won tor him. We can show 
nothing to compare with the delicate 
crockets and leafwork of French mediaeval 
roofs which Burges so faithfully recorded. 
When, however, stone gargoyles were 
abandoned for external lead downpipes and 
heads, the English plumber came into his 
own again, and at a time when his ideas of 
design were, with his material, in the melt- 
ing pot. 

Plumbers were conservative craftsmen, 
a reputation which I believe they enjoy to- 
day. It is constantly found that leadwork, 
judged by design and treatment, is fifty 
years or more behind the stone carving and 
plasterwork contemporary with it. 

The reason tor this is, doubtless, that no 
foreign leadworkers were imported with 
Torrisnano or with the German craftsmen 
who followed when the Italians fell into 
evil political odour. Even had they come, 
they would have brought no tradition to 
disturb the English treatment winch had 
held sway since Henry III directed that 
lead downpipes be fixed at the Tower of 
London. External rainwater pipes are an 
English device, and the Continent never 
took to the idea. The gothic tradition, 
which persisted so long in the shells of 
buildings, and was discarded tor Renais- 
sance treatment at first only in such details 
as stone carving, continued long in the 
details of leadwork. 

The head at Windsor Castle (Fig. 14) 
is of 1 589, and is purely in the old manner ; 
and another, which is fellow to it, and bears 
the date in bold figures, has a lion which 
prances in vigorous mediaeval style. 






At Haddon Hall the lead heads are 
numerous, and, like most things there, a 
liberal education. The continuous build- 
ing which enables us, as we move trom 
one room to another, to step from one cen- 
tury to another, and to see the development 
of treatment and feeling, say of wood 
panelling, in its best expressions, does us 
the same kindness with the leadwork. The 
heads range from about 1580 to 1696, and 
beginning in work of purely gothic feeling 
run on to the stiff vase-shaped heads which 
are the common form of the eighteenth 
century. Some are direct descendants of 
the stone gargoyles. Indeed the gargoyles 
have been disestablished in their favour. 
The lead spouts from the stone figures 
which originally discharged clear ot the 
building were shortened, and now discharge 
into pipe heads. In two cases the crafts- 
man manifestly has been influenced by the 
gargoyle idea, and has fashioned the front 
of the heads as more or less human faces, 
one of a settled melancholy (Fig. 4), the 
other expressing a slightly humorous dis- 
satisfaction. Save for the two laughing 
masks, prophetic of Dr. Johnson, on an 
example of 1699 at Durham Castle, I do 
not know of any other heads which are 
frankly amusing. In Fig. 5 is shown a 
head on the great hall, lower court. A 
long embattled gutter discharges into one 
end. The head has a fleur-de-lys cresting 
and a tracery disc on the front, but no trace 
of Renaissance treatment. Dr. Charles 
Cox, in a paper on Derbyshire Plumbery, 
illustrates a head similar to that of Fig. 5, 
but without a gutter, and with a circular 
disc of a rather richer tracery than the 
simple wheel pattern of my example. He 
dates it as probably of the first half of the 
sixteenth century, possibly of the time of 
Sir Henry Vernon, who died in 15 15. I 
think the total absence of Renaissance feel- 
ing makes this theory plausible, and if it 
can be maintained the head is the earliest 
I know. But I am sceptical. The Eyam 

English zArchitectural Leadwork 


Hall heads have a very similar Jieur-de-lys 
cresting, but one is dated 1676. I cite this 
as showing that the quite gothic treatment 
does not necessarily indicate early work. 

Mr. Lethaby, in his most stimulating 
little book on leadwork, figures a head the 
same as my example, but he shows no 
gutter with it. Moreover, the top pipe 
socket bears, in his sketch, the Vernon 
boars head erased, whereas the only existing 
head which has the boar's head on the top 
socket has a peacock displayed instead of a 
tracery disc on the front. If the Manners 
peacock is, if I may say so, indigenous to 
the head on which it is now fixed, it dates 
the head somewhere probably not earlier 
than 1577, when Sir John Manners went 
to live at Haddon on the death of his 
father-in-law, certainly not earlier than 
1567, when he married Dorothy Vernon, 
and so demolishes the idea of a head of 
1 5 15. I incline to place it about 1580. 
Other heads are of the simple turreted 
type with embattled cresting, but the finest 
are those on the north side of the lower 
court (Fig. 2). A delightful feature is 
formed by outer fronts of pierced tracery, 
which produce lights and shadows of amaz- 
ing grace. This tracery, and the delicate 
cornice with dentils, seem to me one of the 
happiest possible combinations of the tra- 
ditional gothic with the new ideas. The 
shield on the pipe socket shows three 
lozenges in /esse for Montagu. As Sir John 
Manners did not marry Frances, daughter 
of Edward Lord Montagu, until 1628, we 
have here treatment which is almost en- 
tirely gothic, over a century after the first 
Italian invasion. If my page is here some- 
what overcharged with names and dates, it 
is by way of illustrating the slow impact 
of the new ideas and the permanence of 
the gothic spirit. 

Returning to Fig. 2, the three pen- 
dent knobs, the middle one polygonal 
while the outer ones are round, are a plea- 
sant relief to the line of the underside of 


Some English ^Architectural Lead work 


the bowl. This illustration shows a very 
delightful feature of old leadwork in the 
silvery grey patches which relieve the 
main blackness. Modern lead gives and 
can give no such effects, for all its impuri- 
ties (silver, arsenic, etc.) arc painfully re- 
moved. Possibly the arsenic (the oxide 
of which is white) has to be thanked tor 
these exquisite gradations of tone. 

Not only the heads but the pipe sockets 
show a wealth of care and invention. One 
is shown in Fig. 13, the shield bearing the 
arms of the Pembrugge family, a harry of 
six. Clearly the Haddon plumbers were 
historically minded, for it was about the 
middle of the fourteenth century that a 
Vernon married a Pembrugge. 

I am indebted to the kindness of Cap- 
tain Charles Lindsay for the fine Haddon 
photographs here reproduced. 

While Haddon Hall provides the finest 
group of heads regarded as an historical 
series, Knole Park, Sevenoaks, certainly 
gives us the finest series of heads of one 
date. Dating from 1604 to 1607, there 
are torty-seven in all. These heads not 
only touch the highest point of decorative 
charm, but from the wealth of treatment 
seem to me also to reach the limit of dex- 
terous craftsmanship. The excellence of 
the workmanship is such, that in spite of 
the delicacy of much of the detail and the 
great number of parts of which each head 
is made up, most of them are to-day in 
very fair condition. In this connexion I 
venture to criticize some remarks on lead 
heads by Mr. Reginald Blomfield, A.R.A., 
in his history of ' Renaissance Architec- 
ture.' He says that towards the latter part 
of the seventeenth century the older and 
simpler treatment of heads gave way to 
more recondite forms owing to the ambi- 
tion of the plumber, now become a very 
dexterous workman, to show his skill. 
He points to the 1730 head in the Square 
at Shrewsbury (Fig. 8) as illustrating the 
change that was destroying English crafts- 

manship. Mr. Blomfield suggests that the 
workman had long since passed the limi- 
tations imposed by technical inexperience, 
and could not resist the temptation to sacri- 
fice artistic value to mechanical skill. I 
venture, however, to say that the elaborate 
work on the heads of Haddon and Knole 
and Hatfield ot the early seventeenth cen- 
tury required, in all respects, as full a 
knowledge of the plumber's craft as the 
later work at Shrewsbury and elsewhere. 
While the gross richness of the later work 
is generally produced merely by applying 
an excess of ornaments, the early work is 
not lacking in an equally rich but withal 
restrained treatment of applied castings. In 
addition, we have the delicacy of the pierced 
work, and the colour treatment of painting, 
gilding, and tinning, which called for a 
dexterity more marked than is needed for 
cast work however elaborate. 

With regard to the modelling of the 
cast ornaments, the lion of 1589 on the 
Windsor head is at least as good an effort 
as the acanthus leaves and swags of the 
later heads. I think that the decline in 
charm which we feel towards the end of 
the seventeenth century is due rather to a 
general decline in taste, and to the sinking 
in importance of the individual craftsman 
owing to the growth of power of the 
architect. Moreover, the interest taken 
by the architect in leadwork was faint. I 
think this is proved by the poverty of de- 
sign of the water leadwork on the Wren 

On the south front at Knole two heads 
have pierced and twisted terminals which 
match the characteristic early Jacobean 
stone finials (Fig. 6). They bear, as do 
many others, the initials, arms, and crest of 
Thomas Sackville, earl of Dorset, who 
enlarged and beautified Knole. 

Another on the south front (Fig. 1) has 
incised bands and straps, which were 
probably filled originally with black or 
coloured mastic. The cresting, as in most 

>..■',. 1\ INCH 









'4 ' '- <s>> 


i ^5& 





Some English ^Architectural Leadwork 

of them, is a delicate battlement springing 
from a cable moulding. 

The east front has eight heads, all small 
and of one type, but each with some 
difference in treatment. 

The Stone Court and Green Court heads 
are large and rich. One bears pentacles 
(Fig. 12), significant I am told of Thomas 
Sackville's masonic interests. I believe this 
is problematical, and that the pentacle is 
there as a pleasant geometrical ornament 
very suitable for tinning. 

Pierced work like lace applied flat, flat 
pierced panels forming false fronts and 
throwing sharp shadows, pierced turrets, 
pierced pendants finishing in polygonal 
faced balls, solid turrets innumerable, 
chequers, chevrons, 8's, and strapwork in 
bright tinning, plans irregular or balanced, 
all go to make up a variety of treatment 
that indicates the apogee of the lead- 
worker's art. 

At Hatfield House there is a fine series 
of heads ranging from 1 6 1 o. Several are 
very large, and two of the largest fit round 
angles of the building and rest on the stone 
cornice which is pierced vertically to take 
the funnel outlet (Fig. 7). They bear 
the Cecil coat with supporters. 

Some of the smaller heads have simple 
chevrons in bright tinning, and are so like 
the Knole heads in small details that I am 
tempted to the belief that the master 
plumber who finished working at Knole for 
the earl of Dorset about 1608 went on to 
Hatfield to do the work there in 16 10. 

At Abbot's Hospital, Guildford, is a 
series of 14 pipe heads and pipes dated 
from 1627 to 1629. Two on the High 
Street front are very elaborate and fit into 
the corners. The delicate brattishing on 
the top is a delightful feature (Fig. 15). 
The pipe sockets are really more inter- 
esting than the heads, having raised 
cable bands and ornamental patterns tinned 
on the face. The pipes have been painted 
freely, and as the tinning only stands up 

about one-sixteenth of an inch it is visible 
only on careful examination. There are 
nine patterns in all, including various types 
of cross and thtjieur-de-lys. 

At St. John's College, Oxford, are four 
magnificent heads of 1630, the important 
features of which are the elaborate paint- 
ing and gilding of the lead. The royal 
arms and the arms of Archbishop Laud 
are blazoned in their proper colours, and 
the turreted face of the heads and the 
funnel outlets are painted black and white 
in chevron bands and in many other 
delightful patterns. 

We are indebted to the painstaking care 
of Mr. F. W. Troup for the brilliant resto- 
ration of this colour work. Fortunately 
there were sufficient traces of the old 
colour to make its accurate renewal a cer- 
tainty and not a speculation. This colour 
treatment was probably not uncommon in 
the seventeenth century, but three centu- 
ries have weathered most of it away. 
Two heads on the Bodleian Library retain 
traces, but apparently only of black and 
white. Gilt relief was doubtless quite 
common ; the heads at Condover Hall and 
on the new buildings at Magdalen College, 
Oxford, are so treated. As Viollet-le-Duc 
says : ' Mediaeval lead was wrought like 
colossal goldsmith's work,' and a profusion 
of gilding would lend actuality to this 
impression. It is curious in this connec- 
tion to note (Mr. Masse's book is my 
authority) that the painting and gilding 
of pewter were stringently forbidden, and 
cases are cited where failure to obey the 
rule of the Pewterers' Company resulted in 
heavy penalties. A plumber's meat was 
apparently a pewterer's poison. 

Dome Alley, Winchester, shows a de- 
lightful arrangement whereby the water 
issues from the valley of the roof under a 
decorated lead apron into along gutter and 
is discharged into the side of a head, and 
so through a downpipe reaches the ground 
(Fig. 3). The buildings of Dome Alley 


Some English Architectural Leadwork 

rative motive suggesting water, but search 
has so far been vain, if we except the hori- 
zontal zig-zag bands that are fairly common. 

are probably Elizabethan. The original 
gables were cut down to their present form. 
I am told that there is nothing in the 
treatment of the heraldic charges to con- 
tradict the idea that the leadwork is of 
Queen Mary's reign, but I incline to date 
it about 1580. The triangular aprons are 
unusual, and if they date from the altera- 
tion of the gables, it may be that the 
leadwork is as late as 1620. 

The heads have lost the knobs at the 
top and curls at the bottom which Two- 
peny's drawing, made in 1833, shows. 

With the Dome Alley gutters it is in- 
teresting to compare another gutter at Old 
Palace Yard, Coventry (Fig. 11), of vine 
pattern, which is singularly fine, combin- 
ing naturalistic treatment of the leaves and 
tendrils with a conventional composition. 
I think it may be attributed to 1580. 

In Mr. Lethaby's book is a sketch of lead 
gutter (Fig. 9), pipe (Fig. 10), and pipe 
head (not illustrated) on a cottage at Bram- 
hall, Cheshire. The cottage has been pulled 
down, and, after much difficulty, I found and 
photographed the leadwork in a builder's 
yard. The gutter (another vine pattern) 
and the pipe are particularly beautiful, the 
head dated 1698 is less remarkable. I incline 
to believe that the pipe and gutter date 
from about 1600, and that originally the 
pipe fitted round the gutter outlet without 
any head being used. As this arrangement 
would tend to cause overflows the head 
was added a century later. The bead and 
reel ornament on edges of pipe is unusual ; 
in fact, I do not know of another use of it 
in English leadwork, since the time of the 
Anglo-Roman coffins, save on a Durham 
Castle head of 1699. The vine ornament 
on the face of the pipe, the socket bear- 
ing a crowned portcullis, and the ears 
covered with a tracery ornament make up, 
I think, the most beautiful pipe in England. 
To the symbolist on the prowl, water lead- 
work will be a disappointment. It would 
be only reasonable to look for some deco- 


As, however, zig-zags as symbolic of water 
are archaic, the symbolism, if it can be 
claimed, is probably quite unconscious. 
I know of one lead cistern of 1724, the 
front of which is decorated with frogs, 
a commentary grim enough on the fauna 
of eighteenth-century drinking water, but 
hardly fit food for the symbolist's medi- 
tation. I confess to a small yearning to 
find some bands of wavy lines on the 
front of a head, or some modification of a 
wave scroll. I should be grateful even for 
a fylfot. 

Rainwater cisterns do not come within 
the scope of this article. They cover abig 
field in the artistic treatment of large plain 
surfaces of regular form. The designer of 
cisterns had a different decorative problem 
to face, and more limitations than in the 
case of rainwater heads. The latter pre- 
sent no restrictions as to modelling, indeed 
the requirements of differently placed 
gutter outlets demand irregular, sometimes 
even bizarre, shapes. 

Heads are, in fact, either glorified gut- 
ters or glorified funnels ; in neither case 
does water stand in them, they serve simply 
to direct it to its downpipe. Irregularity 
in plan and section is, therefore, no prac- 
tical disadvantage, but cisterns demand a 
regular and plain inside surface that can 
readily be cleaned. 

It is interesting to note that London, 
where the heads are chiefly dreary repeti- 
tions of a not very distinguished type, is 
wealthy in cisterns. Bloomsbury areas are 
full of them. By reason of the fact that 
20, Hanover Square is the Common Lodg- 
ing House of Learned Societies (I borrow 
a friend's phrase) the simple lead cistern in 
the area is probably the most familiar 
London example. 

The Knole photographs are by Essenhigh Corke and Co. 

(To be concluded.) 




OME knowledge of eccle- without substantial change from the middle 

isiology in general, and of 
'ecclesiastical dress in par- 
ticular, is an advantage to all 
whose business it is to de- 
scribe works of art : for 
students of certain schools 
of painting it is a necessity. The know- 
ledge, for example, that the dress worn by a 
donor is that of a particular order, of the 
canons of a particular church, of some par- 
ticular dignitary, might be of material assis- 
tance; just as a mistake in such a matter 
might vitiate an argument. It is, however, 
in England comparatively rare to find any 
adequate appreciation of the subject. 

A writer who would shrink from calling 
a grenadier's bearskin a hat, or a herald's 
tabard a coat, sees no incongruity in speak- 
ing of a bishop in chasuble and mitre as 
wearing 'magnificent robes' — a term which 
to one accustomed to chasubles and mitres 
is suggestive of anything rather than the 
facts. Even by salaried officials, from 
whom we have a right to expect better 
things, scant, if any, effort seems to be 
made to master and use the proper terms ; 
one need but refer to the National Gallery 
catalogue (igoi) in which Richelieu, in 
the full length portrait by Philip de 
Champagne, is described as being in a sur- 
plice, though, as a matter of fact, he is 
wearing a rochet. 1 The explanation may, 
perhaps, be found in a certain attitude of 
mind of the average, even the educated, 
Englishman. Whilst many are interested 
in the religious orders, the institutions, the 
ceremonies of the Catholic Church, few in 
practice seem able to grasp the fact that 
these are still living things coming down 

1 There is another mistake in the catalogue in connexion with 
this picture. It says that the cardinal is wearing the order of 
St. Louis. His order is that of the Holy Ghost. The cross of 
St. Louis had a figure of that saint on it ; the cross of the Holy 
Ghost a dove, and it is a dove in the picture. It is hard to 
believe that the officials of the National Gallery have never 
heard of a cordon bleu. 

ages in a stream of uninterrupted tradition ; 
or to understand that where there has been 
change, it is change which has sprung 
gradually and naturally out of that which 
was already in existence. Moreover the 
idea does not seem readily to suggest itself, 
or to be easily allowed, that something 
may be learnt from those to whom daily 
use and wont makes such things familiar. 
An instance will explain what I mean. 
The author of some papers on ' English 
Academical Dress,' published in The 
Archaeological journal for 1893, na< ^ occa " 
sion to refer to the mantellettum. He natu- 
rally enough quotes the definition given by 
Du Cange, but does not understand it. 
Although Du Cange took this definition 
from the Caeremoniale Episcoporum, it does 
not seem to have occurred to the writer that 
he could have got the information he wanted 
from those to whom the Caeremoniale is 
more familiar than Du Cange or even than 
The Archaeological Journal ; or assuredly, 
being a learned man and a professor, he 
would have turned to them, and so per- 
chance have saved himself from writing 
learned nonsense. 2 

Though many gross mistakes could be 
avoided with a little care and by inquiry in 
the right quarters, the subject of ecclesi- 
astical dress is in many ways obscure, and 
one on which it is not altogether easy to 
obtain accurate information. Books will 
not suffice : thev are often worse than use- 


less, they are misleading. Personal investi- 
gation is necessary. The subject, too, is 
complicated beyond expression by the ap- 
palling number of ' privileges ' which have 
been granted or tacitly allowed. Nothing 

5 The writer tells us that from Du Cange he could not make 
out whether the mantellettum ' was something worn over the rochet 
or was a form of the rochet itself ' ; that ' it is said vaguely to be 
worn "abroad in some places" by Doctors of Canon Law, in 
which case it is ckarly to be identified, as it has been [one 
wonders by what doctor !] with the " mozette." ' 


Ecclesiastical lDress in zArt 

is too great, nothing is too small, to be the 
subject matter of an ecclesiastical privilege. 
In the sixteenth century we find the bishop 
of Teramo, in the Abruzzi, in that age, and 
in fact, a peaceable person enough, singing 
mass in full armour, his arms lying on the 
altar the while ; in the nineteenth, a chap- 
lain of the king of Spain distinguished by 
a green tuft, tassel, or button on his skull- 
cap. In addition to privileges there are 
distinctions assumed without authority ; 
the provost of a collegiate church, for in- 
stance, was given permission to have a 
train to his cassock, but as he already used 
one, he commuted the privilege, on his 
own authority, for a violet biretta. 3 One 
may laugh at these exhibitions of petty 
vanity, but they are found in all ages, and 
the result is often puzzling and sometimes 
not to the ecclesiologist only. 

The difficulty is increased by the changes 
which are made in the course of time in 
the choir dress of capitular bodies : of this 
the cathedral of Strasburg affords a good 
example. The clergy of the cathedral was 
composed of three classes of ecclesiastics 
and corporate bodies — the first of these, the 
occupants of the highest row of stalls, were 
the ' lords, princes, and counts of the grand 
chapter,' otherwise the ' lords canons-pre- 
latesof thegrand chapter,' and these formed 
the real capitular body to whom alone per- 
tained capitular rights ; then came the ' grand 
choir,' who took the middle rowof stalls and 
officiated at the ordinary services; and lastly, 
in the lowest row of stalls, the chaplains. 
The ' lords, princes, and counts of the grand 
chapter ' belonged to the noblest families of 
Germany and France. For the German 
stalls only the issue of princes and counts 
of the empire for a certain number of 
generations back, on both father and 
mother's side, were eligible ; for the French 
ones, a third of the whole number, but few 
families were sufficiently noble — those of 
Bourbon, Lorraine, La Tour d'Auvergne, 

8 The square cap worn by most ecclesiastics. 

Rohan, and LaTremouille probably exhaust 
the list. 4 These great personages were as 
distinguished by their dress as by their 
lineage. Originally this dress consisted of 
a black cassock, a surplice, and a black fur 
tippet, called an almuce. At the end of 
the fourteenth century the colour of the 
almuce was changed to grey ; at the be- 
ginning of the fifteenth the black cassock 
was replaced by a violet velvet simarre fi A 
century later the almuce was changed 
again ; in place of the grey, a white one 
spotted with grey was adopted. In 161 5 
the violet simarre was changed for a red 
one, also velvet ; to which at the begin- 
ning of the eighteenth century was added 
a train. One might think that the dress 
of the canons of Strasburg had attained its 
full development, and that a red velvet 
simarre with hanging sleeves and a train, a 
lace surplice, and a white fur almuce would 
satisfy even this chapter of ' lords, princes, 
and counts.' But it was not so. In 1775, 
a few years before its dissolution, a pec- 
toral cross of peculiar design was given by 
Louis XVI, and the canons were required 
to swear that they would never lay it 
aside, to whatever dignity they might be 
raised. 6 Examples of similar, though not 
of such extensive changes, might be multi- 
plied indefinitely ; but this one must suf- 
fice. It is impossible, within the limits of 
these papers, to do more than touch the 
fringe of the subject. 

There is now no choice allowed to the 
clergy as to the colour of their dress ; but 
this was not always the case. It is true 
that laws forbidding certain colours to 
clerks were enacted by council aftercouncil; 
but it is quite evident that in practice these 

4 In 1785 the grand chapter included a prince of Lorraine, a 
Rohan-Guemenee, three Hohenlohes, and a Salm-Salm ; and 
among the ' domiciliates,' supernumeraries who succeeded to 
the capitular stalls as vacancies occurred, were a Salm-Salm, 
three Rohans, and a La Tremouille. See Gabrielly, La France 
Chevaleresgue et Capitulaire en 1785. 

5 I am not quite sure what this was exactly, but think that it 
was a loose cassock with large sleeves. The word has several 

6 Grandidier, Essais stir la catheirale de Strasbourg (Strasb. 1782), 
pages 201-2, 310-n, 387. 

laws were ignored, and this not by clerks 
only : we find, for instance, a bishop of 
Le Puy, in the early part of the fourteenth 
century, dressing his ecclesiastical house- 
hold in green, one of the colours which 
had been forbidden by the third council of 
the Lateran a hundred years earlier. 7 And 
this seems to be the common fate of eccle- 
siastical sumptuary laws ; even now the 
explicit directions of the Caerimoniale Episco- 
porum are disregarded, not by clerks but by 
bishops. The Le Puy inventory not only 
shows that it is unsafe to assume that prac- 
tice follows the law ; it also suggests that 
there was no uniformity of practice in any 
given place, that the household of a bishop 
might be in green one year, blue the next, 
red the following, at the caprice of their 
master. 8 As to other ecclesiastics, the 
extant inventories show that at one and the 
same time they had dresses of various 
colours, red, blue, green, purple. 

In the matter of colours of ecclesiastical 
dress, the easy method of generalization in 
ignorance of the facts is unsafe ; the only 
safe course is to take the different colours 
in order, and to endeavour to ascertain 
by what classes each has been used. But 
a word in explanation is necessary. The 
habits of the religious orders and congre- 
gations, using the words in their more ex- 
tended and popular sense, will be dealt 
with in future papers ; but it will be neces- 
sary to refer to the colours of those habits 
in the present paper for the reason that 
cardinals and bishops who belong to the 
monastic and mendicant orders, though 
they have for long worn the prelatial 
dress, keep to the colour or colours of the 
habit of their order — and it must be noted 

~ See the inventory of the goods of Peter Gogueil, bishop of 
Le Puy, made in 1327, at his death, printed in the Annates de la 
Sociiti d' agriculture, sciences et arts du Puy, Vol. xxviii (1866-67), 
at p. 582. For a knowledge of this and the other inventories to 
which I shall refer I am indebted to that invaluable work La 
Bibliographic generate des inventaires imprimis, by Messrs. Fernand 
de Mely and Edmund Bishop (Paris : Imprimerie Nationale, 

8 The words of the inventory are : Due pecie integre ilhus panm 
quo dictus Dominus Feins condam episcopus hoc anno se et suos in- 

Ecclesiastical Dress in zArt 

that abbots may easily be mistaken for 
bishops. It is, perhaps, also advisable to 
note that we are not at present concerned 
with the eucharistic vestments or the 

Red has been used for many centuries 
by the Roman pontiff. It is commonly 
said that at the beginning of the sixth cen- 
tury the emperor, Justin I, authorized the 
pope, John I, to use the imperial colour ; 
but it will be enough, and more than 
enough, for the present purpose to say 
that the papal red was referred to by an 
eleventh-century writer, St. Peter Damian. 9 
The popes have also used a white cassock 
from an early date ; there is reason for 
thinking that this custom is at least as old 
as the end of the eleventh century. 10 At 
the present day whilst the pope uses white 
for his cassock, sash, collar, and stockings, 
he uses red for everything else — except 
during the octave of Easter, when the moz- 
zetta 11 and the camauro 12 are white. The 
papal red is a crimson. I am unable to 
say whether this was always the case ; but 
that it was so at the beginning of the six- 
teenth century Raphael's Julius II in the 
National Gallery and his Leo X in the 
Pitti palace bear witness. 

Papal legates also used the papal colour, 
and this even when they were monks or 
friars. 13 The portrait of one such legate, 
Cardinal Albergati, a Carthusian, is pre- 
served in the Vienna gallery, and in it the 
cardinal legate is represented in a crimson 
mantle. 14 The portrait I5 was painted by 
John van Eyck between 1430 and 1435, 

s See his letter to the antipope Honorius II, Cadalous bishop 
of Parma (Migne, Patrol, cxliv, 242), written some time between 
the end of the year 1061 and the beginning of 1069. 

10 See Moroni, Dizionario di Erudizione (Venice,i840-i86i), xevi, 
239, and De Marca, De Concordia Sacerdotii et Imperii (Naples, 
1771), Lib. v, cap. 52. 

» A tippet with a small hood attached. 

12 The peculiar papal head-dress. 

1 3 See De Marca, loc. cit.; Moroni, liv, 142; and Responsorum 
divini humaniqm Juris Consultorum de Bireto Coccineo dando S. R. B. 
CanUnalibus regularibus (Rome, 1606), Resp. viii, 1— the first edi- 
tion of this work was published in Rome in 1592 according to 
Moroni but it is not in the British Museum. 

" This seems to be the mantle of the caffa magna, which in its 
complete form consists of a mantle, reaching to the feet, and a 
tippet covered with fur in the winter, with a hood. 

» Reproduced in The Burlington Magazine, Vol. V, p. 193. 

A A 


Ecclesiastical TDress in *Art 

so that if the colour be authentic, it is 
evidence for the use of crimson by the 
popes at that date. The privilege of using 
red was not extended to nuncios as a class ; 
but in 1 77 1 the nuncio to the court of 
France was allowed to wear a scarlet, not 
a crimson, dress when, directly represent- 
ing the pope, he received the profession, 
as a Carmelite, of Madame Louise of 
France, daughter of Louis XV. 16 

The red hat was granted to cardinals by 
Innocent IV at the council of Lyons, in 
1245, and was conferred for the first time 
at Cluny in 1246. Of this there is con- 
temporary evidence ; that of the Franciscan 
Nicholas of Curbio, who was appointed 
bishop of Assisi in 1247. 17 Soon after his 
election in 1464, Paul II gave secular car- 
dinals the red biretta ; of this too we have 
contemporary evidence in the Commen- 
taries of James Ammanati, called Piccolo- 
mini, bishop of Pavia, the Cardinalis Papi- 
ensis, who was a cardinal at the time. 18 
Platina, another contemporary, adds that 
the pope ordered, proposita poena, that no 
one but a cardinal should use it. 19 Cardi- 
nals who were monks or friars did not get 
the red biretta from Paul II, but it was 
conceded to them in 1 59 1 by Gregory 
XIV. 20 These are, I believe, the only 
exact dates which can be given with any 
degree of certainty in connexion with the 
use of scarlet by cardinals. As to the rest 
of their dress some writers assert that they 
received permission to wear red from 
Boniface VIII (1294— 1303) ; but this ap- 
pears to be an assertion without warrant, 
and to have gained authority by mere 
repetition. It seems probable that the use 
of the red cappa dates from the time of 
Paul II, for Paris de Grassis, a canon of 

16 Moroni, xxxi, 81. 

V Vita Innoccntii Papae IV. scripta a Fratrc Nicolao de Curbio 
Ordinis Minorum postmodum Episcopo Assisinatensi, cap. xxi ; in 
Muratori, Return Italicarum Scriptores, iii. 592. 

18 Epistolae et Commentarii Jacobi Piccolomini Cardinalis Papiensis 
(Milan, 1506), p. 350. 

19 Historia B. Platina de Vitis Pontijicum Romanorum (Cologne, 
1600), p. 339. 

20 Moroni, v, 157 ; Macri, Hierolexican (Rome, 1677), s. v. 


Bologna and papal master of ceremonies, 
who wrote some thirty years after the 
death of that pope, says that he had read 
that cardinals began to wear it during his 
pontificate, before which it had been re- 
served to legates. 21 Cardinals are indeed 
represented in red in Orcagna's Coronation 
of the Virgin in the National Gallery ; in a 
tapestry made for St. Mary's hall, Coventry, 
before 1447 ; 22 and in the early fifteenth 
century Histoire des Rot's de France in the 
British Museum. 23 But no sound deduc- 
tion can be drawn from these or similar 
instances. In an English Horae of the 
first half of the fifteenth century 24 we 
find a cardinal in a blue cappa ; in a 
Spanish MS. 25 of the same century an- 
other in a violet one ; and in French 
miniatures and pictures cardinals are found 
in blue, violet, grey, and other colours. 26 It 
is only in the second half of the fifteenth 
century that cardinals generally are repre- 
sented in red; there are examples by Cri- 
velli, by Luca Signorelli, and by the 
Masters of Liesborn and Werden in the 
National Gallery. The earliest item of 
real evidence which I have seen is a refer- 
ence to the cardinals as a body in the acts 
of the fifth council of the Lateran and its 
twelfth session (15 17), which certainly im- 
plies that they then officially wore the 
' purple.' 27 

But it maybe doubted whether even then 
the cassock was of necessity of the same 
colour as the cappa. In an early sixteenth 
century tapestry belonging to Mr. Pierpont 
Morgan which is on view in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum, among other figures 
are two cardinals, in red cappa and hat, 
one of whom shows his right arm clothed 

21 P.Crassi . . . De Ciremoniis Cardinalium et Episcoporum (Rome, 
1563). Though the book was first printed in 1563, it was written 
between the years 1502 and 1510. 

22 Reproduced in Shaw's Dresses and Decorations. 

23 Royal MSS. 20 C vii. 

24 Victoria and Albert Museum (MS. given by Mr. George 
Reid in 1902). 

25 British Museum. Add. MSS. 18,193. 

26 Quicherat, Histoire du Costume en France (Paris, 1875), p. 318. 
' 2 " In the Schedula contra invadentes domos Cardinalium, in which 
the cardinals are referred to in the words quibus sacrosancta militans 
Ecclesia tanquam purpurea tota decoratur amictu. 

in blue. The tapestry deserves attention 
because it is easy to see that the artist has 
paid considerable attention to the exactness 
of his details. Pictures by Perugino and 
Luca Signorelli in the National Gallery 
also show the red cappa with a cassock of 
some other colour. It would be unwise 
to lay too much stress on paintings of this 
kind; but we see the same thing in the por- 
trait of Cardinal Hippolytus dei Medici, 
by Sebastiano del Piombo, in which the 
cardinal has a red mozzetta and apparently 
a black cassock. This suggestion is sup- 
ported to some extent by Paris de Grassis, 
who it will be remembered wrote his 
Ceremonial between 1 502 and 1 5 1 o. Speak- 
ing of a cardinal's mourning, he says 
that it should never interfere with the 
public gladness of a great feast. As a con- 
cession, however, to human weakness, if a 
cardinal's grief were very great, Grassis, in 
his official character as ceremoniar, allows 
that such cardinal might wear his violet 
cappa on his way to the church and there 
change it for a red one ; but there is not a 
word of the cassock. 

The cardinalitial red is a scarlet, though 
it is technically called purple. Some very 
good examples of it are to be seen in the 
National Gallery — in Orcagna's Corona- 
tion of the Virgin ; Luca Signorelli's 
Virgin crowned by Angels ; Crivelli's 
Ascoli altarpiece and his Madonna della 
Rondine. In the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, we have Rizzoni's portrait of 
Cardinal Barnabo, kneeling in the church 
of St. Honuphrius in Rome, and Petitot's 
miniature of Cardinal Mazarin. The 
cappa magna in Philip de Champaigne's 
full-length portrait of Richelieu in the 
National Gallery is a striking example of 
what the colour should not be. Another 
example of false colour in the same gallery, 
is the mozzetta in the portrait of a cardinal 
by El Greco. 28 Yet another bad example 

88 Is there any reason for saying, as the catalogue does, that 
this ' is probably nothing more than one of those realistic repre- 

Ecclesiastical T)ress in zArt 

is the portrait of Cardinal Newman in the 
National Portrait Gallery : to realize how 
bad this is, it is only necessary to compare 
the colour of the mantle sash and skullcap, 
with that of the mozzetta in the portrait 
of Cardinal Manning, by Watts, which 
hangs a few yards away. 

Formerly bishops considered themselves 
at liberty to use red as may be seen from 
the inventories made of their goods for 
probate purposes. 29 There are, at the 
present day, a few who, with the excep- 
tion of the hat, and in one case of the skull- 
cap, dress exactly like cardinals. These 
are the archbishops of Salzburg, Cologne, 
Gnesen and Posen, the patriarch of Lisbon, 
the archbishop of Mohilev and Minsk, 
and the archbishop of Warsaw. I have 
not been able to ascertain how far back 
the use of red by the archbishop of 
Salzburg goes, but it is based, so the writers 
tell us, traditionally on the fact of his being 
a legatus tiatus, i0 a dignity attached to the 
see by Alexander II (1061-1073). 3I 
Whether, however, this is the case, or 
whether red was adopted for reasons of 
congruence does not appear. It has been 
stated that the archbishops of Salzburg 
placed the red hat over their arms, 32 but of 
this I have failed to find any confirmation. 
The archbishop of Cologne was made a 
legatus natus in 1380, and I am given to 
understand that the use of red began at the 
same time ; but the earliest known portrait 
of an archbishop in that colour is that of 
Ernest, duke of Bavaria, who governed the 

sentations of the Fathers of the Church, of which there are other 
examples ' by El Greco ? I would suggest the possibility of its 
being the portrait of Cardinal Louis Cornaro, who was arch- 
bishop of Zara and afterwards administrator of Trani, Bergamo, 
etc. He was born in 1516 and so would have been sixty in 1576, 
the year before El Greco is believed to have left Venice. The 
name and date were painted later than the picture. May it not 
be that the present inscription is an unfaithful restoration of 
the original ? 

25 See for examples that of Henry Bowet, archbishop of York 
(1423), published in Raine's Testamenta Eboracensia, iii, pp. 72, 
73 (Surtees Society), and that of Philip of Burgundy, archbishop 
of Utrecht (1524), printed in Matthaeus, Vtlcris A~vi Analecta (The 
Hague, 1738), i, 210. 

8U Hansiz, Germania Sacra (Augsburg, 1727-29), ii, 8. 

81 Metzger, Historia Salisburgensis (Salzburg, 1692), p. 316. 

M Macri, Hitrolexkon, s. v. Cardinalis. 


Ecclesiastical T>ress in *Art 

diocese from 158310 1612. 33 The arch- 
bishop of Gnesen, primate of Poland, re- 
ceived the title of legatus natus and permis- 
sion to wear scarlet from Leo X, 34 i.e. some 
time between the years 1 5 1 3 and 1 522. In 
the Dulwich gallery is a portrait of an 
ecclesiastic in red mozzetta and skullcap, 
said in the catalogue to be the brother of 
Stanislas II, king of Poland, that is Michael 
Poniatowski, who was archbishop of 
Gnesen 35 from 1785 to 1794. 

The use of scarlet by the other three pre- 
lates is of much more recent origin. The 
patriarchate of Lisbon was erected in 1 7 1 8 ; 
the city being divided between the old 
archbishop and the new patriarch till 1740, 
when the archbishopric was abolished. 
The patriarch was given the purple, but in 
his case it is not of much importance, from 
the point of view of the artist, as since 1737, 
he has always been created a cardinal in the 
consistory following that of his preconisa- 
tion. 36 The see of Mohilev and Minsk 
was erected in 1783 and the archbishop 
placed over all the Latin catholics of Russia. 
The emperor asked Pius VI to make him 
a cardinal ; there were reasons which made 
this inexpedient, and the pope refused but, 
to soften the refusal, he gave the archbishop 
and his successors permission to dress as 
cardinals. 37 The archbishop of Warsaw 
was in 1 8 1 8 granted a similar but less ex- 
tensive privilege, for in his case the red 
skullcap was expressly excepted. 38 

Another bishop who dresses in red is the 
patriarch of Venice; but his red is not the 
cardinalitial scarlet. When I was in Venice 
the present pope, then Cardinal Sarto, was 
patriarch and of course he, as cardinal, wore 
the ' purple.' But I am informed that the 

33 For this and other information relating to the see of Cologne 
I am indebted to the kindness of the Rev. Theodore Collme, one 
of the vicars of the cathedral. 

84 I have to thank the Rev. F. Komski, secretary to the present 
archbishop of Gnesen and Posen, for these details. 

35 Till 1821, Gnesen (in Polish Gniezno) was a separate see. 
In that year the ancient see of Posen was erected into an arch- 
bishopric and united with Gnesen. 

86 Moroni, xxxviii, 313, 314. 

87 Baldassari, Relaziont dclte Avversitd 1 Patimenti del Glcrioso 
Papa I'io VI (Second Edition, Modena, 1842), vol. iii, p. 160. 

38 Moroni, lxxxviii, 152. 


red of the Venetian patriarch is a dark 
shade. Moroni states, moreover, that the 
patriarch uses a ' crimson ' skullcap. 39 I am 
unable to say when the patriarch of Venice 
began to wear red. My courteous inform- 
ant 4 ° could only tell me that the use went 
back ' to the time of the republic,' that is 
at least to the eighteenth century. 

Subject to what will be said in the next 
paragraph, this, to the best of my belief, 
completes the list of bishops who now use 
red. But formerly there were others, and 
that in modern times. The patriarch of 
Aquileia used 'the purple' for all but his 
hat 41 and that patriarchate was suppressed 
only in 1752. The archbishop-elector of 
Mainz, grand chancellor of the Holy 
Roman Empire and dean of the electoral 
college, also wore scarlet ; but there is, 
it is well to note, no painted portrait of 
an archbishop of Mainz of earlier date 
than the eighteenth century. 42 The arch- 
bishop-elector of Trier, arch-chancellor of 
the empire in Gaul and Aries, on ordinary 
days wore a black cassock edged with red, 
but on gala occasions he too wore ' the 
purple ' of a cardinal. 43 Early in the eigh- 
teenth century the archbishop of Prague, 
primate of Bohemia, seems to have adopted 
scarlet, for in 1723 a vigorous protest was 
sent to Rome by the archbishops of Salz- 
burg and Cologne, 44 the result being that 
the Bohemian prelate had to be content 
with violet. It is perhaps worth mention- 
ing that in 1825 the archbishop of Rheims 
was given permission, on the occasion of 
the coronation of Charles X, to dress as a 
cardinal with the exception of the skull- 
cap. This is probably not a solitary case, 
but I know of no other. 

Some bishops enjoy a privilege of a more 
limited character. The archbishop of Pisa 

89 Of. cit. v, 175. 

40 Father Bernardine, a Carmelite belonging to the convent of 
the Scalzi. 

41 Macri, Hierolexuon, s.v. Cardinalis. 

43 Mgr. Schneider, canon of the cathedral, obligingly gave me 
this information about Mainz. 

« So I am informed by the secretary of the bishop of Trier. 

44 Gcrmania Sacra, ii, 8. 

wears a scarlet cappa magna, but in other 
respects he dresses as any other bishop. 45 
I have been unable to ascertain when he 
first did this, but it was certainly not later 
than the earliest years of the eighteenth 
century. 46 The archbishop of Cagliari in 
Sardinia appears to have or to have had 
the same privilege, for in 1701 we find 
the cathedral chapter objecting to the 
archbishop, a mercedarian, wearing a red 
cappa on the ground that he was a regular. 47 
The archbishop of Seville also wears a red 
cappa, not scarlet, however, but cherry- 
coloured. 48 The bishop of Tortosa in 
Catalonia was given a very different privi- 
lege by Adrian VI, that is in 1522 or 
1523 — -the right to wear a red biretta, 
and this has been maintained to present 
times. 49 

The privilege of the bishop of Tortosa 
suggests a possible explanation of a curious 
portrait hanging in the large Tuscan room 
of the National Gallery ; it is labelled 
' Portrait of a Cardinal,' but the dress is 
unusual. The biretta indeed is scarlet and 
cardinalitial, the mozzetta is decidedly 
violet. It is true that a cardinal uses a 
violet mozzetta in penitential seasons, at 
times of mourning, and in Rome on some 
other occasions ; but he would hardly 
choose it for his portrait. A reasonable 
explanation seems to be that this is the 
portrait not of a cardinal but of a bishop 
who either, like the bishop of Tortosa, 
had the privilege, possibly a personal 
one, of wearing a red biretta, or wore 
one without permission. The latter alter- 
native is far from being an unlikely one ; 
in 173 1, the bishop of Malta was called 
upon, by the Roman authorities, to explain 

*' Mr. Montgomery Carmichael, the British vice-consul in 
Leghorn, very kindly made inquiries for me on this point. 

■" The privilege is mentioned in the second edition of Ughelli, 
Italia Sacra (Venice, 1717-1722) iii, 348 — a volume published in 

47 Decree of the S. C of rites, reported in Barbier de Montault, 
Le Costume (Paris, 1898), i, 315. 

4S For this item of information I have to thank a friend who 
knows Seville. 

4 ' Barbier de Montault, op. cit. i, 230. 

Ecclesiastical T)ress in *Art 

why he wore a red biretta on certain feasts 
and a white one upon others. 50 

So much for bishops. Now a word must 
be said of two other classes, both connected 
with the papal court — clerical chamberlains 
and chaplains. 

All these functionaries wear a red 
cappa of a particular form when they take 
part in a ceremony at which the pope 
officiates ; a chamberlain also wears this 
cappa when, as ablegate, he takes the biretta 
to a newly-created cardinal. But it is not 
worn on any other occasion. 

Red is one of the colours forbidden to 
clerks by councils ; 5I but it was certainly 
used by them in the middle ages. Qui- 
cherat 52 says that during the fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries it was one of the 
favourite colours in France : whilst as 
to England one has but to glance at 
the inventories to realize that it was 
freely used. 53 There is some reason even 
for thinking that the use of red may 
not have been extinct among the clergy 
of Venice at the end of the sixteenth 
century, 54 nor among those of Benevento a 
century later. 55 

Chancellor Melton seems to have kept 
his ' gowne of red scarlet 5(5 furred with 
menyvere,' and his ' cremsyn gowne and a 
hood furred with foones ' lor use outside 
the church, for there is mention of' a black 
abite for the church with green sarcenet 
in it.' But many chapters used, and not a 
few still use red for their choir dress. 

i0 Barbier de Montault, 0/. cit. i, 230. 

41 See Thomassin, Vitus et Nova Ecclesiae Disciflina (Lucca, 
1728), Pt. I, Bk. ii, ch. 50. 

« Loc. cit. 

S1 For instance, those of the goods of Rich, de Ravenser, arch- 
deacon of Lincoln (13S6), printed in The Proceedings of the Royal 
Archaeological Institute for 1848; of John of Scarborough, rector 
of Tichmarsh (1395), in Raine, Test. Ebor. iii ; of William 
Melton, chancellor of York (1528), Test. Ebor. v. 

54 See Constitutions et Privilegia Patriarchatus et Cltri Vene- 
tiaruin (Venice, 15S7), in which its use was forbidden. 

5i See the decree (1686) of Cardinal Orsini, archbishop of 
Benevento, printed in Barbier de Montault, Le Costume, i, 21. 

56 The term ' scarlet ' is applied to a material as well as a 
colour — so that there may be not only a red scarlet but a black 
scarlet ; just as now in Rome the technical word purpura denotes 
a cassock with a train, which so far as colour goes may be red, 
violet, rose, blue, white, black, or brown. See Annuaire Pontifical 
Cathohque for 1902, p. 103. 


Ecclesiastical T)ress in zArt 

The twenty-four canons of the cathedral 
of Milan are not infrequently taken by 
English people for cardinals. They are 
said to have dressed in red since the early 
vears oi the eleventh century, and it has 
been suggested that the red cappa of the 
cardinal was borrowed from them. 57 The 
canons of Pisa have had a red cappa tor 
use in winter from time immemorial, and 
since 1560 a red mozzetta for summer; 
and in 1790 they were given a red cas- 
sock. 58 The canons of the cathedral of 
Genoa have a red cassock; 59 those of the 
collegiate church of our Lady of the Vines 
in the same city a red cappa. 60 Other 
chapters in Italy have the right to dress in 
red. 61 In France we find that the canons 
of Avignon have the same privilege, 62 as 
on great feasts have those of Angers 63 and 
Nevers; 64 so in Portugal those of Lisbon, 65 
and in Switzerland the canons-regular of 
St. Maurice d'Agaune. 66 Formerly red 
was worn by the canons of St. Paul's in 
London ; ° 7 by those of Tournai between 
the years 1300 and 1526; 68 Auxerre ; 
Autun ; Le Puy ; Brioude ; Strasburg ; 6g 
Mainz ; 7 ° by all or some of the dignitaries 

57 Ughelli, Italia Sacra (2nd edition), iv, 19. 

5h Sainati, Diario Sacro Pisano (Turin, 1898), pp. 141-2. 

59 Barbier de Montault, Lc Costume, i, 276. 

'" Ibid, i, 396. 

61 Those of Naples (Barbier de Montault, CEuvres Completes, 
Poitiers 18S9 etc. v, 10S) and Capua (Macri, Hierolexicon, s.v. 
Cardinalis) have a red cappa on great feasts. It was granted to 
the chapter of Venafro by Benedict XIV (1740-1758J according 
to Moroni (xc, 103). There are probably others. 

'■' Granted in 1676. They had worn it before this, but were 
compelled to put it off in 1673 (Moroni, iii, 266). It was stated 
that they had worn it from ' time immemorial,' but it must, I 
think, have been assumed after 1559, as there is no mention of 
it in the Histoire Chronologiqtu de I'eglise . . a" Avignon by Nougo- 
uier, which was published in that year. 

6J Barbier de Montault, CEuvres Computes, viii, 400. 

f,) Ibid, v, 107. 

f ' 6 Moroni, xxxviii, 314. 

66 Canon Abbet, the claustral prior of St. Maurice d'Agaune, 
has very kindly supplied me with information as to the dress of 
the abbot and canons. 

67 Desiderii Erasmi, Epistolae (Leyden, 1706), i, 457. 

^ Dom Claude de Vert, who also mentions all the other places 
except Mainz in Ceremonies de it'gUse, ii, 357 (2nd edition, Paris, 

Ci Ante, p. 282. 

711 Mgr. Schneider informed me that before Mainz was annexed 
to France by Napoleon the canons had a red choir dress. He 
remarked on the extreme difficulty of getting precise and accurate 

of Paris, Bayeux, Coutances, and Rouen ; 
and by the canons-regular of St. Vincent of 
Senlis and of Semur en Auxois. 

Rose. — This is a peculiar colour, lying 
between the Roman violet and scarlet. 71 
It might perhaps be best described as a 
dull brick red. At the present day, it is 
used by cardinals on Gaudete Sunday, the 
third of Advent. Till comparatively re- 
cent times they also used it on the fourth 
Sunday in Lent ; and at the beginning 
of the sixteenth century its use was much 
more extensive. Paris de Grassis says that 
cardinals should wear it on feasts which 
were not of the first rank ; and that 
bishops might wear it on those days on 
which cardinals wore red. 72 

Protonotaries 73 are sometimes mistaken 
for cardinals because of the rose cord which 
they wear on their hat. This was given 
them in 1674 that they might be dis- 
tinguished from other curial prelates. 
Within the last few months a further 
distinction of the same character, a red 
tuft on their biretta, has been granted to 
them by the present pope. 

I know of no other ecclesiastics who 
use this colour except the canons of the 
cathedral of Leghorn : they wear a rose- 
coloured mozzetta in choir on ordinary 
days in summer. 74 

(To be continued.) 

information on this subject, even on the spot ; in his own 
chapter, for example, there have been no written laws as to 

71 In Latin rosa sicca : Italian rosaceo: French rose scche. Paris 
de Grassis defines it as being inter violactum et rubeum medius. 

'■ His arrangement of colours for cardinals is not devoid of 
interest. He says that during the greater part of the year their 
cappa should be violet, on about thirty feast days in the year red ; 
and on feasts not the greatest, such as those of the Blessed 
Virgin, other than the Assumption, and of the Apostles, rose. 

"■' The college of protonotaries apostolic has only seven mem- 
bers, who are officially styled de numero participantium. There 
are three classes of honorary protonotaries : (i) Those who are 
styled ad instar participantium, and have for the most part the 
same privileges as the members of the college; (2) Canons of 
certain cathedrals who have been given the privileges of proto- 
notaries within, generally speaking, the limits of their diocese 
only: these are now known as supernumerary protonotaries; 
(3) Titular protonotaries who do not wear the red cord or the tuft. 

7< I am indebted to Mr. Carmichael for this information : he 
obtained it for me from Canon Polese, a member of the chapter. 




naturally as he breathed, and who translated 
them, so to speak, into English in thisSurrey 
manor? We do not know, and it is un- 

MONG the monuments 
that still remain to us of 
the great period of Eng- 
lish domestic architecture 
which was contempo- 
raneous with the reigns of 
the Tudor sovereigns, are some with which 
Sutton Place cannot pretend to vie in mag- 
nificence ; but, apart from its beauty — less 
splendid but no less real than that of the 
great Tudor palaces — it has a special claim 
to consideration, not because it is entirely 
typical of its timeandcountry, but rather be- 
cause it is not. It stands, in many respects, 
almost alone in the domestic architecture of 
the early sixteenth century, this strangely 
attractive building, neither gothic nor Re- 
nascence, neither wholly English nor wholly 
Italian, nor yet a mere eclectic mixture 
of styles such as we know too well in these 
days, but a composition in which diverse 
elements have been cunningly welded to 
produce a unity that is different from any 
of them and sui generis. 

We have called Sutton Place a Tudor 
house ; but that is only historically a strictly 
accurate description. Architecturally it is 
not an ordinaryTudor house ; earlyTudor it 
is, undoubtedly, in its main features, and, if it 
must be catalogued, the Tudor style is that 
to which it will be assigned ; but it rather 
belongs to a style of its own, of which it is 
the only example except Layer Marney in 
Essex, which approaches it more nearly 
than any other building of the period. It 
must have been the creation of an individual 
genius. Was itsdesigneratravelled English- 
man who had brought home with him from 
Italy, or possibly from France, a knowledge 
of and taste for the artistic Renascence which 
had as yet scarcely touched his native 
country ? Was he an Italian who had 
sucked in the ideas of the Renascence as 

> For most of the facts in this article the writer is indebted to 
Mr. Frederic Harrison's fascinating ' Annals of an Old Manor 
House ' (Macmillan), which should be read by everyone interested 
in the subject. 

likely that we ever shall know. We do 
indeed know that the house was built by 
Sir Richard Weston, Knight of the Bath, 
Privy Councillor, and a statesman of no 
little importance in his day, who, in 1521, 
received from Henry VIII the grant of the 
royal manor of Sutton by Guildford, but 
whether Sir Richard was or was not 
his own architect we cannot tell. If he 
was, he deserves a high place in the annals 
of English art ; for such a combination of 
daring originality with taste and restraint, 
as is shown in Sutton Place, is rare. Mr. 
Frederic Harrison thinks it likely that the 
house was the work of builders trained in 
gothic art, but working under the artistic 
superintendence of Trevisano (Girolamo da 
Treviso) or one of the other Italians attached 
to the court of Henry VIII, but there is no 
positive evidence available. 

In any case Sir Richard Weston himself 
had had the opportunity of coming under 
the influence of the Italian Renascence, if 
only at second hand. In 1518 he went 
to France on a special embassy from 
Henry VIII to Francis I ; two years later 
he accompanied Henry VIII to the Field 
of the Cloth of Gold ; three years later still 
he was there again, on a mission not of 
peace but of war, and took part in the siege 
of Boulogne. In France he must have seen 
the domestic chateaux that were then 
springing up all over the country to 
replace the old chCiteaux forts ; although, 
therefore, it is unlikely that the concep- 
tion and design of his house were his 
own, it is probable that they represent his 
personal taste. However this may be, 
he built, somewhere between 1521 and 
1525, on his new estate the house which, 
except that it has lost one side of its chief 
quadrangle, still stands almost in every de- 
tail the same as when it left its builders' 


Sutton Place by Guildford 

hands. It is a striking example of the 
right way to use foreign influences in art. 
Strong as is the influence of the Italian 
Renascence, not merely in ornamental de- 
tails, but to some extent in the whole con- 
ception and even in the materials used, yet 
this building is entirely suited to its en- 
vironment. It is English in plan, quad- 
rangular like other houses of the period ; 
fundamentally it is an example of that 
perpendicular style which is the one native 
English style of architecture ; its great 
mullioned windows with their perpendicu- 
lar traceries are like those that we see in 
other buildings of the first half of the six- 
teenth century. It could be nothing but 
an English manor house, and would be as 
much out of place in any other country as 
is a pseudo-classical temple of the eigh- 
teenth century in an English park. The 
architect, whoever he was, knew that, 
though architecture may borrow from 
other countries, it must belong fundamen- 
tally to its own. He did not, like Wren 
and his contemporaries, import an exotic 
style which, great though its intrinsic 
merits are, and suitable and natural as it is 
to Italy, is unsuitable and meaningless in 
England. Had his example been followed, 
we might not have had to lament the de- 
struction of English architecture, checked 
in its natural development by an artificial 
and belated classicism. 

Before we go further, it may be of 
interest to note that Sutton Place has never 
changed hands by sale since it was built, 
and is now in the possession of a cadet of 
the Weston family in the female line, 
though not a descendant of Sir Richard 
Weston, the original owner of the estate, 
and founder of the Sutton branch of the 
family. The line of Sir Richard Weston 
became extinct by the death in 1782 at the 
age of seventy-nine of Melior Mary Wes- 
ton, daughter and heiress of John Weston. 
By her the estate was bequeathed to John 
Webbe, also of Sarnesfield Court, Hereford- 


shire, fifth in descent from Dorothy Wes- 
ton, sister of the first earl of Portland and 
wife of Sir Edward Pincheon, and through 
her descended from the Essex branch of the 
Weston family. John Webbe-Weston (he 
assumed the latter surname under the will 
of his kinswoman) had two sons, both of 
whom married but died childless, and on 
his death in 1823 he bequeathed the Sut- 
ton estate to Francis Henry Salvin, sixth son 
of his second daughter Mary Ann by her 
marriage with Thomas Salvin, of Crox- 
dale, Durham. Mr. Salvin died last year 
at the age of eighty-seven, and the estate 
passed to one of his relatives. It is also 
an interesting fact that Sutton Place 
has been continuously in Catholic hands 
from its foundation, the successive owners 
of the property never having swerved from 
the ancient faith. 

Sutton Place has been let for many years; 
it was for some years occupied by the late 
Mr. Frederick Harrison and, after his death 
in 1 88 1, by his distinguished son. Not 
very long ago it was let on a long lease to 
Sir Alfred and Lady Harmsworth, by whose 
kind permission the photographs from 
which our illustrations are made have been 
taken. Lady Harmsworth takes a keen 
interest in the beautiful house, which has 
been furnished and decorated under her 
own supervision. It does not come within 
the scope of this article to deal with the 
furniture of the house, but it would be un- 
gracious not to mention the admirable taste 
which is shown in every detail. Every- 
thing in the house is in keeping with it ; 
that is not to say that all the furniture, 
tapestries, and pictures are of the sixteenth 
century ; such a limitation would be as 
impossible as it is unnecessary. But nearly 
all the furniture is ancient, most of it is 
English, and all of it is suited to its en- 
vironment. Whatever additions have been 
made in the way of domestic comforts and 
conveniences have been made without in 
the least injuring the house or altering its 







character, and its furnishing has been 
guided by a unity of artistic conception as 
real as that which inspired its builders. 

One of the most interesting points about 
Sutton is the fact that it is built entirely 
of brick and terra-cotta, no stone at all 
having been used. The building is dressed 
with terra-cotta in precisely the same way 
as other brick buildings are dressed with 
stone ; the mullions, turrets, arches, and 
other details are all moulded in this ma- 
terial. This use of terra-cotta in the con- 
struction as well as in the ornament makes 
Sutton of particular interest to architects 
and builders in these days when the em- 
ployment of terra-cotta in building has 
been revived after centuries of disuse. It 
is in the details of the terra-cotta mould- 
ings that the influence of the Renascence 
shows itself most strongly in Sutton. The 
amorini over the doors in the north and 
south wings, the arabesque work, the mul- 
lions of the windows, and most of the other 
ornaments are distinctly Renascence and 
even Italian in character, but they are 
widely different from the pseudo-classical 
ornament of a later age. The way in which 
this ornament is harmonized with and 
adapted to a building fundamentally gothic 
is very remarkable, and whoever was re- 
sponsible for it was a true artist. One is 
struck by no incongruity between the build- 
ing itself and its decoration ; taste and skill 
have preserved a complete unity. 

Another feature in the house which is 
certainly of foreign origin is the stepping 
of the gables ; an example of this may be 
seen in the gables at the north ends of the 
east and west wings in the first illustration. 2 
Mr. Frederic Harrison quotes Mr. J. J. 
Stevenson as saying that this was originally 
a French artifice ; one would rather have 
thought it to be Flemish ; at any rate, 
wherever it originated, it is one of the 
most characteristic features of the archi- 
tecture of the Netherlands, as every visitor 

a Plate I, page 291. 

Sutton Place by Guildford 

to Bruges must have observed. It also, of 
course, became very common in Scotland. 
Mr. Frederic Harrison also rightly finds 
Renascence influence in the symmetry of 
the quadrangle at Sutton, and the regu- 
larity of the facade. The quadrangle, in 
its original form when the northern wing 
was standing, was exactly square, measuring 
81 ft. 3 in. in each direction ; it would also 
be exactly symmetrical were it not for 
some irregularity in the intervals of the 
windows in the western wins;. 

The house as originally built consisted 
of the main quadrangle, of which three 
sides are still standing (see illustration ) ; 
the small quadrangle which now adjoins the 
west wing is not part of the original house, 
but was added to it at a later date ; it con- 
tains no terra-cotta. The northern wing 
of the main quadrangle, which has now 
disappeared, contained a gateway with a 
gate tower about 70 ft. high (that is, rather 
more than double the height of the existing 
house) which was flanked by two large oc- 
tagonal turrets which served as staircases to 
reach the upper story of the tower. This 
north wing was with the east wing injured 
by the fire which occurred in the reign of 
Elizabeth ; the rooms injured by that fire, 
in Mr. Frederic Harrison's opinion, were 
probably never completely refitted and fur- 
nished. The Weston family seem to have 
resided on their other property, Clandon, 
and not at Sutton, from the time of Sir 
Henry Weston (1535-92) to that of the 
third Sir Richard Weston, who, eleven 
years before his death, which occurred in 
1652, had sold the Clandon estate to Sir 
Richard Onslow. Sir Richard Weston 
encumbered his estate by unfortunate specu- 
lations, and was probably unable to restore 
Sutton properly. He therefore fitted up 
the west wing for use, and perhaps added 
the small quadrangle on the west side of 
the house. 

The north wing had in any case become 

» Plate I, page 291. 
B B 295 

Sutton Place by Guildford 

ruinous when John Webbe-Weston suc- 
ceeded to the estate in 1782, and in the 
same year he demolished the whole of it, 
including the gate-house and tower. The 
quadrangle was thus thrown open in the 
way that will be seen in the illustration. 
Nothing but want of funds prevented 
Mr. Webbe-Weston from entirely destroy- 
ing the house ; under his instructions, the 
Italian architect Bonomi had prepared 
designs for transforming it into an imita- 
tion of a classical temple, but happily 
they were too expensive for Mr. Webbe- 
Weston's pocket, and the house was saved 
for the benefit of people with better taste 
than himself. Since that time it has been 
piously preserved, and stands in its original 
condition except that about a dozen of the 
windows have modern mullions and frames 
which were inserted by the late Mr. 
Frederick Harrison in 1 875, in place of 
sash windows which had been substituted 
for the old ones at some time in the 
eighteenth century. The new mullions 
and frames were taken in moulds from casts 
of the existing ancient windows. 

The main entrance to the house was 
formerly in the centre of the south wing, 
facing the gate-house, which has now dis- 
appeared ; but, as this door enters straight 
into the great hall, it has long been dis- 
used, and one now enters the house by the 
door in the west wing. This door opens 
into an outer hall adjoining the panelled 
room, which is now used as the entrance 
hall of the house, though in the seven- 
teenth century it was known as the parlour. 
The walls of this entrance hall are covered 
with seventeenth -century oak-panelling, 
which was restored to its original condition 
in 1 874 by the late Mr. Frederick Harrison, 
who removed the canvas and paint with 
which it was covered. The fireplace is of 
the same date as the house, and is almost 
identical with that in the great hall; both 
are of terra-cotta, and are decorated with 
the pomegranate, the badge of Catherine 


of Aragon. Over the fireplace are the arms 
of Weston impaling those of Copley, being 
the coat of the first John Weston, who 
married in 1637 Mary, daughter and heiress 
of William Copley, of Gatton, Surrey. 
Through the door shown in the picture of 
the panelled hall 4 one passes into a lobby 
from which ascends the staircase to the 
bedrooms which occupy the first floor of 
this wing, and immediately opposite this 
door is the door of the dining-room, which 
is also illustrated. 4 The panelling of this 
beautiful room does not belong to the 
house ; it has been placed in its present 
position within the last few years, and 
the four fine tapestries (three of which 
are shown in the illustration) were fitted 
in at the same time. Off the dining-room 
is a small library or study, which forms 
the north end of the west wing. 

Returning from the dining-room through 
the panelled hall, and passing along a wide 
passage, which turns round into the south 
wing, we have the drawing-room on our 
right. This room, which was originally the 
kitchen, is now decorated with white panel- 
ling in the style of the eighteenth century, 
but Lady Harmsworth regards its present 
arrangement as only temporary, and it is, 
therefore, not illustrated. Its windows are 
all on the garden side of the house, facing 
south. 5 The greater part of the south wing 
is composed of the great hall, which occupies 
both storeys, 6 and it has eighteen windows, 
ten on the north side facing the court, and 
eight on the south side facing the garden. 
There is a door into the garden imme- 
diately opposite that on the north side, 
which opens into the middle of the court. 
This is a magnificent and nobly-proportioned 
room, 5 1 ft. 6 in. in length, 26 ft. in breadth, 
and nearly 31 ft. in height. The walls are 
covered by oak-panelling of the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries up to about half 
their height, and the terra-cotta fireplace, 
like that in the small hall, is of the same 

4 Plate II, page 294. 
5 Plate I, page 291. s Plates III, p. 297 and IV, p. 300. 

Rate hi. tiii_ great halL, 
sutton place by guildford 



THE LONG -.111:1 1ST WING 

date as the house. The illustrations will 
give some idea of the general effect of the 
hall, which contains several interesting 
portraits belonging to the owners of the 
house. One of its most remarkable features 
is the splendid series of armorial painted 
glass in the windows ; this glass requires an 
article to itself, and it is impossible here to 
do more than refer the reader to Mr. 
Frederic Harrison's account, which is 
finely illustrated by plates in colour. 7 The 
ceiling is of flat plaster, and is probably 
original; at least, Mr. Frederic Harrison 
points out that the beams in the roof over 
the ceiling were evidently not constructed 
to be shown as an open timber roof. 
There is a gallery both on the east and west 
sides of the hall; that on the west side is 
shown in the illustration on plate III, and the 
other is immediately opposite it. This 
was, of course, originally the dining hall of 
the house, and the high table no doubt stood 
very much in the position now occupied 
by the billiard table. 

The door seen in the illustration on 
plate III gives on to the west wing, and the 
staircase seen through it leads up to the long 
gallery, which occupies the whole of the 
first floor of that wing. 8 It is very im- 
probable that this floor was originally 
arranged as a long gallery ; it was almost 
certainly divided up into rooms as the first 
floor of the east wing is at present, and the 
probability is that it was never properly 
restored after the fire in 1 560. The panel- 
ling in the room is mostly of the eighteenth 
century, though a little of it is earlier ; it 
came from another house, and was placed 
here by the late Mr. Harrison when he 
restored the gallery. The gallery, including 
the staircase, measures 1 52 by 2 1 ft., and has 
windows on three sides of the wing. Hung 
as it is at present with fine tapestries, and 
furnished with exquisite taste, it is perhaps 
the most attractive room in the house, and 
our illustration, small as it is, gives some 

1 ' Annals of an Old Manor House,' Chap. XII, pp. 164-190. 
8 Plate IV, page 300. 

Sutton Place by Guildford 

idea of the impression that one receives 
when one enters the gallery from the stair- 
case. The ground floor of the east wing 
has not been restored since the fire of 1 560, 
and is at present disused. 

It has been impossible, within the limits 
of a short article, to do anything like justice 
to the merits of this beautiful house ; but 
this cursory description will have served its 
purpose if it incites those who are interested 
in English architecture to refer to Mr. 
Frederic Harrison's work on the subject, or 
to obtain permission to visit Sutton. One 
ventures to hope that it may even perhaps 
induce architects with houses to design not 
hastily to dismiss the possibilities of the per- 
pendicular style of architecture. Sutton 
Place is a striking example of those possi- 
bilities ; it shows that perpendicular archi- 
tecture is quite compatible with modern 
ideas of comfort. Here is a house which, 
in the words of an auctioneer's advertise- 
ment, is 'replete with every modern con- 
venience,' yet at the same time its value as 
a workof art has been in no way diminished. 
If it has been possible so to adapt asixteenth- 
century house, much more possible must it 
be to build one in the same style with all the 
arrangements that modern needs demand. 
If we had in the twentieth century any 
architectural style of our own, one would 
not for a moment suggest recurrence to a 
style of the past. But since all modern 
architecture that is worth anything is a 
copy or adaptation of what has gone before, 
surely it would be better to copy or adapt 
the one style of architecture which really 
belongs to this country. Perhaps perpen- 
dicular architecture, if it were generally 
adopted, might be made a starting point for 
a genuine architectural development. The 
experiment is worth trying, and it is very 
much to be regretted that it is not tried 
when such opportunities arise as that 
which is afforded, to take a notable instance, 
by the new Kingsway which is now being 
made between Holborn and the Strand. 




N no public gathering do we, 
nor can we in the nature of 
'things, have shows so severe 
quality as those at the 
urlington Fine Arts Club, 
land since its first announce- 
i^Jrment in the spring the ex- 
J^^Qhibition of English Embroi- 
deries of earl}' date has been eagerly looked for. 
On considering the exhibits as a whole, one 
is more than ever struck by the versatility of the 
mediaeval genius at its best and happiest moments. 
But there is more than this ; there is a certain 
quality in the work produced that may some- 
times be missed, overloaded, maybe, by that very 
versatility and the exuberant life that must be 
expressed anyhow and everywhere. For instance, 
in making a study of one particular type of Opus 
Anglicanum such as the Pienza cope lately figured 
in these pages, one finds the same design persist- 
ing in half-a-dozen of these pieces, the same saints 
standing in those now familiar arcades with 
twisted columns and lion bases. Turn over the 
pages of any manuscript of the period and similar 
pictures meet the eye : the same appeal, the same 
dramatic trick, the same slight touch of humour 
and homely sentiment. At the sight of so much 
repetition, it would be but natural to grow 
vaguely weary of the invention that seems to 
be limited on all sides by the necessity of supply- 
ing a certain sentiment and a certain legend to 
the popular demand. As Emile Male would say, 
a great French portal or painted window was 
literally a sermon in stone or glass; certain canons 
have to be observed, certain stories must be told 
in just oneway, certain figures should be drawn on 
such and such lines. The stern archaic head of 
Christ looks out of a picture full of fourteenth- 
century elegancies ; St. Peter is recognizable 
always by the sturdy square head and close-curled 
grey hair ; the figures in a story are grouped as in 
a pageant-play familiar to all eyes, in which the 
actors have posed themselves in the same attitudes 
for generations, well aware that their patrons will 
allow no innovation in gesture or expression. But 
this is not the whole story, and ' the little more ' 
happens to be just the secret of the charm. If 
there were nothing but the ' popular ' element in 
mediaeval art, it would be as unendurable as it is 
actually delightful. The early-fourteenth-century 
Apocalypse pictures often fatigue the eye by their 
childlike representation of impossibilities, but the 
wonder expressed in them and the rare moments 
of illumination when the painter, in a happy dream, 
seems to have peered through the window of 
heaven in the company of St. John himself — these 
things give us a not infrequent sight of the 
thoughts and aspirations of the mediaeval mind. 
And though the church embroideries, for obvious 

reasons, give the story of the religion rather than 
its visions, we have here, too (less markedly), a 
feeling that at the back of the obvious and 
commonplace lies a plane of thought of some 
spaciousness and dignity. On all of them lies the 
freshness and vivacity of the artist in love with his 
task and amused by it ; all the pieces I am specially 
noting here are, roughly speaking, the product of 
the same forty or fifty years of artistic activity in 
England ; each of them has a different flavour 
and a different charm, a charm not lost through 
the almost painfully laborious medium of fine 

The cope on crimson velvet which, cut up into 
chasuble, stole, maniple, and altar-hanging, was 
formerly partly at Mount St. Mary's College, 
Chesterfield, and partly in the family whose 
present representative, Colonel Butler-Bovvdon, 
now lends it, is one of the series of copes designed 
after one pattern, with certain modifications. 1 I 
should say this piece is about the simplest of the 
copes in radiating arcades, as the St. John Lateran 
one is the most intricate. It is interesting to com- 
pare the two, that under our eyes being far more 
dignified for the broad planning of the figures and 
the plainer design of the three zones of arcading. 
The colour of it is masterly, the pearly quality of 
the orphrey finely opposed to the rich red mass of 
the body of the vestment, whose hem is encircled 
by a narrow border of flowery green and white and 
purple, freshly simple. The whole thing was at 
one time savagely cut, but has been pieced to- 
gether by a distinguished and learned hand, no 
attempt being made to ' restore ' the missing por- 
tions, which are merely explained by slight painting 
on the canvas backing. The body of the cope is 
divided into three series of arcading with twisted 
oak-leaf columns and lions' heads for capitals. 
The centre is occupied by the Annunciation, the 
Adoration of the Wise Men, and the Coronation 
of the Blessed Virgin. Single figures, standing on 
a wreath-twisted platform, fill the rest of the 
ground. In the upper series are SS. Stephen and 
Lawrence, St. Mary Magdalene, and St. Helena. 
St. Edward the Confessor holding a church stands 
at one end of the second row, and St. Edmund 
the King with an arrow at the other. Next him 
is an archbishop, probably Thomas of Canterbury. 
Within are Margaret and Catherine of Alexandria, 
John the Baptist, and John the Evangelist, and a 
bishop. The outer row gives the apostles, and 
the whole piece presents a most useful and in- 
forming series of the symbols of saints and 
apostles in these earliest fourteenth-century days. 2 
It is a somewhat matter-of-fact piece, for all the 
lively invention ; but an individual note is struck 
by the pair of green parakeets that stand on the 
crockets above the Coronation, and a touch of 

1 Plate I, p. 305. 

3 See page 303. 



us zAnplicanum at 


poetry supplied by the charming angels, seated in 
rich green faldestols, holding stars in their laps ; 
in each half-spandrel at the end is a little standing 
figure stretching out his star with an eager ges- 
ture. The orphrey, particularly fresh and bril- 
liant, is a fine display of high personages — kings, 
queens, bishops, and an archbishop ; they stand 
on a golden ground figured with eagles, lions, 
flower de luce, etc., while in the spandrels and 
between the arcades are heraldic beasts, griffins, 
and lions, all in white silk. The triangular hood, 
where two angels are censing, now cut in two and 
sewn to the outer edge of the embroidery, might 
easily be restored to its proper place. There is a 
good deal of enrichment all over the cope by 
means of raised gold, fine pearls and beads ; the 
angels' stars have all been covered with fine 
pearls, also the lion-masks at the ' ties ' of the 
net-arcade. The faces are worked after the pe- 
culiar convention of the time, but more loopy than 
round, and consequently flatter and less grotesque 
than the faces in the Syon cope. The gold -work 
is of good, bold style (the broad folds of the drapery 
in silver), but not so admirable as in the Steeple 
Aston cope. 

In sentiment nothing could be further apart 
than these two fine pieces — the Butler-Bowdon 
cope and the cope which, slashed and pieced into 
altar frontal and dorsal, has been preserved for so 
many years in the village of Steeple Aston. 3 In 
this piece there is no question of a ' touch ' of 
poetry — the whole thing is entirely dream-like and 
elusive. Not for choice of subjects is it so incom- 
parable (just the saints' martyrdoms), nor for any- 
thing that can be criticized technically from a 
fresh point of view, but for its air both of simplicity 
and subtlety ; it is far-off and fragile, the ghost of 
something lovely, appealing not to the senses, but 
to the imagination. The network of this cope was 
evolved by some person who chose to screen the 
order of his design by breaking the line into a tangle 
of ivy and oak boughs. To describe or explain a 
design of so rare a quality is to violate the charm of 
its reserve ; certainly the embroiderer of his time 
has imagined nothing of greater excellence. I 
should not venture a definite pronouncement on the 
former colour of the material this piece is worked 
on ; the received opinion seems to be that it is 
faded from some sort of red. If that is so I am 
unwilling to recall its fresher splendour, for the 
grey gold and grey white are harmonious beyond 
telling, and the spots of positive colour — saints' 
hair, cloak-lining, peacock wing — start up here 
and there with a little wilfulness that is pleasing, 
and if a fault, a trivial one. The ground is a thin 
twilled silk backed with a stronger material, the 
work entirely gold but for the flesh and the 
touches aforesaid. All has been outlined with a 
fine black line. The quatrefoils of the net are 
tied by faces set in vine leaves and raised green 
1 Plate I, page 305. 

the Burlington Fine zArts Club 

fruit, and in the spandrels are lions passant, 
armed and langed azure. The centre of the cope 
is occupied by The Coronation of the Blessed 
Virgin, The Crucifixion, and The Bearing of the 
Cross. The rest of the subjects are martyrdoms 
of saints and apostles, with their names inscribed 
in bold lettering. I give a list comparing the 
saints in these groups with the single figures in 
the Butler-Bowdon cope : — 

Butler-Bowdon Cope. Steeple Aston Cope. 

Matthew . . . 

. Sword dr, 


Simon . . . 

. Saw 

Bust only 

Jude .... 


Bust only 

Thomas . . . 


Pierced with spear 

Andrew . . . 

. Cross 

Tied to cross 

James the Great 

. Staff and 


Staff and wallet 

Peter . . . 

. Keys 

On cross, head down- 

Paul .... 



Mathias . . . 

. Halberd 


James the Less 



Philip . . . 



. Knife 






. Gridiron 



. Dragon 

Issuing from Dragon 

Catherine . . 

Wheel and sword 

Wheel, beheaded 

Barnabas . . 

Beaten with clubs 

The faces in this cope are different in type from 
those in the Butler-Bowdon piece. In the latter the 
apostles' heads are drawn with a uniform rugged- 
ness, while the kings and queens are merely large- 
eyed and gentle. In the Steeple Aston work we 
meet with a serious wistfulness of expression ; one 
or two of the heads are nobly poised, and some of 
the ' bad fellows ' full of character, not merely 
grotesque. The faces are in fact better drawn. 
Enough is spared of the striking and beautiful 
orphrey to make one lament the rest. On a golden 
ground, rippled like a sunlit sea touched by the 
wind, are angels, alternately front and back view. 
Of those who turn their backs we have nothing 
but curly locks and peacock wings. Those who 
face us are mounted on horseback and playing, 
one on a fiddle, the other on a cittern, and be- 
tween them are medallions with the world-symbol, 
the whole orphrey being Creation's hymn to the 
Most High. The narrow border, all gold, consists 
of woodland animals in eager chase. I regret to 
see that this priceless work shows growing signs 
of decay since I saw it some ten years ago. Once 
mounted in the most suitable way it should be 
kept framed and handled as little as possible. 

Work of yet another temper (full of puzzles) is 
the cope lent by the Musee Royal of Brussels, 4 
which it is a privilege to see here and compare with 
other things. 

This cope, formerly from the church of Harle- 
beke, has its orphrey and hood embroidered most 
finely and minutely. It is not possible to describe 
it here as closely as it deserves ; it is full of inter- 
esting and curious details of dress and musical 
instruments. The background of each panel is of 
fine gold diaper, mostly a lozenge and keyed-cross 
* riate II, page 308. 


Opus Anglicanum at the Burlington Fine Arts Club 

pattern, portions of the work such as architectural 
details being emphasized by raised lines. The 
martyrdoms of the apostles are figured on the 
orphrey and all follow the accepted legend with 
much precision. On the bottom, on the left, is 
named St. Matthew (S. Matoce), but the figure 
kneeling and stoned by two men is, of course, 
St. Mathias, the Matthew legend being given on 
the other side with much dramatic force and 
named for St. Mathias (S. Mathia). Next is 
St. Thomas kneeling by the heathen altar, com- 
manding the destruction of the idol, the king of 
India looking on. James the Less is being 
clubbed in the next ; then Bartholomew flayed, a 
curiously violent representation for this early 
period, when the martyrdoms are usually pre- 
sented with all artistic reserve. Next, St. Andrew 
bound to the diagonal cross, one of his executioners 
wearing a feathered cap. Then comes St. Paul be- 
headed, one of ' Nero's knyghtes " looking on ; 
St. Peter (See Petre) is also beheaded, curiously. 
St. John the Evangelist sits in a caldron of 
boiling oil, one executioner filling it from a bucket, 
and the other, a man with wild green locks, stir- 
ring the fire. Next is St. Matthew (named for 
Mathias) ; after solemnizing the mass he is 
stabbed in the back at the altar by the king's 
men. St. James the Great is beheaded ; St. Philip 
tied to a cross by two executioners, SS. Simon 
and Jude lying on the ground are stoned by two 
men, and clubbed by a third. Elegant little 
angels stand in niches of the pillars, playing 
various instruments, and half-length figures of the 
prophets fill the spandrils. The present hood 
contains the Crucifixion, the old triangular hood, 
two birds with a delicate flower border, being at 
the base of it. I take it that the Crucifixion was 
formerly in the middle of the orphrey between 
Peter and Paul. This piece has an unusual 
unfamiliar look for English work of the date it 
must be (not later than 1320), and leads one to 
speculate on the very different schools there must 
have been in England at this one time. In the 
same case is another chasuble also claimed for 
English, which I had already concluded with 
characteristic rashness to be Italian, in spite of 
the evidence of the heraldry upon it, i.e. the 
shield of John Grandisson, bishop of Exeter 
(1327-1369). It would, however, be impertinent 
to persist in an opinion against the learning of 
other peoplewith whom I have discussed this piece ; 
there is, no doubt, some reason that we shall never 
know for its distinctly Italian character. It is, 
of course, much later than the Brussels piece. 

I have unwillingly to pass with a word things 
of great historical interest, as the amice-apparel 
of Thomas of Canterbury, formerly in the trea- 
sury of Sens Cathedral, and lent by St. Thomas's 
Abbey, Erdington ; and his mitre, lent by the 
archbishop of Westminster. These important 
and beautiful relics belong to a school different 


from the one I am considering, and should be 
studied with other early gold-work ; the ancient 
Durham ornaments, the pieces in the Hotel Cluny 
at Paris, the Worcester fragments which are 
exhibited here, the mitre, buskins, and sandals 
from the tomb of Archbishop Hubert Walter at 
Canterbury, 6 and finally with the blue chasuble 
from the Victoria and Albert Museum shown here 
(case A) which is a link between the English art 
that is of Byzantium and that which is English 
at last. Of the Worcester embroideries the later 
fragments have a marked affinity with the orna- 
ment on this blue chasuble ; both have the same 
characteristic scroll-work with its curled leaves 
and buds of early spring. 

Out of a note-book crowded with reminders of 
these romantic things I have to select two more 
of superlative interest before concluding. From 
St. Dominick's Priory at Haverstock Hill comes a 
large panel consisting of an arcade in which the 
figure of Our Lord sits on a gold throne. 6 His 
right hand is raised in blessing, and under the 
left, which holds a sceptre, is an orb divided into 
three parts inscribed 


The design is broad in style, and indeed far larger, 
as a single subject, than any embroideries with 
which I am acquainted of this date, though the 
work is as fine and highly finished as embroi- 
deries on a much smaller scale ; the combina- 
tion of breadth and delicacy gives much dis- 
tinction to this piece. The ground is a dull 
grey purple twilled silk seme with lions ram- 
pant in gold. The figure is royally clad in a 
gold mantle and brown tunic, once red (the ex- 
perts say it of all these lovely pallid browns and 
fawns), decorated with bands of gold-embroidered 
red- purple at the neck and wrists and across the 
body. The nimbus has embroidered jewels, and 
the cross is laid with seed-pearls. In the spandrels 
of the arch are the sun and moon with dragons 
and lions above and below. Above is the Annun- 
ciation in two arcades, the Blessed Virgin, with 
the Holy Dove over her, standing on one side, 
and the angel Gabriel on the other. The space 
between is filled with a sloping arcade, alternately 
red and green. The figure of Christ is strangely 
solemn and concentrated in expression. It is 
archaic of intent too ; the little figures above are 
of their century, the Blessed Virgin, even, with a 
somewhat mannered charm. But this gaunt face, 
with its look beyond, has gazed on us from many 
a page of Apocalypse pictures ; the Lambeth 
manuscript contains it, and Mr. Yates Thompson's 
Rimini manuscript, and the folds of the Ascoli 
cope show it once more. Of intent and instinct 
the man who invented this panel has endowed 
every line of the drapery, every touch of the dead 

6 Plate II, page 308. * Vetusta Monumenta, Vol. VII. 



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Opus Anglicanum at the Burlington Fine Arts Club 

purple and grey gold, with austerity and aloofness, 
and it is impossible not to be much moved by what 
he has striven to convey, whether he has suc- 
ceeded, or whether it be only his effort that 
touches one. 

A triumphant piece of decorative work is the 
red velvet chasuble lent by Prince Solms-Braunfels. 
At first the golden lions of England, set in a 
golden scroll-work, is all we see. Closer examina- 
tion shows that the beasts have terrible bushy 
eyebrows and eyes of flat crystal, and that their 
bodies are worked in fine gold, the tufted manes 
done with a certain simplicity, but with an entire 
command over material. Little jewels of cabochon 
crystals are scattered here and there, set as it 
were in a framework of black silk heightened with 
seed-pearls. Among the leafage lie small figures 
of men and women, elegant and idly vivacious 
(courtiers all), drawn in the best possible style. 
The catalogue says of this piece, 'This chasuble 
appears to have been made from a horse-trapper. 
Tradition has assigned an English origin to this 
superb example of mediaeval art. The lions upon 
the back show great similarity to those upon the 
well-known shield of John of Eltham, second son 
of Edward II. It is of interest to note that 
Eleanor, sister of this prince, was married in 1332 
to Rainald, second duke of Guelders (1326-1343), 
which may perhaps explain the vestments being 
in the possession of a noble German house.' 
Experts tell me that the treatment of the lions is 
specially English. That being so, English art of 
the period is certainly full of delightful surprises, 
for this scroll-work has an unusual look, and the 
little ladies with their broad serene foreheads and 
the gallants with their rippled yellow locks smile 
from their bower of gold with a foreign grace — 
Rhenish, one might have thought, or Burgundian, 
and the assurance that it is English makes it the 
more interesting. 

One case shows some striking pieces from two 
different sources, a maniple and stole lent by Miss 
Weld, and a stole lent by Lord Willoughby de 
Broke, all heraldic. The former are more faded 
than is the latter, and are of quite delicious colour, 

a ground alternately green and fawn, with vel- 
vety grey-blue and so forth. The ground of Lord 
Willoughby de Brake's stole remains of a pinky 
shade, and this brings to my mind the question 
of the use of red in these mediaeval embroideries. 
The Syon cope has a fawn ground, the Steeple 
Aston pieces are greyish-white ; the figure in the 
Haverstock Hill panel has a fawn tunic, the stole 
and maniple here have fawn-brown, and so on. 
These various shades are generally taken to have 
faded from some central red ; and yet, if it is so, 
the dyes used must have varied immensely in 
character, for some of the pieces retain their 
brilliant reds and crimsons almost unchanged. 
Looking at the Steeple Aston cope with a friend 
one day, we came to the conclusion that the ground 
here at least had never been of a full quality, for 
these wonderful colourists knew better than to 
overload their work by placing a black outline 
round everything on a solid red ground. It has 
been suggested by Mr. Kendrick that some of 
these fawns may have been of a pink shade, of the 
quality of Lord Willoughby de Brake's stole (the 
reverse of the borders on the Syon cope shows this 
same sweetish pink, while the body of it is brownish, 
both back and front). It seems possible; I have 
not sufficient knowledge of the history of dye- 
stuffs to know what might be used for reds at the 
time, beyond the well-known kermes and madder : 
safflower would give, I believe, just this luscious 
red and pink, and is extremely fugitive. 

It is obviously impossible in a few pages to say 
all one would wish to note about the exhibition. 
I gather it has come as a surprise to many people 
that work so distinguished, so highly developed and 
so varied, should have been produced in our midst 
at this early date. The surprise surprises me, for 
they accept without exclamation the front of Wells 
Cathedral, illuminated books from Winchester, and 
so forth, and this is but part of the same story. In 
the introduction to the catalogue, Mr. A. F. 
Kendrick gives some most useful accounts of 
English copes, etc., on the continent. The forth- 
coming illustrated catalogue will prove quite essen- 
tial to every student of mediaeval embroidery. 



Chinese from very early times, wall-hangings made 
of paper do not appear to have been adopted by 
the west until the middle of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, when they began to be imported by Spanish 
and Dutch merchants ; but it was not before the 
end of the following century that this less costly 
substitute forthe tapestries, silk and satin damasks, 
figured velvets, stamped leather painted and gilded, 
which formerly adorned the walls of the fortunate, 


art. Though 

T is obvious that of all kinds of 
domestic decoration wall-papers 
are likely to be the most perish- 
able, and it is on account of the 
scarcity of old examples that 
this artistically important branch 
of design has not yet received 
attention from the historians of 
they had been in use among the 

*A Seventeenth-Century IV^all-paper 

found its way into our islands ; and it was a hun- 
dred years again, owing to the excessive tax which 
hampered the industry, before it became possible 
for their manufacture to be carried on at home on 
any considerable scale. 

The early experiments which preceded their 
introduction from the east were, as is naturally to 
be expected, of a purely imitative character, con- 
sisting of an endeavour to provide colourable re- 
productions of the fashionable hangings in a 
cheaper material. As is also to be expected, the 
result was possessed of little or no artistic merit. 
In 1634 one John Lanyer obtained a patent for a 
process of applying flock to a cotton ground, with 
a view to counterfeiting damasks, Utrecht velvets, 
and other luxuries, for the purpose of mural de- 
coration. The idea of using a paper ground does 
not seem to have occurred to him. The first papers 
actually to be hung on walls in England were of 
this flock description, and came into use between 
the years 1670 and 1680. The invention was in- 
troduced into France in 1688 by Jean Papillon, a 
wood engraver, and there obtained a considerable 
vogue, but only in second-rate establishments. 
Then followed the production of papers in imita- 
tion of leather hangings, silvered or gilded, and 
ornamented with flowers and conventional patterns; 
and in France there appeared also at the begin- 
ning of the eighteenth century printed wall-papers 
designed after the fashion of dominoterie, the 
marbled or figured paper in use among book- 
binders. All these kinds, however, were as inferior 
in quality as they were artistically, and were 
scarcely ever to be found, at any rate until the 
middle of the eighteenth century, in the houses of 
the upper classes, those who could not afford a 
more sumptuous style remaining content to live 
in simple panelled or whitewashed apartments. 

But there was one exception. About the time 
of the accession of William and Mary, a few years 
after the Chinese craze had invaded England, 
wall-papers designed and painted in China began 
to reach our shores. The rapprochement with 
Holland (whose oriental trade had long ago pro- 
vided this luxury for herself), consequent upon the 
arrival of the Dutch prince, was to some extent 
responsible for this ; but our own East India 
Company, which had first touched China in 1637, 
had at this time a rapidly increasing traffic with 
the Far East. Chinese goods of every description 
(besides wall-papers), porcelain, screens, cabinets, 
silks, embroideries, hanging pictures, and the 
like, were imported in quantities ; and the Chinese 
influence began to permeate many of our own 
arts, metal work, fictiles, and embroidery being 
especially tranformed by the new-fangled style. 
The remarkable silver toilet set in the possession 
of Sir Samuel Montagu, belonging to the years 
1683 and 1687, and decorated with men, animals, 
birds, trees, buildings, fountains, etc., in the 
Chinese manner, is one of the most conspicuous 


examples of this kind of work. So the coming 
of wall-papers to match the prevailing taste was 
joyfully welcomed in polite households, and 
though they were far from being cheap, they were 
widely employed both in England and France, and 
remained in fashion for at least a century and a 
half. The frequent mention in the livre-journal of 
Duvaux (the middle of the eighteenth century) of 
so many ' feuilles de papier la Chine, fond blanc 
a fleurs et oiseaux,' being supplied for paper hang- 
ings to the nobility, always has reference to these 
importations from China. 

The delightful wall-paper of Chinese origin of 
which two specimens are here reproduced by the 
courteous permission of its owner, Mr. Vincent 
Perkins, has been hanging, since the close of the 
seventeenth century, on the parlour walls of a 
house, formerly in the possession of the Berkeley 
family, at Wotton-under-Edge in Gloucestershire. 
It is thus one of the very first of the Chinese 
papers to have been put up in an English house. 
It is, fortunately, on the whole, with some dis- 
colouration of the ground, in an excellent state of 
preservation; and we cannot be too grateful for 
the miracle of its survival, showing as it does 
the art of the Chinese designer before it had 
become contaminated with Western influences, 
or done to order from Western patterns. The 
colouring is executed entirely by hand, without 
the aid of either block or stencil. The design, as 
is always the case with Chinese papers, is varied 
all the way round the room, the sections of it 
being most ingeniously adapted to the exigencies 
of angles and recesses. The basis of the design, 
as may be seen from the illustrations, is a row 
of trees, planted by the side of water upon the 
projecting points of an indented shore, and 
laden with blossom and fruit and large flowers. 
Lotuses and other aquatic plants rise from the 
water to decorate the interstices between the 
stems of the trees. Pheasants, cranes, and richly- 
plumaged birds rest upon the boughs and fill the 
air about them, and below there are ducks, 
swimming and diving. The colours are bright 
and harmoniously combined, the many-hued birds 
and flowers shining with jewel-like splendour 
amid the pale olive and dark bluish-greens of the 
foliage. The whole scheme of the design is skil- 
fully subordinated to decorative necessities, the 
plane of the wall surface being frankly admitted, 
and no attempt made to obtain effects of relief 
or perspective. It was the inability to realize 
the importance of this last limitation and the 
ludicrous endeavour to give an appearance of 
solidity to the objects rendered which proved so 
fatal to the majority of indigenous designs, until 
the coming of Morris. 

Another paper, nearly identical in pattern with 
the one at Wotton-under-Edge, and said to have 
been put up during the first years of the eighteenth 
century, is in the principal room at Ightham 



A Seventeenth-Century Wall-paper 

Mote in Kent. It is rather more elaborate in 
character. The ho bird (the Chinese phoenix), 
the peacock, and some silver pheasants, as 
well as pomegranates and bright blue irises, 
appear in the design and serve to make the effect 
a somewhat more sumptuous one; but the form- 
less, fantastic shapes of the rocks from which the 
trees spring are somewhat disquieting to a Western 
eye. Unfortunately, it was found necessary by 
the late owners of the house to take the paper 
down for the purpose of whitening the ground 
and repainting practically the whole of the 
coloured parts. The result, as may be imagined, 
is far from being satisfactory. The beauty of the 
original design happily still remains; but the 
superimposed pigment is crude in tone, and the 
clean white ground is by no means to be preferred 
to the rich and mellow qualities of the Wotton- 
under-Edge paper, where the stains and other 
marks of age are still to be seen. I am informed 
by Mr. Colyer-Fergusson, the present owner of 
the Mote, that there is yet another paper very 
similar to his at Cobham Hall, the seat of the 
Earl of Darnley. 

' Whatever you have in your rooms, think first 
of the walls, for they are that which makes your 
house and home.' Since these words were spoken 
by Morris there has been a conscious endeavour 
on every side to produce beautiful designs for the 

purpose of wall decoration. The wonderful ugli- 
ness of the ' artistic ' wall-paper of the present day 
is not so much due to want of idea on the part of 
designers as to the ignorance of the structural 
principles underlying the beautiful designs of 
Morris and others which they strive to imitate 
and only succeed in caricaturing. ' Every wall- 
paper,' he said, ' must have a distinct idea in it ; 
some beautiful piece of nature must have pressed 
itself on our notice so forcibly that we are quite 
full of it.' There is certainly a great deal worthy 
of the designer's consideration in these early 
Chinese productions. Probably no nation has 
ever carried the science of decorative composition 
and decorative convention to such an extraordi- 
nary perfection as the Chinese artists. If there is 
a scarcity of actual wall-papers of the early period 
to which those already described belong, there is, 
in the British Museum and elsewhere, an abun- 
dance of hanging pictures of the same date and 
earlier which will be found extremely suggestive 
by the designer. The early wall-papers may also 
be studied from the point of view of durability 
and fastness of the colours. I have little doubt 
that a lining of thick rice paper, which I found in 
the case of some papers of later date in the pos- 
session of Messrs. Cowtan, has had a great deal to 
do with the marvellous condition of the specimen 
at Wotton-under-Edge. 




HE artistic treasure which I 
am allowed to unearth here, 
by the kind permission of his 
Grace the Duke Don Giuseppe 
Rospigliosi, 1 seems to have 
escaped even the author's first 
biographers. Indeed, strange 
as it may seem, neither Mal- 
vasia nor Baldinucci, 2 in their 
lives of Guido Reni, makes the slightest mention 
even of the now well-known Aurora in the 
Palazzo Rospigliosi ; and Passeri himself, who 
does give a description of that famous picture, 
seems not to do so from ocular evidence. 3 

1 I am much indebted besides to Prince Schonburg, at that 
time charge d'affaires of the Austrian Embassy, and to Hofrat 
Pastor, director of the Istituto Austriaco dei studi storici in 
Rome, for their kind mediation. 

a Can : Conte Carlo Malvasia ' Felsina pittrice,' 1672, Bologna ; 
2nd ed. Bologna, 1841. Baldinucci, ' notizie dei professori da 
Cimabue in qua,' 2nd ed., Florence, 1846, Vol. IV, pages 12-50. 
In thelife of Giovanni da San Giovanni, IV, 231, B. says that 
this painter executed a fresco on the wall 'opposite' (!) to that 
where Guido had painted his famous Aurora, a blunder which 
only proves that he knew neither of these pictures, which he 
had probably found mentioned in the materials for Giovanni's 
life given to him by the painter's relations. 

8 See below, page 317. 

Baglione, who was generally well informed by 
means of his official position as President of the 
Painters' Academy, did not write Guido's life, not 
indeed, as Baldinucci believed, because the latter 
refused to give him the necessary information, or 
because he was ' poco amico a Guido,' as Malvasia 4 
supposes, but because Guido was still alive when 
Baglione's book was published, and therefore 
excluded from the settled plan of this biographical 

Nor does any modern writer mention the paint- 
ings in question. Yet the palace which contains 
them is well known to every modern and ancient 
traveller ; it occupies a site between the following 
modern streets : Via del Quirinale, Via della Con- 
sulta, Via Nazionale, and Via Mazzarino, and was 
built, as far as we know, not before 1605, 5 the 
date of the election of Pope Paul V. Up to the 
pontificate of Sixtus V, who intersected the 

* Malvasia, 2nd ed. II, 62. 

5 The date, 1603, given by Baedeker cannot be traced to any 
authority. Contemporary engravings of the palace may be 
found in the ' Ritratto di Roma,' 1638, and the ' Roma antica e 
moderna,' 1652. The earliest description of the palace and its 
decorations (in which, however, no artist's name is mentioned) 
is given in the Vatican MS., Borghese IV, 50. 

C C 


zAn Unknown Fresco-worJ^ by Guido Reni 

Altipiano Quirinale by several new avenues, the 

greater part of it was an insula, surrounded by a 

few antique streets and covered with but a few 

1 'igne — combinations of vineyards and villas, each 

one furnished with a casino nobilc, a giardino 

secreto, a casa colonica, and an orchard, separated 

from each other by box and laurel hedges, or by 

the usual Italian garden walls. 6 In the middle of 

these gardens lay the enormous ruins of the Con- 

stantine baths, 7 before the front of them stood the 

famous Horsetamers. 

Still in the year 1580 the state of things was not 

much altered, as the following entry in Michel de 

Montaigne's diary 8 shows: — 

Le quartier montueus qui estoit le siege de la vieille ville et ou 
il faisoit tous les jours mil promenades et visites est scisi de 
quelques eglises et maisons rares et jardins de Cardinaus. 

A new era for that silent quarter began only in 
the reign of Paul V. Lodovico d'Este had ceded 
his casino on the Monte Cavallo, built by Cardinal 
Ippolito d'Este about 1550, to Gregory XIII, who 
began to transform it into a new papal palace 
by the aid of the Bolognese architect Ottavio 
Mascherini ' accioche i sommi pontefici passando 
dal Vaticano vi potessero mutar d'aria.' 9 Paul V 
was the first to take up his summer residence on 
the Quirinal — even before the house was com- 
pletely finished. His predecessors had had 
to content themselves with the appartamento 
Clementino 10 and the villa Pia, 11 in the unwhole- 
some low grounds of the Vatican. 12 As formerly 
in the Borgo quarter, so persons who had to live 
near to the court were now compelled to acquire 
houses on the Quirinal : ' Qui vicino,' says an 
old Roman guide book, 13 ' il patriarca Biondo 
mastro di casa di Paolo V ha fatto un luogo molto 
bello, benche sia piccolo, per sua habitatione 

6 See the list of the ' domus cardinalium ' in Albertini's 
1 Opusculum de mirabilibus urbis Romae ' (reprint by Schmar- 
sow, p. 25), written about 1510, and Bufalini's plan of Rome 
(1550-60), of which an old copy is in the Imperial Library in 
Vienna. The best information on the topography of the 
Quirinal hill in the sixteenth century is to be found in Lan- 
ciani's note in the ■ Bulletino communale di archeologia di 
Roma,' 1889, p. 389 (with a plan after that of Bufalini). 
D'Ancona's ' Notizia dei possessori del Quirinale, cavata da 
un documento contemporaneo ' (n. 2, p. 198 of his reprint of 
Montaigne's diary) is evidently based on Bufalini, but full of 
errors. I do not know, for instance, why the ' vinea di Ascanio 
de Cornea,' situated according to B. near the porta Pinciana 
on the grounds of the later Villa Borghese, should be identified 
with the later Rospigliosi palace and garden. 

' If a woodcut in the Venetian edition (1588) of Andrea 
Fulvio's ' Roma antica ' may be trusted, these ruins must still 
have been imposing enough. A great exedra with its well- 
preserved vault stood still erect, and Bufalini's plan shows how 
another similar one had been enclosed as apse into the church 
of S. Salvatorede Cornelii. On the east side, too, a little church 
or monastery, S. Salvatore, stood amidst the ruins. 

8 D'Ancona's reprint, Citta di Castello, 1895, p. ig8. 

9 Baglione, p. 5. 

10 Van Mander, Schilderboeck, 1604, f. 291*, still calls the 
'sala del consistoro' ' de Somer-camer van den Paus.' 

11 Since the villa Pia was finished, the Btlvedire was only used 
for guests of minor rank. 

12 ' Grave Vaticani agri coelum ' (Ciaconius, ' Vitae et res gestae 
pontificum,' etc. IV, 389). 

u Roma antica e moderna, presso Giacomo Fei, 1653. 


quando il papa sta a Monte Cavallo.' ■ The 
pope himself built and bought several houses in 
the neighbourhood to provide for his familia. u 

First of all the mighty nephew of the pope, 
Cardinal Scipio Caffarelli- Borghese, one of the 
most liberal art-patrons of his time, whom the 
Romans used to call ' delicium urbis, 15 wanted 
now besides his magnificent palace on the Ripetta, 
a comfortable summer residence on the Monte- 
cavallo. He bought the ground from the dukes 
of Altaemps, 16 had the ruins of the Thermae 
Constantinianae demolished, 17 and a new sump- 
tuous palace built by the Borghese family 
architect, Flaminio Ponzio. Before the work was 
finished Flaminio died, and was replaced by the 
Fleming Jan Varzant ia and the Comasque Carlo 
Maderna. 19 The wall-paintings were entrusted to 
Lodovico Cigoli, 20 Antonio Tempesta, 21 Guido 
Reni 22 and Paul Bril. Afterwards, under the 
next proprietor, 23 the inner disposition of the 
ground floor was changed, and part of the paint- 
ings had to be destroyed ; they were replaced by 
paintings executed by Agostino Tassi and Orazio 
Gentileschi. 24 Thus from the paintings of the 
first period nothing was left, except the frescoes in 

u Ciaconius, 1. c. IV, 3S4. ' Maphaeorum aedibus Datariae 
adscriptis ' (this house lay evidently on the west side of the 
papal palace in the modern Via della Dataria). The ' Aedes 
quas olim in Quirinali clivo monachi Benedictini extruxerant ' 
were bought too and used for the ' scuderia.' 

15 Ciaconius, IV, 401. 

16 A German family. One of them, Marcus Sitticus, had been 
archbishop of Salzburg. Passeri, 1. c. page 68, says that Card. 
Scipio bought the place from the Altaemps family ; the same 
statement in the ' ritratto di Roma ' (in Roma, per il Mascardi, 
1638), only in the edition of 1652 (presso Filippo de' Rossi) I 
find : ' II palazzo . . . fabricato da Scip. Card. Borghese . . . 
vtniuto a Gio. Angelo Duca Altaemps. . .' 

!" Little pieces of antique fresco-decoration are still to be 
seen in the picture gallery in the ' casino dell' Aurora.' Cf. 
the reproduction on Plate XIII of Wickhoff s ' Roman Art ' 
(London: Heinemann, 1900). Part of the statues found during 
the excavation of the ground came on the Capitol (Titi, descri- 
zione delle pitture sculture, etc. Rome 1783, page 282), partly 
they remained to decorate the new palace (see below). 

13 The builder of the Villa Borghese. Cf. Baglione, 1. c. page 

19 Ibid, page 30S. w Ibid, page 154. 

21 Ibid, page 315. 22 Passeri, 1. c. page 68. 

23 After Paul V's death Card. Scipio had no more interest to 
live so close to the papal residence. Card. Guido Bentivoglio, 
having just returned (1621) from his Parisian legacy, bought the 
palace from him. Constrained by his enormous debts (Ciac- 
conius, 1. c. IV, 455) he was forced a few years afterwards to 
sell the palace for 70,000 scudi to Card. Giulio Mazarin (Ciac- 
conius, IV, 615). Mazarin's sister, married to principe Lorenzo 
Mancini, inherited it from him, and from the Mancini family it 
came to the Tuscan house of the Rospigliosi, dukes of Zagarola. 
Part of it now belongs to the principi Pallavicini. 

24 The pictures by Tassi will be treated in my ' History of 
Decorative Landscape Painting in Italy.' Reproductions of 
three paintings from the remaining ceilings by Orazio are given on 
Plate II, partly because of their high artistic qualities, partly be- 
cause they might have a special interest for the English con-' 
noisseur, as Orazio lived from 1626 till 1647 in London as court 
painter of Charles I, and executed, among other things, some 
painted ceilings at Greenwich. Cf. Walpole's 'Anecdotes of Paint- 
ing in England.' Giovanni da S. Giovanni is said (Baldinucci, 
IV, 231, seq.) to have also painted in the palace by order of 
Guido Bentivoglio, a fresco representing the Chariot of Night. 
I neither know where this picture was, nor what became of it, 
nor if the whole romantic story related by B. is true. 

- — »,.•*- 




zAn Untyiown Fresco-wor^ by Guido Reni 

the well-known Casino dell' Aurora towards the 
Via del Quirinale, and the painted vault of a little 
open gallery at the back front of the palace : ' una 
loggietta,' says Baglione, 25 ' dentro del giardino 
verso la via che guarda all' horto di S. Agata,' 26 
which afterwards was closed towards the garden, 
and thus turned into a little cabinet. That 
room is now entered through a great hall, which 
opens on the same part of the garden, deco- 
rated at present with a stucco decoration in pale 
blue and white of much later origin, and with 
some antique statues. 27 This room may be meant 
by Baglione, 28 when he relates that Cigoli painted 
for Cardinal Scipio Borghese in his palace, after- 
wards sold to the Bentivogli ' una loggia nel giar- 
dino e vi rappresento la favola di Psyche.' 29 

The above-mentioned little gallery, of which we 
have now to treat, is not quite rectangular in its 
ground plan. Towards the garden it once opened 
through three open arches supported by four 
columns ; on either side of these open arches were 
two blind ones, two similar ones closed both ends 
of the gallery, and the inner wall was divided into 
five corresponding arches. Several doors — now 
there is only one left — seem to have led into the 
inner apartments. The rest of the walls may have 
been decorated with white gesso work, or the 
usual pale grottesco paintings. Now the walls are 
clothed with modern wall paper. 

Baglione mentions the room in Paul Bril's life 

in the following terms : — 

Vi ha rappresentato col suo penello una pergolata d'uve diverse 
con varii animali dal naturale assai belli ed eccellenti. E vi 
sono alcuni paesi vaghissimi, che furono da lui felicemente con- 
dotti, etc. etc. 

Occupied with studies on Paul Bril, 30 it fell to 
my charge to view these paintings. To my agree- 
able surprise I found on reaching the spot, not. 
only Bril's landscapes in the lunettes, and on the 
vault the splendidly painted bower (Plate I), 
justly admired by Baglione because of its illusion- 
ary charm and its clever realistic execution, but 
also besides the manifold animals — birds, butter- 
flies, spiders, bees, etc. — that enliven its foliage, 
some splendid groups of putti, occupied round some 
flower pots, which proved at first glance to be the 
work of an eminent artist, although, to my know- 
ledge, they were not mentioned by any of our 
authorities. Deceived by Titi's statement S1 on 

25 Page 297. 

26 On the ground of the former monastery of St. Agata stands 
now the National Bank of Italy. 

27 See above, note 17. 
; ' Page 154. 

29 This hall, although a little smaller, resembles very much 
the Psyche gallery — once also called ' loggia ' — in the Villa 
Farnesina, and may have been decorated in a similar way. Now 
these lost Psyche paintings can never have adorned, as Titi's 
confused description (page 283) would make one believe, the 
adjacent little gallery, whose ceiling is still covered with the 
original paintings (see above), and whose walls cannot have 
afiorded sufficient space for such a rich subject. 

80 To be published in my ' History of Decorative Landscape 
Painting,' where these landscapes, too, will be treated separately. 

81 See note 29. 

the Psyche pictures by Cigoli, I took them at first 
for the work of that skilful painter, although the 
marked differences between these paintings and 
his other authentic works did not escape me. Only 
long after my return from Rome I found on look- 
ing through the engraved work of the Bologna 
School in the Print-room of the Imperial Library, 
a set of engravings, evidently after these frescoes 
by Carlo Cesio, 32 with the following title page : — 

Angoli dipinti da Guido Reni nella loggia contigua al giardino 
del palazzo dell ecc."'» Sig'. Duca Mazarino nel Monte Quirinale 
da Carlo Cesio dati in luce da Domenico de Rossi erede di Gio. 
Giac. de Rossi in Roma alia Pace con priv . . . etc. 

Every print bears a number and the address : 
' Guid. Ren. in Virid Mazarino.' 

This at last is a testimony which not only foritself 
deserves the greatest credit — Cesio (1626-86) being 
a younger contemporary of Guido Reni (+ 1641) 
— but is also confirmed by ocular evidence in such 
a convincing way that one feels almost ashamed 
of not having recognized the master's hand with- 
out a literary hint. Not indeed in order to corro- 
borate Guido's authorship, but only for the sake 
of completeness, I should wish to add two other 
testimonies lacking in themselves independent 

Passeri, in Guido's life, 83 first descriocs the 

celebrated Aurora in the garden house, and then 

goes on as follows : — 

D'intorno a detta (!) loggia in alcuni ripartimenti (note the 
lack of precision due to the want of ocular evidence!) vi sono di 
sua mano certi putti, li quali per la nobilta della bella idea 
possono esser giudicati non solo di regie sembianze, ma d'angeliche 
e sovraumane bellezze. 

In reality Guido's paintings are confined to the 
ceiling, the walls being decorated, but with friezes 
by Antonio Tempesta, 34 and four landscapes by 
Paul Bril representing the seasons. It is evident 
that Passeri knew only Cesio's engravings, and 
believed the originals to be in the same place as 
the Aurora. 

A second set of engravings, not to be found 

in the Albertina or in the Imperial print-room, 

unknown also to Bartsch, are mentioned in the 

anonymous notes appended to the edition of 1783 

of Titi's ' Ammaestramento di Pitture, etc.,' on 

page 480. 

In una loggia del giardino (Rospigliosi) sono molte coppie di 
putti, che tengono un vaso di fiori, i quali putti son dipinti da 
Guido e intagliati da Pier Antonio Co::a." 

The whole decoration comprises ten groups ; as 
the subject needs no explanation, a description is 
rendered superfluous by our reproductions. The 
colouring is very clear yet warm and rich, and 

32 Bartsch, No. 81-90. 

3:1 Page 68. 

81 In 1629 they were shown to Velasquez during his sojourn in 
Rome (cf. Iusti. Velasquez, 2nd ed., I., page 241). Baglione 
in 1642 says (p. 315) : ' fece nella loggia del palazzo vicino a 
Cavalli del Monti Quirinale per il Cardinale Scipione Borghese, 
poi de' Signori Bentivogli le due bellissime cavalcate che girano 
a foggia di fregio tutta la loggia.' 

35 Nothing is known about this engraver. Nagler reproduces 
only Titi's above-quoted words. 


An Unknown Fresco-worJ^ by Guirfo Rcni 

like that of the Aurora characteristic of Guido's 
' golden ' period. The sky is painted in deep blue. 

The date of these frescoes can be approximately 
determined. Of course, they were painted about 
the same time as the Aurora, which was executed, 
if Passeri's chronology of Guido's work may be 
trusted, before the paintings in the new papal 
chapel (finished 1610) and after his other works 
for the Card. Scipione, that is, the Crucifixion for 
S. Paolo alle Tre Fontane, 86 and the frescoes in 
S. Andrea nearS. Gregorio in Monte Celio (160S), 
and in the neighbouring S. Silvia Madre (1609). 37 
Thus the paintings in the Rospigliosi palace must 
have occupied the rest of the year i6og. S8 

The collaboration of Paul Bril and Guido is 
easily explained by the fact that they had already 
worked together, not only in the casino dell' 
Aurora, but already in the year 1599 s9 for Cardinal 
Paolo Emilio Sfondrati, the nephew of Gre- 
gory XIV, and former papal legate in Bologna, in 
S. Cecilia in Trastevere, where Paul Bril had 
covered the walls of the saint's ' house ' with decora- 
tive landscapes, while Guido had to paint an 
altarpiece representing the death of the virgin 
martyr. 40 

Besides, Bril was acquainted with Tempesta 
through the studio of his brother Matteo, as they 
had worked together in the third loggiato in the 
cortile di S. Damaso in the Vatican, and last, not 
least, he was a compatriot of the architect Varzant. 

Whether Bril or Reni made the plan for the 
whole decoration is of no importance, as the 
whole scheme was by no means a new one. The 
Romans in the past used to paint the vaults of 
their rooms with naturalistic foliage, bowers 
animated by birds, etc., as proved by a passage in 

3 Now in the Val ery. 

' These dates are ascertained by two inscriptions severally 

ted; cf. for instance, Ciaconius, 1. c. iv 401. 
■' This date has already been fixed for the Aurora by Jani- 
tschek in his critical essay on Guido Keni, in Dohme's ' Kunst 
Fur the date cf. Ciaconius. iv . -rchius S. Caeciliae 

acta et transtiberiana basilica, Rome, 1772, an i Bondini, Memorie 
storiche di S. Cecilia, Rome, 

C:. Passeri, page62. Malvasia. 2nded , II., 12, whocould not 

know Passeri's work (published a century after its author's 

death), mentions ' due quadri fattial Cardinal Sfondratoede' quali 

ne avean fatte le meraviglie il Cavalier d'Arpino . . . ed altri.' 

The second picture was beyond all doubt the tondo with the 

coronation oi S. Cecilia and S Valerian, still existing on the 

e wall. Malvasia means that the pictures were ordered and 

execute: ..a and afterwards sent to Rome, an error caused 

by a false interpretation of a passage in an autobiographical 

by Albani (Malvasia, 2nd ed , II, 151): ' (Guido) . . . 

il suo nome non solo per Bologna, ma anche arrh 6 sino 

• 1 linal Sfondrati, etc' At 

be so famous, and, above all, in 

e 'pie had to be on the spot an I to make all kind of 

; a commission. Th did the copy of 

logna is quite natural, because if Cardinal 

et a lese picture he 

• ,, painter. That Titi 

two pictures to an unknown imitatoi ol 

not the outcome of his critical sagacity, 

; i he could not find any documen- 

■ the author of thi e pictures — Malvasia did 

not me:,- yet published — the 

the letters of the younger Pliny, 11 and some re- 
mains in early Christian catacombs, 42 and in pagan 
cemeteries. 43 A late example is to be found in the 
mosaics of S. Constanza (phot. Anderson Nos. S3, 

The Quattrocento painters had already brought 
to light that decorative scheme from the ' grottos,' 
and made the happiest use of it. Giovanni da 
Udine, who in 1539 painted a wonderful ceiling of 
this kind in the palazzo Grimani in Venice (see 
Plate III), and had decorated in 1519 the vaults of 
the first loggiato in the Vatican with bowers of 
roses, orange and jasmine blossoms (repr. on pi. I 
of Gruner's ' Fresco Decorations') was certainly not 
the first to do so. Mantegna had already decorated 
the cupola of the lost chapel in the Belvedere 
with a sort of bower, 44 and combined the latter 
with naked putti in different playful positions. 45 
This motive, too, familiar as it was to Mantegna 
from his earliest pictures, is of classical origin. 
To Boethos of Ralchedon, 46 a sculptor of the 
beginning of the second century B.C., our literary 
tradition ascribes the introduction of children's 
figures into art, where it afterwards played such an 
important part, especially in the decorative style 
of later antiquity. The Florentine sculptors 
adopted the motive ; under Donatello's influence 
Mantegna introduced it into the decorative scheme 
of the Ermitani chapel, and into many a later 
work. Indeed, it is striking how closely the above- 
mentioned description of his lost vault-painting in 
the Belvedere resembles a celebrated work of later 
times that could not have remained untouched by 
Mantegna's influence. I mean Correggio's Camera 
di S. Paolo, a decoration that Guido knew beyond 
all doubt, were it only from drawings of his 
masters, the brothers Caracci. 

After Correggio Titian has had the greatest influ- 
ence on putto-painting in the seventeenth century. 
His amoretti — the Vienna Academical Gallery, 
for instance, contains one 47 — his angels in the 

41 Epp.V., 6, 22, he describes a bedroom in his villa as follows : — 
'Nee cedit gratiae marmoris ramos incidentesque ramis aves imitata 

'- Wilpert, 'The Catacombs,' Plate I (coloured reprod), 
Garucci, ' Storia dell' Arte Christiana,' Vol. II., Plate 19. 

■" In the VignaCodini, on the vault near the entrance; cf. the 
description by Henzen in ' Monumenti ed annali publicati dali' 
istituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica,' 1S56, page 19. (Sui 
columbari di Vigna Codini) ' Prano le pareti e la volta adornati 
di graziose pitturedi fogliami, di grappolid'uva, di fioried ucelli.' 
Restored by cav, Ruspi in 1S52 ; cf. also Dollmayr, Schule 
Raflaels, Jahrb. der Kunsth. Sammlungen des allerh. Kaiser- 
hauses, XVI., 317. 

" The same motive in the Madonna della Vittoria, of the 
Louvre collection. 

J > Taja, descrizione del Vaticano, page 401 ; cf. Chattard, nuova 

descrizioned Vat. Ill , 143 ' La picciola cupoletta di essa capella 

itadi alcuni finti spartimenti di figura tonda tra stintreaiatt 

insieme a medo di una tngraticclata interrotta da quindici putti, 

che tengono festoni.' 

i lanskeVid. SeKk. Porhandl., 1904, page 73 and Herzog, 
Jahreshefte des k. k. Osterreichischen archaeol. Instituts, 1903. 
page j 1 5. 

<; Phot, by Lowy, Vienna. It is a pity that this certainly 
genuine work is not contained in the 'complete' edition of 
'Tizians Gi u Fischl, Stuttgart-Leipzig, 1904. 








' i I . I . : 1:11 liu ri.,1 li isl I'M All I I 'lit 

zAn Unknown Fresco-worJ^ by Guido Reni 

Assunta picture, and above all his Triumph of 
Venus in the Prado, formerly in the Villa Ludovisi 
in Rome, were the models imitated by Guido, as 
well as later on by Nicholas Poussin, Francesco 
Fiammingo, 43 and Rubens. 

Besides, the direct influence of classical art is 
evident. As the ' horae ' in the Aurora picture are 
copied from the famous Borghese dancers, 49 so he 
imitated in a picture representing the infant Christ 
asleep over the Holy Cross 60 a statuette of that 
familiar type well known to the art historian by the 
story of Michael Angelo's pseudo-antique Cupid. 
One of our putti — the left one in No. 3 — resem- 
bles in its position one of those frequently occurring 
' hypnos ' types, with crossed legs, slightly-bent 
head, TrpoXofilu cV^on*, as Philostratus says in his 
' Comus.' 

Maybe that Guido also strove to emulate 
Raphael's, or rather say Giulio Romano's putti, 
holding the symbols of the different gods in the 
pendentives of the Farnesina hall. 

In any case, it is a fact that this artistic problem 
occupied him more than ever in these years. He 
revels in ever-new variations of the motive as well 
in S. Silvia Madre 61 as in the Quirinal chapel and, 
after his precipitate return to Bologna, in the 
Palazzo Zani. 62 All these frescoes, some pictures, 
like the youthful Bacchus in the Pitti, that merry 
putto in the Dresden Gallery, or the recumbent 
child with the flying bird once in Diisseldorf, 53 
some of Guido's own engravings 64 and of his 
drawings engraved by other artists, 65 form together 
with the Rospigliosi putti a distinct group in 
Guido's work, which shows by its serene bright- 
ness and harmonious beauty the closest connexion 
with the Aurora : pictures of a happy springtime 
in his life which he has never surpassed nor even 

* 8 Cf. Passeri, pages S6 and 92, Bellori, Vite dei pittori, etc., 
page 160. One of Poussin's drawings after the ' Triumph of 
Venus ' is kept in the Albertina. 

- 19 This relief, called ' the most beautiful of the whole world ' 
by Winckelmann (cf. Iusti.\Vinckelmann,2nded., Vol.11, page 20), 
had already inspired Mantegna in his Parnasse, Raphael in his 
drawing for the Chigi monument in S. Maria del Popolo (cf. 
E. Loewy, Archivio storico dell' arte, Serie II, anno II, fasc. IV), 
his pupils in the Vatican loggia (cf. Dollmayr, Werkstatte 
Raphaels, page 74), etc., etc. 

5U I know the picture only by the numerous engravings. A 
similar one with a skull and an hour-glass has been engraved by 
Fr. Pilsen under the title ' Dallacuna alia tomba eun breve passo.' 

41 Phot. Moscioni Nos. 4,412, 4,413 ; Anderson 2,308-2,314. 

51 The original is in the Albertina collection, and bears an old 
ink inscription : ' Guido Reni fee. in Bologna.' The motive is 
taken from classical paintings. Cf. for instance Bellori, Sepol- 
cro dei Nasoni, plate No. 26. 

53 Engraved by P. T. Rutten, 1785. The Dusseldorf gallery is 
now in the Pinacothek in Munich, but this picture is not 
contained in the catalogue. A similar one was reproduced by 
Felice Guasconi in stipple engraving after an original ' inaedibus 
Andreae Taliacarnii patritii Genuensis.' 

i4 Bartsch.Nos. 12, 13, and 18. From the last once very popular 
print exist two etats and a lot of copies. I know one by Flaminio 
Torre, one signed G. R. F. with a landscape (perhaps a third 
itat), a reverse copy without the landscape, another by Stefano 
della Bella, one by Brechtel (exc. Fred, de Widt). 

55 Lorenzo Loli B. 20-24 '■ El. Sirani B. 19, 23, 26 ; Geron. Rossi 

Preparatory drawings for these frescoes I cannot 
assign, although they may still exist. In Viennese 
collections there are none. That they once existed 
is proved by two engravings by Ciamberlano 66 
(Bartsch, Nos. 21 and 27) and one by Scarsello 
(Bartsch, No. 5). The former belong to a series 
representing angels with the instruments of the 
Passion. 57 Two of them are signed ' Guid. Ren. 
inv.,' and directly copied from two of the Rospi- 
gliosi putti (B. 21 after the left figure in the 
group Cesio No. 3, B. 27 after the left figure in 
Cesio No. 6). Scarsello's print (B. 5) shows some 
putti in different decorative and playful positions. 
The one on the extreme right is composed with 
regard to the boundary line of a pendentive, still 
visible in the engraving. Very probably the 
original was an afterwards rejected drawing for 
the Rospigliosi loggia. 68 

In any case, these engravings, together with 
those of Cesio, Passeri's already quoted judgement, 
and the fact that Guido's paintings alone were 
spared in the great restoration of the palace under 
Cardinal Bentivoglio, prove the high esteem in 
which this work was held by the contemporaries. 
The later oblivion was surely the effect of mere 
outward circumstances. Indeed, the estimation 
of works such as the Aurora and our putti is not 
subject to any future change of taste. There 
were always, and there will always be, people who 
enjoy the innate grace and sweet beauty of such 
creations, but there were always people, and there 
are still, whose longing for individual reality, life, 
and strength is too eager to allow them to enjoy 
those 'divine ideas' and 'celestial visions' of the 
' Bolognese Apelles 'which enraptured the Cavalier 
Marini, and inspired some of his most affected 
sonnets. I do not believe that Michael Angelo da 
Caravaggio wanted to kill Guido Reni, but he 
heartily despised him, both as a man and an 
artist. Indeed, this highly gifted man was as 
peevish and conceited as a woman, and we must 
not forget that contemporary gossip made fun of 
his chastity. 69 

The most ardent admirers and most faithful 
followers of his art and taste were two women, 
Artemisia Gentileschi and Elisabetta Sirani. The 
master himself, genial and charming as he was, 
had not much of a man about him. 

5° Luca C. da Urbino ; the dates of his life are not known. 
He worked in Rome between 1599 and 1641. 

5 ^ Title: "Jesus Christi domini nostri passionis mysteria ' ; 
a very popular devotional subject, which draws its origin from 
the Speculum humanae salvationis ; in the fifteenth century 
frequently employed in pictures of the Virgin, for instance in the 
pseudo-Mantegnesque Madonna of the Berlin Gallery, and in an 
altarpiece of the Murano studio in S. Pantaleone in Venice. 

59 Malvasia 2. II, 24, already tells us that G's. drawings were 
eagerly coveted by other artists, especially by engravers : ' Gli 
tagliarono all' aqua forte le prime bozze, capaci di pentimento e 
mutazione . . . senza fargliene un semplice motto.' 

59 Malvasia, 2nd ed., II, 53, ' fu communemente tenuto per ver- 
gine . . . essendosi sempre mostrato un marmo alia presenza 
e contemplazione di tante Celle giovani, che le servirono di 




I AST year the disposal of Mr. 

• Orrocks's Collection was the 

1/ "V^OvVwVhief feature of the season for 

(1 /(3\Lij /students and collectors of the 
I' l\>w_^53'( wor l <s °f the British School. 
4n a note on that Collection 
r in The Burlington Magazine 
for July 1904, an attempt was 
madetofacesomeof the critical problems suggested. 
The Huth and Tweedmouth sales coinciding 
with the exhibition of Mr. Staats Forbes's pic- 
tures at the Grafton Gallery have brought to- 
gether for the moment an even more important 
aggregate of pictures, and in spite of the prevalent 
depression of business the prices obtained have in 
many cases been the highest on record. 

In no case was the advance in value more 
remarkable than in that of Hogarth. Raeburn 
was helped by the fashionable craze for eighteenth- 
century female portraits. Morland instinctively 
appeals to the English mind in virtue of the sub- 
jects which he painted, but the most high-priced 
of the Hogarths was The Assembly at Wanstead 
House (Tweedmouth, 23), which had neither the 
alluring graces of pretty femininity, nor the 
sporting interest of a picture of pigs and donkeys. 
It must therefore have triumphed by sheer fine 
painting and rich colour. The Taste in High Life 
(Huth, 104) was slightly more dry in texture, 
but was so splendidly typical of Hogarth the 
satirist as to deserve even more honour than it 
received. Two other pictures attributed to Ho- 
garth presented really difficult problems. The 
Beggars' Opera (Huth, 103) was one of several 
versions of the subject, another of which had 
appeared in the Capel Cure sale (84). The Capel 
Cure picture, though the principal figures were 
drastically repainted, was a most characteristic 
specimen of Hogarth's work, and the Huth pic- 
ture did not emerge well from the comparison, 
since, though in fine condition, the handling 
throughout was less characteristic and emphatic. 
Hogarth is said to have painted the picture in 
1729, that is say a year later than the ripe and 
full-blooded Assembly at Wanstead House. How 
comes it then that the Dudley Woodbridge and 
Captain Holland (Huth, 105), which is later 
still, being dated 1730, should be so timid, stiff, 
and immature ? The picture is evidently a 
work of Hogarth's time, and has a short pedigree, 
but we may wonder how his broad and summary 
brush could have tickled up those polished pink 
faces, and worked throughout with so much hesi- 
tation and tightness. The actual signature was 
not convincing, so the question of the picture's 
authorship ought perhaps to remain an open one. 

The landscapes by Gainsborough were not 
important. The Bay Scene from the Cartwright 

collection (100) was similar to the exquisite oval 
picture in Sir Charles Tennant's possession, but 
appeared to have been finished by a looser and 
weaker hand, perhaps that of Gainsborough 
Dupont. The Gainsborough portraits, however, 
in the Huth collection were magnificent. That 
of the handsome dancer, Mr. Vestris, which by 
the courtesy of the fortunate owner, Mr. Asher 
Wertheimer, is reproduced as frontispiece to the 
present number of The Burlington Magazine, 1 
rightly took precedence among them. It was 
rumoured that the portrait had been cut down to 
its present size and shape, and that the back- 
ground had been retouched, but the painting itself 
was the best rebuff to its detractors, being at once 
a singularly fine example of Gainsborough's 
feeling for male beauty, and a most perfect and 
masterly picture. If Mr. Vestris illustrated 
Gainsborough's most intimate and peculiar gifts 
the other portraits in the Huth sale served equally 
well to illustrate his variety. As the chalk draw- 
ing (8) summed up the opulent graces of the 
Duchess of Devonshire, so the Mrs. Burroughs 
(99) summed up the frail nobility of old age ; 
while in the portrait of an exceedingly formidable 
lady (97) the artist faced one of those problems 
with which Mr. Sargent has made us familiar, the 
turning of some amazing sitter into a fine picture 
by accepting and insisting upon awkward facts. 

Lack of space makes it impossible to discuss 
the numerous works by or attributed to Reynolds. 
The noticeable resemblance to Cotes in the 
portraits of Miss Anne Dutton (Tweedmouth, 44) 
and Miss Milles (Cartwright, 84) may perhaps be 
due to the employment of Peter Toms, who was 
drapery painter to both masters. No better 
instance of the difference in value which fashion 
has made between male and female portraits could 
be given than the fact that the splendid portrait of 
Reynolds himself (Huth, 124) fetched far less than 
the studio piece Lady Amelia Spencer (125), or 
the genuine but much restored version of Sim- 
plicity (Tweedmouth, 45), costing hardly more 
than the vivid study in the Cartwright collection 
(112). One other Reynolds portrait, that of Mrs. 
Martin (Tweedmouth, 45), deserved attention on 
account of its close resemblance in style to the 
fine three-quarter length of a lady in a white dress, 
which formed one of the attractions and the prob- 
lems of Messrs. Agnew's show of old masters in 
(if I remember rightly) 1903. Its technique was so 
like that of Romney that the work was ascribed to 
him by many authorities, but the Tweedmouth 
Mrs. Martin indicates that Messrs. Agnew's attri- 
bution to Reynolds was correct. 

The examples of Romney, Raeburn, and Hopp- 
ner were almost all well-known and characteristic 
1 Page 256. 




Recently-Exhibited Pictures of the British School 

works. Since they have received quite their due 
share of appreciation the)' need not be discussed 
here. The finely coloured if rather weakly drawn 
royal group by Stothard (Huth, 126), with one or 
two smaller works in the Tweedmouth sale, such 
as the fresh and pleasant sketch of two children 
by Allan Ramsay (40), which might almost have 
been the work of some good contemporary French- 
man, and a charming work by Kneller (27), were 
among the best of the less important things. 
The delightful picture by Cosway and Hodges (22) 
had a certain interest apart from its attractiveness. 
Hodges was the best of Wilson's pupils, as the 
astonishingly modern-looking landscape might in- 
dicate ; the sky, indeed, actually anticipates 
Bonington in its freedom, and there can be little 
doubt that his works frequently pass under the 
name of his master. The peculiar use of black 
touches or black outlines in his foregrounds is 
characteristic of his work, which lacks the ' fat- 
ness ' of pigment found in Wilson, and more 
nearly resembles water-colour painting. Hodges 
must have been over forty when he painted the 
Tweedmouth picture, which thus represents his 
mature style; the View of Ludlow at South 
Kensington, dated some ten years earlier, shows a 
much closer approach to the manner of Wilson. 
Morland has rarely shown to such advantage in 
the sale room, and the high prices paid were paid 
for specimens that might be matched but could 
hardly be surpassed. It was interesting to note, 
however, that a singularly perfect specimen of 
Ibbetson (Huth, 108) was hardly distinguishable 
in technique from a highly-finished little Morland 
(Huth, 117) which hung near it. 

The appearance of three absolutely genuine 
works by the elder Crome in the Huth collection 
was something of an event, for Crome has been so 
industriously imitated that at least a hundred 
spurious pictures come into the sale room for 
every authentic one. Of these works the most 
important by far was the large Landscape with 
Figures (Huth, 44), which by the courtesy of the 
owners, Messrs. Thomas Agnew and Sons, I am 
permitted to reproduce. 2 Since these notes were 
made it is said that doubt has been cast upon the 
picture in certain quarters. Doubt was seldom 
less justified. Even the one fault of this elaborate 
picture tells in its favour, for its slightly cold and 
academic air is as absolutely characteristic of 
Crome's mind at one period of his development 
as the actual handling everywhere is characteristic 
of his brush. The picture must date from about 
the year 181 5, when Crome was for a time diverted 
from his broader natural manner by having his 
thoughts directed to Hobbema and the Dutch 
masters, a diversion which, to judge from his 
etchings, must have begun before his visit to Paris 
in 1814. Of this phase of Crome's art, which is 
unrepresented in the National Gallery, Mr. Huth's 
5 Plate I, page 325. 

picture is a thoroughly typical specimen. The 
View of Norwich (45) contained some fine passages, 
but its effect was damaged by a certain pettiness 
in the treatment of the sky, and it was a far less 
attractive picture than the View on the Yare (46), 
a work of similar date and technique to the famous 
Winimillva the National Gallery. No. 46 was one 
of the most charming specimens of Crome's work 
on a small scale that exists, blending the breadth 
of his early style with the delicacy of his mature 
one, and designed with that peculiar feeling for 
spaciousness that gives him his lofty place among 
landscape painters. 

No Crome in the Staats-Forbes collection could 
be quite compared with this for quality, though 
several of the works attributed to him were ex- 
cellent. Taking them in order, we begin with 
the Norgate Chrome (sic), No. 288, a genuine 
picture covered with a needless amount of varnish. 
No. 294 was one of several versions of the subject, 
superior to any I have seen, but still heavy in 
effect and petty in touch, though quite skilful in 
places. It was possibly a work by John Berney 
Crome done under his father's eye from one of his 
designs. The Mousehold House (296) was a puz- 
zling picture, probably executed by Crome about 
1S06, since it shows traces both of the style of 
Wilson and of pictures like Gainsborough's Forest. 
No. 297 was also genuine, and looked like a latish 
work done from an earlier study in the Lake 
District. No. 302, however, was not a Crome at 
all, but an excellent and typical example of Stark. 
Nor was it possible to accept No. 322 as coming 
from Crome's hand, although it appeared to be a 
work of the Norwich school, and might well have 
been painted by some such artist as Middleton. 
No. 329, too, Front of the New Mills, Norwich, 
was obviously not by Crome, but was an early 
work of David Hodgson adapted from the large 
etching of the subject. Hodgson's style is easily 
recognizable, and several of his works, mostly 
later in date than the Staats-Forbes picture, were 
sold at Christie's a couple of months ago. No. 334 
was a sound and genuine sketch of Crome's last 
years, but the Landscape with Windmill (335) 
seemed to be an excellent early work by that most 
persistent of Crome forgers, the famous ' Old 
Paul,' who in youth was as capable as he was 
afterwards prolific. 

In dealing with Crome it is necessary to keep 
dates in mind, because his style within certain 
limits varied greatly. Such a precaution is less 
necessary in the case of minor men ; though with 
Stark the difference in quality between a fine early 
picture such as the Loading Timber (289), and 
later works, such as No. 305, is immense. No. 290 
was a very good specimen of Stark's chief fol- 
lower, S. D. Colkitt, signed and dated 1801, and 
painted in collaboration with Bristow, who was 
responsible for three other pictures (306, 307, 308) 
on the same wall. The single work by George 


Recently-Exhibited Pictures of the British School 

Vincent (295) completed the tale of the Norwich 
pictures with the exception of Cotman's Cottage at 
St. Albans, a beautiful piece of painting which, as 
it has already been discussed and reproduced in 
The Burlington Magazine (Jan. 1904), need not 
be described again. 

A somewhat troublesome problem is suggested 
by No. 301, described in the catalogue A 71 Autumn 
Evening, R. P. Bonnington (sic). This work ap- 
pears to be identical with one which was engraved 
by R. Wallis many years ago, and published in 
the Art Journal as a work of Turner with the title 
On the Thames. In both print and picture there is 
the same air of heaviness and the same poor 
drawing of branches and foliage. In favour of the 
ascription to Turner the clever painting of the 
house, the sky, and one or two passages in the 
foreground might be quoted, in addition to the 
fact that Wallis had engraved much of Turner's 
genuine work, and should have been able to tell 
an original from an imitation. On the other hand 
though Turner's workmanship varies considerably, 
and the dullness of the picture is therefore not in- 
compatible with genuineness, especially in an early 
work, the structureless drawing of the trees is a 
fatal objection to Turner's claim, and since the 
whole appears to be the work of one hand, the 
idea of a sketch by Turner finished by another 
painter cannot be entertained. The very change 
of title and authorship shows that the ascription 
to Turner was not regarded as a certainty even 
after the work was engraved, and it is easy to under- 
stand that an engraver if in doubt would not care 
to publish his doubts at the risk of losing a com- 
mission and displeasing his employers. If the 
picture be regarded as an early work by Callcott 
all these difficulties vanish, its merits and defects 
being at once explained. 

Two fine sketches in the Huth sale represented 
Constable's art at its best. The Dedham Water- 
mill (39) was of course a study for the picture at 
South Kensington, and the replica in the posses- 
sion of Mr. T. Horrocks Miller. The former of 
these was painted in 1820, and this sketch may 
therefore be dated a year or two earlier, a date 
with which its style exactly corresponds. In 
virtue of its swiftness of handling it has a freshness 
and spirit which are lacking in both the finished 
works. Still more radiant was the rather later 
study for the Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's 
Garden at South Kensington, one of the very 
finest of Constable's large sketches, with a 
sky of quite unusual beauty and refinement of 

None of the pictures attributed to Constable in 
the Staats-Forbes collection approached the same 
standard. The Landscape (291) was a genuine 
sketch from nature, apparently near Langham, 
and dating about the year 1813. The Surrey Hills 
(293), however, was not Constable's at all, but 
by some such painter as Willcock or F. W. Watts. 


No. 311 Dedham Vale, a genuine sketch by Con- 
stable, had been finished by another hand. The 
whole of the central portion was an excellent and 
typical piece of his work, and those acquainted 
with his handling will find it easy to trace where 
this beginning has been supplemented to make a 
saleable composition. The next pictures were 
still more unlucky. No. 312 was obviously copied 
from the well-known Lucas engraving. The Loch 
(sic) between Bcccles and Bungay (313) was a variant 
of the picture in the Diploma Gallery, which 
represents the lock and bridge by Flatford Mill, 
thirty miles or more from Beccles, and with the 
whole county of Suffolk lying between. The 
Diploma picture hung in the Winter Exhibition 
of 1902-3, side by side with Sir Charles Tennant's 
version, somewhat to the disadvantage of the 
latter work. Yet the Staats-Forbes picture would 
suffer even more by such a comparison, and must 
without hesitation be ascribed to James Webb. 
That versatile painter, rather later in life, was 
responsible for another picture in the Grafton 
Gallery, the Sunset (326), ascribed (Heaven knows 
why !) to Creswick. Webb's imitations of Turner 
are so numerous and so well known to collectors 
that the use of Creswick's name is inexplicable. 
Nor need the two remaining works given to Con- 
stable detain us since No. 314 was merely a poor 
imitation of Muller, and the Highgate Church (315) 
a modern sketch painted at least half a century 
after Constable's death. 3 

These notes, since they deal largely with pic- 
tures whose attributions seem to need reconsidera- 
tion, naturally tend to convey a pessimistic im- 
pression of the collections with which they deal, 
and of the Staats-Forbes collection in particular, 
since its main strength lay in French and Dutch 
pictures, and works by British masters formed 
only a small part of it. Perhaps the most curious 
feature of these exhibitions is the absence of any 
good picture by Turner, the most prolific of all 
our painters, and the appearance of no less than 
seven works by Crome, who was one of the least 
prolific, although, of course, forgeries and school- 
works bearing his name are common enough. 
Messrs. Colnaghi's admirable exhibition of Eng- 
lish pictures contained nothing by either master, 

3 Two or three pictures in the sale at Christie's on June 8 may 
also be noticed. The Head of a Gentleman ascribed to Holbein (82) 
was, of course, a portrait of the artist himself painted apparently 
a year or two before the miniatures in the Buccleuch and Hert- 
ford House collections. Though lacking the supreme delicacy 
of Holbein's personal touch, this admirable painting must at 
least have been executed in his immediate entourage, and was, 
therefore, a document of no small value. The picture given to 
Cotman (No, 138) was identical in style with those enumerated 
by a writer in the Athenaeum (January 31, 1903) as the work of 
J.J. Cotman, the second son of the famous painter of that name. 
As Cotman's work is also confused with that of his son Miles, 
the destinctive manner of both sons has to be remembered. 
The Farm Buildings near Norwich given to Crome (155) was 
similar in design to a picture formerly at Norwich, painted, it 
was said, by one of Crome's numerous amateur pupils and 
retouched by him — a statement which may explain several of 
the small pictures with which Crome is now credited. 


Recently-Exhibited Pictures of the British School 

so the interesting, if unusual, street scene Win- 
chester Cross, dating apparently from about 1800, 
at the Carlton Gallery, and the graceful sketch in 
Messrs. Shepherds' show (which contained also an 
important landscape by Cotman) seem to be the 
only oil-paintings by the greatest of English land- 
scape painters which have come into the market 
recently. Among the interesting portraits at 
Messrs. Colnaghi's, that of Mrs. Irwin by Reynolds 
deserved more than a casual word of praise. The 

fading of the carnations had reduced this exquisite 
picture to a uniform silvery tone, without in the 
least impairing its charms — charms so subtle that 
the reproduction l hardly does them complete 
justice. The picture, indeed, in its quiet way was 
far more delightful and perfect than the more pre- 
tentious works by Reynolds which have recently 
been received with such a flourish of trumpets in 
the sale-room. 

* Hate II, page 329. 


An important acquisition has lately been made for 
the Berlin Gallery, the more important because 
the paintings in question are among those which, 
as one would have supposed, the authorities of 
the Louvre at Paris would have strained every 
nerve to possess, and fragments of them are in 
our own National Gallery. Dr. Bode has secured 
for Berlin, at the price, it is said, of 400,000 marks, 
the two famous paintings by Simon Marmion, 
lately in the possession of the Princess of Wied, 
and formerly in that of King William II of the 

These two paintings, which represent the life of 
St. Bertin, were painted for the abbey of St. 
Bertin at St. Omer in Picardy, and formed part 
of an altarpiece the central portion of which was 
probably carved in wood. They are of the ut- 
most importance in the history of painting on 
that indefinable borderline between France and 

At some period the two finials, containing the 
upper portion of each painting, were sawn off in 
order to make the remainder of a more amenable 
shape. These two fragments passed into the 
hands of M. Edmond Beaucousin, at Paris, and 
were purchased for the National Gallery in i860. 
Those lovers of art who are not actuated by the 
mere desire for possession will perhaps hope that 
the two fragments may some day be rejoined to 
the main portions of the paintings. Meanwhile 
they will remain in the National Gallery 'to point 
a moral and adorn a tale.' 


The Exhibition of Historical Portraits at Oxford, 
which has just closed, has been connected with 
the following event of interest. 

For some time past the Curators of the Bodleian 
Library at Oxford have been engaged, so far as 
the limited means at their disposal would permit, 
in repairing the valuable collection of historical 
portraits in the gallery of the Bodleian, which had 
been somewhat unduly neglected in past years. 

Among the interesting portraits lately exhibited 
at Oxford was the fine full-length portrait of 
Dr. John Wallis, Savilian Professor of Geometry, 

painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller for Mr. Samuel 
Pepys, and presented by Mr. Pepys himself to the 
University of Oxford. The expense of restoring 
this portrait, which Kneller himself esteemed as 
one of his best productions, and its frame in the 
original silvered treatment, as given by Mr. Pepys, 
has been defrayed by the members of the Samuel 
Pepys Club, in pious memory of Mr. Pepys. 

The sale of Books and Manuscripts at Sotheby's 
on June 3 included a paper roll signed at head 
and foot by Henry VIII, and containing a list 
of New Year's gifts presented to that monarch 
on January 1, 1539. Among the persons who 
presented gifts are two painters : Hans Holbein 
and Luke Horenbaultor Hornebolt of Ghent, and 
the medallist and factor of musical instruments, 
Michael Mercator of Venloo, of whose history 
and works I published an account in 1872. ' These 
are the entries : — 

'By Hanse Holbyne, a table of the pictour of the princes 

• By Mighell Marcator, two gunnes.' 

' By Lewcas, paynter, a skrene to set afore the fyre, standing 
uppon a fote of woode, and the skrene blewe worsted.' 

On the reverse the king's gifts are enumerated: 
' To Hanse Holbyne, paynter, a gilte cruse with a couer, 

Cornelis, weing x oz. qft.' 
' To Mighell Marcator, a gilte cuppe with a couer, Morgan, 
weing xxiiij oz. di. dl. qrt. Item, a gilte glasse with a 
couer, Cornelis, priz. xxv oz. qft di., and a gilte sake, 
Cornelis, weing, xxij s. qft., som. lxxij oz. qft.' 
' To Lucas, paynter, a gilte cruse with a couer, Cornelis, 
weing x oz di.' 

W. II. J. w. 


The interesting portrait of Augustus Welby Pugin, 
which is reproduced on page 333, was recently 
exhibited at Messrs. Shepherd's Gallery, and, 
having been brought to Mr. Lionel Cust's notice, 
it was purchased for the National Portrait Gallery. 
The portrait represents the great architect at a 
comparatively early age ; he can hardly be more 
than twenty-one at the most, and may even be 
younger since he was a man who always looked 
older than he actually was. If we suppose that 
1 ' Le Beffroi,' iv, 98-110, Bruges, 1872. 

D D 


A Tortrait of Augustus TVelby Tugin 

the portrait was painted when Pugin was about 
twenty-one and that it was painted from life its 
date would be about 1833. It is just possible that 
the portrait is a posthumous one, but this hypo- 
thesis is unlikely for several reasons. In the first 
place, Mrs. Welby Pugin, who has survived her 
husband for more than half a century, had 
never heard of the portrait until she saw it in 
Messrs. Shepherd's Gallery. Had it been post- 
humous, it is most unlikely that it would have 
been painted without her knowledge ; on the other 
hand, if it was painted from life it would have been 
painted several years before she made her hus- 
band's acquaintance and some fourteen years 
before she married him, so that her ignorance of 
its existence would be explained. Moreover the 
portrait is far too striking a likeness to make it 
probable that it was painted from memory, and 
there does not seem to have been any existing 
portrait from which the artist could have worked. 
Further, an examination of the picture makes it 
almost certain that the inscription was painted 
subsequently to the portrait ; this, however, might 
have been the case even if the portrait were post- 

The picture is painted with remarkable skill and 
taste, and the head stands out in bold relief against 
the red background. Nothing is known of the 
history of the picture or of its painter, but it has 
been attributed with considerable probability to 
the late Mr. George Richmond, R.A. 2 Not only 
does the picture show resemblances to his known 
work, but the fact that he was a personal friend of 
Pugin makes it quite likely that he painted his 
portrait. Richmond, by the way, was Pugin's 
senior by three years, but he died only in 1896, 
whereas Pugin died in 1852. The only other por- 
trait of Pugin in existence is that by the late 
Mr. Herbert, R.A., now in Mrs. Pugin's posses- 
sion, and it is very satisfactory that the nation has 
secured so interesting a memorial of the man to 
whom modern English architecture owes more 
than to any other. The inscription along the top 
of the picture reads : Augustus : welby : north- 
more : pugin : r.i. p. On either side of the 
head are the dates of Pugin's birth and death, and 
the arms of the Pugin family. 

R. E. D. 


In the March number of The Burlington 
Magazine M. Philippe Auquier published four 
paintings by a little-known Marseillaise artist of 
the eighteenth century, Francoise Duparc. In 
the accompanying article he mentioned the tradi- 
tion that she had done the better part of her work 
in London, but threw doubt on the legend, and 
appealed to English collectors for any traces of her 

2 Sir William Richmond, however, has no knowledge that his 
father painted a portrait of Pugin, and there seems to be no 
record of it. 


activity in this country. In the April number 
Mr. A. B. Chamberlain drew attention to the 
appearance in exhibition catalogues of works by 
' Mrs. Dupart ' (a possible misprint) and by 
' — Duparc,' and the editors renewed M. Auquier's 

It occurred to me that there was a very close 
resemblance between the Marseilles museum pic- 
tures and the head of an old woman, the author- 
ship of which had puzzled its owner (Mr. Henry 
Tonks) and his friends. This picture was bought 
at a sale in London a few years ago, and had an 
obviously fanciful label attached to it, 'The Artist's 
Mother, by Hogarth.' I have compared it care- 
fully with the photographs from which the blocks 
were made for this Magazine, and so far as one 
can judge without seeing the Marseilles originals, 
the case for the identity of the painter with the 
author of those pictures is convincing. The general 
conception of portrait-subject, the character and 
expression, pose and dress, agree; the treatment of 
forms closely corresponds throughout, and also the 
illumination, which is the same in thefivepictures in 
its disposition, and in the peculiarity of the reflected 
lights. The colour, so far as M. Auquier's notes 
go, also corresponds, blue ribbon and white dress, 
and the look of the surfaces. The background is 
green, and the colour has the effect of simple 
glazing over an underpainting. The resemblance 
of this head to the old woman in Plate I of 
M. Auquier's article 3 is so close that they may be 
studies of the same model. Mr. Tonks's picture, 
if accepted as a Duparc, does not of course prove 
that the lady worked in England; but it gives some 
colour to the story, and may possibly be the ' Old 
Woman ' of Mr. Chamberlain's citation. In any 
case, its accomplishment and shrewd character 
would give Francoise Duparc a respectable place 
among women painters. D. S. MacColl. 


The two predecessors of this Exhibition, which 
promises to be a highly important affair, took place 
at Munich in 1876 and 1888. 

Originally every manner of artist was at first a 
craftsman of some kind, and he had to pass through 
all the purgatory of apprenticeship, entrance into 
a guild, etc., before he could appear as master. 

It was only after the so-called higher arts, 
painting and sculpture, were entirely cut adrift 
from architecture that the relationship between 
the crafts and art was gradually dissolved. The 
craftsman went along one path and the artist 
along his; each had his own system of education 
and his proper schools. If this division resulted 
in some loss to the artist, it altogether ruined the 
working man's craft, for it finally left him altogether 
out of touch with art of any kind. When this 
became apparent a general movement arose with 
8 Vol. VI, page 479 (March 1905). 

6. P 

Third German Exhibition of ^Applied *Art 

the object of uniting the two factors, art and craft. 
Special academies and special museums were 
founded ; the expression Kunstgewerbe (literally 
Art-craft) was coined, and Applied Art was in 
everybody's mind. It was natural that at first 
one had recourse to imitating the old times when 
the union had not yet been disjointed, and it was 
also perhaps natural that people imitated models 
rather than the spirit. A new flood of German 
Renaissance Decoration ran over all Germany. 
What it achieved for better or for worse was shown 
at the 1S76 Exhibition. 

About the same time the great industrial era 
commenced, the age of steam developed into an 
age of electricity, and machine manufactory as 
opposed to handicraft became our emblem. The 
odium of the famous dictum passed upon our 
practical industries at Philadelphia in 1876, 
1 cheap and poor,' has been thoroughly wiped out 
in the course of the last quarter of the nineteenth 
century, but it seems to have settled upon the 
art-industries. At the point to which Applied 
Art had been raised, by 1876 it was delivered over, 
bound hand and foot, to the machine manufactory. 
The 1888 Exhibition disclosed the fact that not the 
slightest progress had been made except in the 
direction of cheapness. This had entailed the 
ruin of public taste. Perfect stagnation had 
ensued ; because there was no longer any demand 
for true handicraft, our artists turned entirely aside 
from it, and the manufacturing trade had hunted 
to death the few ideas that had been handed over 
to them. 

The great revival of decorative art began with 
us in the middle of the nineties. The appearance 
of The Studio, which was welcomed in Germany 
as loudly as in England, had not a little to do 
with calling it forth, as should in justice be said. 
Within ten years a remarkable advance has been 
made. Evidence of this was given in the German 
exhibits at Paris 1900, Turin 1902, and St. Louis 
1904, but strangely enough, never as yet in 
Germany itself. The third German Exhibition 
of Applied Art, to take place at Dresden in 1906, 
will furnish occasion for this. 

It appears that this Exhibition is being most 
carefully prepared. There will be a historical 
department containing single masterpieces of han- 
dicraft, fine bronzes, bookbindings, porcelain, etc. 
of former times. A second feature will be a large 
display of farm-house rooms, showing the rural 
art of the different provinces. A third set of rooms 
will show what has been done in the way of 
education : the principles which govern different 
schools of Applied Art will be laid down, and the 
results attained will be shown. The very large 
central hall of the exhibition buildings will be 
divided up into two chapels, one arranged for 
Catholic, the other for Protestant worship. The 
field of religious art is perhaps the one which can 
show the least progress in Germany, because the 
authorities interested in it are the most conservative 
of people. If there has been perhaps some advance 
in church architecture within the past decade, 
there has been very little in the matter of church 
decoration. There is a wide field open here for 
improvement and new ideas in the interior equip- 
ment of churches, as well as in designs, for the 
manifold accessories of divine service. The prin- 
cipal exhibit will consist of a large number of 
completely furnished rooms, in which the principal 
artists of Germany, like Behrens, Riemerschmidt, 
Vandevelde, will display their talent, and the best 
executing firms (such as the ' Werkstaetten ' at 
Dresden, Munich, Stuttgart, etc.) their skill. It 
is proposed to arrange a series of shops, which 
will in themselves be models of decoration, and 
will contain such single products of Applied Art 
as cannot be arranged in one of the rooms, or are 
exhibited by specialist-artists. Finally, there will 
be also a department devoted to industrial art. It 
is intended to show here, besides the best products, 
the manner of their production. For example, 
the visitor will be able to follow the production of 
a picture post card in colours from the making 
of the original design down to the printing of a 
large edition. There will also be a mock cemetery 
to show new designs of tombstones and graveyard 

H. W. S. 



Gentlemen, — If picture-collectors would realize 
how easy it is to detect modern repaints and 
restorations, £4,000 would not have been paid at 
Christie's recently for Lord Tweedmouth's Sim- 
plicity formerly by Sir Joshua Reynolds, now not, 
except the general design and a portion of one 
hand ; nor £6,000 for Raeburn's portrait partially 
by himself, the rest, the larger part, by an unknown 
nineteenth or perhaps twentieth-century sign- 
painter. Lady Raeburn's portrait has been 

handled with more suavity than is customary 
among sign-painters, but is nevertheless largely 
repainted. The Countess of Bellamont startles 
with revelations of hitherto unknown methods in 
Sir Joshua Reynolds's treatment of shadows in 
drapery and other details, or have we here the 
same twentieth-century master ? 

It is most instructive to examine with a fairly 
strong hand-lens the surface of any retouched 
picture. It may be safely asserted that all genuine 
pictures of the Reynolds period are cracked, and 
a good glass will show up these cracks, and will 


Letter to the Editors 

also show clearly where they are covered, partly 
or entirely, by a new layer of paint. I have 
even seen a cracked re-painting under which the 
different cracks of the original paint could be 
discerned. Besides, this new paint is dead and 
opaque without the semi-transparency and lustre 
of old paint. An honest mend of a hole or a bad 

crack has the merit, under the lens, of enhancing 
the beauty of untouched parts. But the modern 
restorer is fiendish. To disguise mends he spreads 
his new paint far around, entirely careless of the 
priceless quality which he is obliterating for the 
sake of a temporary smugness. 

Christiana J. Herringham. 


In the Auction Room 
While European sales of art objects are divided 
between London and Paris the centre for the sales 
in the United States is New York. Important 
sales of prints are occasionally held at the Thomas 
Galleries in Philadelphia, but otherwise the scat- 
tering collections that are brought to the hammer 
in that city or in Boston are scarcely worth men- 
tioning. The season of 1904-1905 has been a 
notable one owing to the fact that three important 
private collections of paintings were dispersed 
under the auspices of the American art galleries in 
New York — the Waggaman, the Kauffman, and 
the King. Five dealers risked the chances of the 
auction room — Fischhof, Ehrich, Brandus, and 
Prinz, at the Fifth Avenue Art Galleries, and 
Blakeslee at the American Art Galleries. Groups 
of paintings by the following deceased American 
painters were sold : Robert C. Minor, C. Morgan, 
Mcllhenney, Edwin Lord Weeks, and Kruseman 
van Elten, at the American Art Galleries, and 
Peter Rudell at the Fifth Avenue Art Galleries. 

Collections other than paintings that have been 
sold during the past season at the American Art 
Galleries include the art objects belonging to John 
Jay Gilbert, of Baltimore, the wonderful collection 
of Oriental art objects belonging to Mr. Thomas 
Waggaman, of Washington, the Carter collection 
of etchings and engravings, the furniture which 
formed part of the King collection, and the large 
and varied collections of the late Dr. Joseph 
Wiener, which included prints, medals, coins, 
bric-a-brac, and paintings. Among the dealers' 
sales in this line were the Yamanaka collection of 
Oriental art objects, the Matsuki collection of 
Japanese armour, the Benguiat textiles, and the 
A. D. Vorce collection of Oriental art. 

The art objects dispersed through the Fifth 
Avenue Art Galleries include the Persian Govern- 
ment exhibit from the St. Louis Exposition, 
several groups of Japanese art objects, furniture 
from Ollivier of Paris, and from Herter of New 
York, a group of rugs, and some antique glass 
and other art objects collected by Azeez Khayat, 
a dealer. 

On the whole the prices realized were good, 
the highest figure being $40,200 paid by Herman 
Schaus at the Waggaman sale for the painting 
Sheep Coming out of the Forest, by Anton Mauve. 
A beaker-shaped vase of the Kiang-Hsi period was 
bought by Mr. W. Williams for $2,500, and the 


highest price among the art objects was realized 
when Mr. Charles L. Freer of Detroit paid 
$3,100 for a celebrated Japanese screen. The 
nine afternoon and three evenings of the Wagga- 
man sale realized $341,538. Next in importance 
was the David H. King sale, when seventy paint- 
ings brought $201,035, ar, d with the furniture and 
art objects the total reached was $218,915. The 
painting which brought the highest price was a 
portrait of the Countess D'Argenson, by Nattier, 
for which J. D. Ichenhausen paid $18,000. 

At the Carnegie Institute of Pittsburg, the per- 
manent collection is in place in the building 
erected a year ago to accommodate the Depart- 
ment of Fine Arts during the construction of the 
large wing of the Institute, which will contain 
galleries devoted to this department and to the 
scientific museum. 

These temporary quarters consist of three well- 
lighted galleries, where about sixty paintings are 
hung. Among the important canvases is Edwin 
A. Abbey's Penance of Eleanor, Duchess of Gloucester, 
rich in colour and well composed ; The Wreck, a 
powerful canvas by Winslow Homer, painted in 
1896 and purchased as the beginning of the 
Chronological Collection, established by a deed of 
trust from Mr. Carnegie, and intended to repre- 
sent the progress of painting in America. 

The collection is also strong in works by foreign 
contemporary painters. Among the French 
painters, Dagnan-Bouveret is represented by The 
Disciples at Emmaus, a large and important com- 
position presented to the Institute by Mr. and 
Mrs. Henry C. Frick of Pittsburg, and which 
was lent to Buffalo for the initial exhibition at 
the Albright Gallery. Bastien-Lepage, Chartran, 
Harpignies, Pissarro, Puvis de Chavannes, Raf- 
faelli, and others have each signed one or more 
good pictures. 

The next International Exhibition will be held 
from the first week in November to January 1, 
1906. The Jury, as usual, is selected by votes of 
the exhibitors at the last annual exhibition, and 
this year will meet in Pittsburg on October 12. 

It is interesting to watch the growth of the art 
interests in the smaller cities. Cincinnati, for 
example, has a museum and art school which 

Art in America 

deserves' the highest praise. It was incorporated 
in 1881, and while no support is received from 
taxation, the Association, by reiving entirely upon 
the liberality of the citizens of Cincinnati, has 
erected an attractive building in Eden Park ; 
secured over 450 paintings for its permanent col- 
lection, together with casts and interesting ex- 
amples of the applied arts ; maintains an Art 
Academy where advanced instruction is given to 
over 400 students in drawing, painting, modelling, 
and design, and gives an annual exhibition of 
paintings by American artists that ranks as one of 
the best of the year. 

Much of the success of the Cincinnati Museum 
is due to the serious work of the director, J. H. 
Guest, and to the staff of the school which includes 
such prominent painters as Frank Duveneck, 
A.N.A., Thomas S. Noble, L. H. Meakin, and 
Vincent Nowottny and the sculptor, Clement 

The twelfth annual exhibition was held from 
May 20 to July 10, and proved of great help to 
the students as well as giving much pleasure to 
the residents of Cincinnati, whose appreciation for 
the best in art is being cultivated by such exhi- 

But the Museum is not the only art activity of 
Cincinnati. The twelfth annual exhibition of the 
Cincinnati Art Club was held from May 8 to 20, 
and among the seventy-eight paintings shown 
there was good work by H. F. Farny and J. H. 
Sharp, who paint Indians with knowledge of their 
ways; landscapes by L. H. Meakin; and figure 
pieces by Leo Mielziner, who is now a resident of 
Paris, where he takes an active interest in the 
American Art Association. 

The art department of the women's club holds 
frequent exhibitions, the last being a group of 
German lithographs. Two of the men's clubs 
have formed art associations for the purpose of 
purchasing paintings and other works of art to 
decorate their club houses. Emery H.Barton, Esq., 
is president of the Art Association of the Business 
Men's Club, and W. W. Taylor, Esq., of that of 
the Queen City Club. 

This brings us to another phase of the art 
activities of Cincinnati. Mr. Taylor is the 
manager of the Rookwood Pottery. Started in a 
small way by a woman, now Mrs. Bellany Storer, 
the making of this artistic pottery has made the 
city of Cincinnati famous throughout the world. 
While other potteries have been established in 
various parts of the United States and are turning 
out more or less artistic pieces, it is to Rookwood 
that we must turn not only for the earliest of our 
potteries but for constant advancement and im- 

provement. The making of tiles and other pieces 
for use in architecture and interior decoration 
gives an opportunity to do practical work, and 
recently most artistic mantelpieces, fountains, and 
vases have been produced. 


The most active of all our cities, outside of New 
York, is Chicago, and here the art interests are 
centred around the Art Institute. The permanent 
collections contain much that is of intrinsic as 
well as educational value, and we will study these 
collections in detail at some other time. In 
addition there is a constantly changing temporary 
collection, the last one for the season of 1904-5 
being the seventeenth annual exhibition of water- 
colours, pastels, and miniatures by American artists. 
There were 468 numbers, and it was the best ex- 
hibition of water-colours for the current year, with 
the possible exception of those seen at the Penn- 
sylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia. 

The Boston Water-colour Club sent several 
works by each of its members, and they were hung 
in groups in one of the large rooms. Charles 
Woodbury had three of his powerful marines so 
full of dash and the spirit of the waves ; seven 
canvases represented Maurice Prendergast, whose 
charm is in the management of many people seen 
as spots of colour; while two portraits by 
Mrs. Sarah C. Sears were delicately and sym- 
pathetically rendered. 

There were a good many works which have been 
made for reproductive purposes, and while they 
were extremely decorative they completely lacked 
the poetry and atmosphere which would make them 
suited as daily companions. To this decorative 
class belong Mother's Joy by Ellen W. Ahrens, 
and Edwin S. Clymer's glaring Decorative Land- 
scape. Of all this class of work possibly the most 
successful is a cover design by Violet Oakley, 
entitled Spring, wherein five figures are well 
grouped, and the entire colour scheme consists of 
cream and a soft grey-green. 

Hugh Breckenridge sent a delightful Autumn 
Hills, rich and glowing with the trees in their red 
and yellow gowns, yet it was not at all exag- 
gerated. Everett L. Bryant has a way of touching 
in his French Vaudeville characters which is truly 
fascinating ; the Banjo Players is carried farther 
than the majority. Mary Cassatt's pastel of a 
Mother and Child is one of her very good works ; 
while Sergeant Kendall in his Mother and Child 
gives us a composition simple, tender, and sym- 
pathetic. Of the three clear wash water-colours 
by Winslow Homer, the most satisfactory is his 
Hauling in Anchor, which is masterly of its kind. 



The Royal Academy and its Members. 1768- 
1830. By the late J. E. Hodgson, R.A., and 
Fred A. Eaton, M.A. Murray, 21s. net. 
It is unfortunate that the authors of this hand- 
some semi-official publication should have stopped 
at the year 1830, and have devoted so much space 
to biographical facts that are already stale news, 
since a really definite history of the Royal Academy 
would be of the greatest value. By their action 
they have certainly avoided difficulties, but the 
result is of course incomplete. In Mr. Eaton's 
preface we are told what share each writer had in 
the book, and how on Mr. Hodgson's death his 
work was continued and finished by Mr. G. D. 
Leslie. Mr. Eaton's account of the Academy 
itself is carefully put together. It is interesting to 
see how several reforms effected recently were 
urged long ago by the broad-minded C. R. Leslie, 
and how the opening of Lord Leighton's en- 
lightened presidency was signalized by the repay- 
ment to the Turner Fund of some £8,000 which 
had been appropriated by the general account of 
the institution. His notes, too, on the pecuniary 
help given to distressed members are really the 
most novel feature in the biographies. The lists in 
the Appendices are convenient, but that of Hono- 
rary Foreign Academicians contains some names 
such as Adolf Minzel and Jules Brebon, which are 
unfamiliar. Mr. Leslie's section also, if rather 
commonplace, is careful and impartial. But one 
finds it hard to speak charitably of the part which 
must be assigned to Mr. Hodgson. Mr. Hodgson's 
own experiences might have preserved him from 
gloating over the failure of poor Barry (p. 162) ; 
and his official post from such monumental igno- 
rance as that displayed in his eulogy of the 
Rev. W. Peters (p. 130), or in his sneers at the 
first holder of his own professorship (p. 61). The 
excellent pictures over whose non-existence he 
makes merry have been hanging for years ' on the 
line' in one of the most important English public 
galleries ! All who are interested in the Royal 
Academy will hope that Mr. Eaton will find time 
to complete his work, and will wish that Mr. 
Leslie had been his associate from the first. 

The Royal Academy of Arts : A complete 
Dictionary of Contributors and their work 
from its foundation in 1769 to 1904. By 
Algernon Graves, F.S.A. Vol. I. Henry 
Graves and Co. and G. Bell. £2 2s. net. 
Mr. Algernon Graves has once more placed 
all students of the English school of painting, both 
present and future, under a heavy obligation, by 
adding one more to the invaluable works of refer- 
ence with which his name is associated. In his 
preface he relates how this book originated more 
than thirty years ago from a small present of wine 
and a slippery day. In the convalescence follow- 
ing his accident Mr. Graves began to arrange the 
exhibitors at the Academy alphabetically. Up to 


the year 1800 titles were copied word for word ; 
after that date titles and quotations were cur- 
tailed. Where possible anonymous portraits are 
identified, and the marginal notes to Horace 
Walpole's Catalogues belonging to Lord Rosebery 
have been included. The address from which 
each picture was sent is also given, so that the 
painters' movements can be traced from year to 
year. So far as rough tests go the book appears 
to be as impeccable in point of accuracy as it is in 
point of completeness. The author has even added 
blank pages at the end of each section for the 
addition of manuscript notes. 

Only by some such description as this is it 
possible to convey any idea of the value of the 
book, and that value is increased from the fact 
that the Academy, for many years after its founda- 
tion, included all the best talent of the country, 
and its history is almost the history of British 
Art during that period. For the last thirty or 
forty years that has ceased to be the case, but of 
these years records more or less accurate exist. 
Mr. Graves's book thus comes to our assistance 
just where help is most needed. 

Apart from its usefulness as an indispensable 
work of reference to every student of English 
Painting, the book suggests some interesting 
speculations. What, for instance, has happened 
to all the pictures, some two hundred in number, 
exhibited by George Arnald ? Few collectors of 
English pictures could name offhand more than 
half-a-dozen works which now bear his name. 
The remainder probably pass, with those of men 
like the elder Barret, under the more august and 
profitable title of Richard Wilson or even of Turner 
himself. It is a common fallacy in the criticism of 
English painters to have too short a memory for 
the unmemorable, just as in some other countries 
the lesser lights at the moment seem to be magni- 
fied till they outshine the planets. Mr. Graves's 
book is exactly what was needed to enable us to 
strike the happy balance. 


Nuremberg and its Art to the End of the 

Eighteenth Century. By Dr. P. J. Ree. 

Translated by G. H. Palmer. Grevel and 

Co. 4s. net. 
Nuremberg. By H. Uhde-Bernays. Siegle and 

Co. is. 6d. net. 
If the volume on ' Nuremberg' is a fair sample of 
Messrs. Grevel's series of ' Famous Art Cities ' 
now in course of issue, their publication should be 
a great success. Dr. Ree's book is not only 
an admirable piece of work, but the clearness and 
method of the letterpress are repeated in the 
choice and arrangement of the very numerous 
and excellent illustrations of the city's sculpture, 
architecture, metal-work, and painting. An 
occasional uncouth phrase, such as the frequently 
repeated 'Barock,' the choice of an aspect of the 
Nuremberg Madonna which gives a false idea 


of its character, and one or two slips such as that 
about the design of the Apollobrunnen, do not 
detract much from the merit of a book that is so 
thoroughly good and so wonderfully cheap. Mr. 
Bernay's book is also good of its kind, but more 
personal and emotional. It may be helpful to 
visitors who can make only a short stay in 
Nuremberg, and should prevent them being 
surprised by factory chimneys, but cannot be 
compared with Dr. Ree's work either for com- 
pleteness or attractiveness. 

Italian Architecture : being a brief account 
of its Principles and Progress. By J. Wood 
Brown. Siegle. is. 6d. net. 
Rome as an Art City. By Albert Zacher. 
Siegle. is. 6d. net. 
These two volumes of the same series of little 
monographs present a curious contrast. Mr. 
Zacher attempts to tell the story of art in Rome 
in detail from the time of the Etruscans to the 
present day in the space of ninety-one small pages. 
The book is thus a compact mass of names and 
dates, diversified here and there with short pas- 
sages of ecstatic uncomprehending gush. Mr. 
Wood Brown with more wisdom views his subject 
broadly, though with all his care he quite fails 
to give an adequate account of the architecture of 
the Renaissance. The development of the earlier 
phases of Italian buildings is handled with con- 
siderable skill. The book would have been still 
more serviceable to those with little practical 
knowledge of architecture if technical points, such 
as those discussed on pages 55-8, had been illus- 
trated by rough diagrams, but it is distinctly 
above the average of its kind. 


Die Grundzuge der linear perspektivischen 
Darstellung in der Kunst der Gebruder 
van Eyck und ihrer Schule. i Die per- 
spektivische Projektion Von Joseph Kern. 
40 pp., 14 plates, and 3 cuts. Leipzig (See- 
mann), 1904. 6 m. 
Another work on the van Eycks ! some of our 
readers will probably exclaim ; surely by this 
time, after all that has been written since the 
beginning of the last century, there ought not to 
be much left unsaid that is worth saying. We 
think, however, that it will be found that the pre- 
sent work does really bring fresh material of im- 
portance that must lead to reconsideration as to 
the date and authorship of certain paintings. 

When interest in the productions of the early 
Netherlandish school was first aroused few persons 
were able to study more than a very limited 
number of paintings. Hence the attribution of 
works to the van Eycks could only be criticized by 
few, and thus it came to pass that for a long time 
little progress was made in separating their paint- 
ings from those by other masters of the fifteenth 
century. The documents published by Laborde 

in 1849, an d subsequently by Pinchart and others, 
cleared up the biography of the brothers to a cer- 
tain extent, but even now we have no reliable in- 
formation as to either of them before October 
1421. My own researches have led to the identi- 
fication of the persons represented in several 
paintings and to the fixing of the date of their 
execution. Photography and retrospective exhi- 
bitions have facilitated study and led to much 
valuable criticism as to the technical qualities of 
the works. Bode, FriedHinder, Seeck, Kammerer, 
and Hulin havedistinguished themselves by various 
essays. Others have confined their remarks to the 
treatment of landscape, or to that of trees and 
plants, while the present work is devoted to the ex- 
amination of a certain number of paintings solely 
with regard to the extent of knowledge of the laws 
of linear perspective which they prove their authors 
to have possessed at the date of their execution. 
Previous writers had confined their remarks to the 
consideration of the source from which the van 
Eycks derived their knowledge of linear perspective. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle were of opinion that John 
did not attain to a thorough knowledge of the 
laws of linear perspective, but that his faithful and 
minute observation of nature, his perception of 
tone and clever handling of colour, enabled him to 
represent atmospheric effects and produce in his 
pictures the illusion of their being true perspective 
views. Nielsen, as a result of his study, came to 
the conclusion that John was acquainted with the 
perspective laws of distance, and observed them 
in his works ; that he derived his knowledge from 
the study of Euclid and private speculation, and 
was not indebted to any Italian source. 

As far as I am aware, no one before the author 
of the present work has pushed the inquiry further. 
M. Kern, however, has analyzed a certain number 
of works by or attributed to Melchior Broederlam, 
the van Eycks, and Peter Christus, and gives a 
detailed description of the results illustrated by 
diagrams. He shows that the laws of linear per- 
spective have been correctly observed in the repre- 
sentation of the interior of the Temple in the 
Presentation by Broederlam ; in the design of the 
canopied niche in which St. Barbara stands in 
the Calvary picture of the Tanners' Gild at 
St. Saviour's, Bruges ; in that of the tomb in the 
Richmond picture of the three Marys, of the 
pavement in the three upper panels of the Ghent 
polyptych, and of the pavement and ceiling of the 
Virgin's chamber on the exterior. He also de- 
monstrates that in 1434 John did not follow the 
laws of linear perspective in their application to 
the room in which John Arnolfini and his bride 
are standing, and that at that time he evidently 
had no knowledge of the starting point of collec- 
tive orthogonals. Did he attain to a full know- 
ledge before his death in 1441 ? The only known 
authentic work of large dimensions which can 
lead to a decision on this point is his last picture, 



the Ypres triptych belonging to M. Helleputte, and 
this M. Kern has unfortunately not examined. 
There is, of course, the Louvre altarpiece repre- 
senting the Chancellor Rolin kneeling before Our 
Lady and Child, but opinions differ as to the 
authorship and date of this work, some setting this 
as early as 1422, others as late as 1437. M. Kern 
shows that if painted by John it cannot have been 
designed before 1436. Rolin was born in 1376, 
and, judging by his portrait, 1 cannot have been 
more than fifty when it was painted ; it follows 
that the picture dates from about 1426, and that 
John was not its author. The somewhat similar 
picture representingtheCarthusian Herman Steen- 
ken protected by St. Barbara kneeling before Our 
Lady and Child accompanied by St. Anne (accord- 
ing to others, St. Elisabeth of Thuringia) must 
have been painted before 1428, probably some 
years earlier, as Steenken died April 28, 1428. 

The Berlin picture representing the same Car- 
thusian presented to Our Lady by St. Barbara is 
attributed by M. Kern to Peter Christus, and 
assigned to 1436, or a later date. As to the laws 
of perspective distance, he agrees with other 
writers that neither the van Eycks nor Peter 
Christus attained to a complete knowledge of 
them. W. H. J. W. 

Drawings by Old Masters of the Dutch 
and Flemish Schools in the Royal Col- 
lection at Amsterdam. Part V. Williams 
and Norgate. £1 14s. net. 
The fifth part of the sumptuous publication 
appeals perhaps more to students of the Dutch 
School than to students of art in general. Two 
drawings, however, are of exceptional interest. 
The fine study of A Farmyard by Jan Lievens 
proves that the inspiration of Rembrandt's land- 
scapes was not inherited by Philips de Koninck 
only, while the study of A Gentleman Saluting, by 
Cornelius Troost, ' The Dutch Watteau,' is an 
unusually good specimen of the spirited and grace- 
ful draughtsmanship by which that master earned 
his nickname. The coloured reproductions, as in 
the previous parts, are wonderfully good. 
Old Masters and New. By Kenyon Cox. 

Fox, Duffield & Co. New York. 
That painters do not more frequently write upon 
art is unfortunate both for the public, who hear 
too little of the painter's side of painting, and for 
painters themselves, since when their student days 
are over, if not earlier, they are apt to forget that 
other painters have existed. Mr. Kenyon Cox's 
series of essays covers a wide field, since the first 
deals with sculptors of the early Italian Renais- 
sance and the last with St. Gaudens. The articles 
on Puvis de Chavannes and Paul Baudry are 
specially good, but the whole book is fresh, sen- 
sible, and thoroughly readable. Now and then it 
1 Rolin's portrait in the hospital at Bedune, painted by Roger 
De la Pasture in or before 1447, shows him to have been then at 
least twenty years older than in the Louvre picture. 


contains some startling remarks such as the state- 
ment that Sargent is a draughtsman, while Rem- 
brandt was not. The author in fact is to some 
extent biassed by the modern tendency to depre- 
ciate creativeness and emphasis in favour of the 
faculty of representation, in reality a much 
commoner talent. 

Early Works of Titian. By Malcolm Bell. 

Newnes. 3s. 6d. net. Filippino Lippi. 

By P. G. Konody. Newnes. 3s. 6d. net. 
Two more volumes of Messrs. Newnes' handy 
series of reproductions. Of the two, that on 
Filippino is distinctly the more careful, though 
neither is free from mistakes. The three frescoes 
by Titian in the Scuola del Santo are so well 
known that Mr. Bell's mistake in omitting them 
all and reproducing one which is certainly not by 
Titian is curious to say the least of it. 

The Mosaic. No. I. Oxford; Holywell Press. 
This little medley of essays in poetry and prose 
will doubtless recall pleasant memories to those 
who in earlier days have themselves embarked 
upon some such adventure. The opinions of the 
art critic and the methods of the writer of the short 
story seem alike needlessly sweeping, but all the 
contributors have some literary feeling and some 
faculty of observation, and will no doubt be heard 
of again. 


Early Works of Titian. By Malcolm Bell. George Newnes, 

Ltd. 3s. 6d. net. 
Filippino Lippi. By P. G. Konody. George Newnes, Ltd. 

3s. 6d. net. 
Islamische Tongefasze aus Mesopotamien. By Friedrich 

Sarre. G. Grot^sche Verlagsbuchhandlung. 
The Royal Academy and Its Members. By the late J. E. 

Hodgson, R.A. and Fred A. Eaton, M.A. John Murray. 

21s. net. 
Un Bas-Relief de Bronze. By Etienne Michon. Ernest 

Leroux, Paris. 
Bibliothek Eugen Muentz. Joseph Baer and Co., Frankfort- 

Original Drawings of the Dutch and Flemish School; 

Part 5. Williams and Norgate. £1 14s. net. 
History of Ancient Pottery. In two vols. By H. B. Wal- 
ters. John Murray. 63s. net. 
Beadtifdl Wales. Painted by Robert Fowler ; described by 

Edward Thomas. A. and C. Black. 20s. net. 
Nuremberg and its Art to the End of the Eighteenth 

Century. By Dr. P. J. Ree ; translated by G. H. Palmer. 

Grevel and Co. 4s. net. 
Nuremberg. By H. Uhde-Bernays. Siegle and Co. is. 6d. 

Ivories. By Alfred Maskell. Methuen and Co. 25s. net. 
Chefs-D'CEuvre D'Art Japonais. By Gaston Migeon. 

D. A. Longuet, Paris. 
The £30,000 Portrait and the Discovery of a Long Lost 

Italian Portrait. A Criticism. By George Washington 

Moon, Hon.F.R.S.L. Farncombe's Library. 2s. 6d. net. 
Mr. Whistler's Lithographs: The Catalogue. By Thomas 

R. Way. London: G. Bell and Sons. New York: H. ■ 

Wunderlich and Co. 10s. 6d. net. 
Little Books on Art — Raphael. By A. R. Dryhurst. 

Methuen and Co. 2s. 6d. net. 
L'Aete in Val di Nievole. By Carlo Stiavelli Francesco 

Lumachi, Florence. 2.50 lire. 
Handizeichnungen Schweizerischer Meister desXV-XVIII 

Jahrhunderts. Part 2. Basel, Helbing, and Lichten- 



/,'/■ t/u ' ,i/,; -III, ■ ■ ' < ,■/ f/l 

■ 9m //a ■ 


The Editors of The Burlington Magazine have much pleasure 
in announcing that they have arranged for the section, 'Art in 
America,' to be edited in future by Mr. Frank J. Mather, 
Junr., of the New York Evening Post, beginning with the 
September Number. 


E have referred more 
than once to the va- 
cant Directorships of 
the National Gallery 
and South Kensing- 
ton Museum, and in 
again calling atten- 
tion to these vacancies we do so in no spi- 
rit of impatience. A busy Government 
may, from pressure of work as much as 
from the desire to do right, be compelled 
to decide slowly, yet we trust that the de- 
cision as to these two appointments will not 
be delayed much longer. Already there are 
rumours that the Government intend to 
dispense altogether with a director for the 
NationalGallery,and theBoard ofEducation, 
which has replaced the notorious Science 
and Art Department, would be only too 
happy to follow so comfortable a precedent. 
We have already pointed out the imme- 
diate damage which must result to our 
national collections from such an anarchical 
policy. The appearance in England of a 
first-class Titian of an order which is un- 
likely to come up for sale again, and of a 
kind of which we have not a single example 
in any public gallery, might serve as a text 
for a further discourse on the subject. The 
National Arts Collection Fund has just 
atoned for one of the most discreditable 
omissions of the Chantrey Trustees, but it 
cannot be expected to make up for every 
fault in our official system. 

The evil effects of such a policy would not 
be confined to the particular appointments 
now vacant. The passing over of men of 
note, either in favour of an official favourite, 
or of a committee of gentlemen, who, how- 
ever intelligent, keen, and conscientious 
they may be, are, after all, only amateurs, 
would be a blow not only to our national 
collections but also to our national scho- 
larship. The rewards of the sincere and 
capable student of art in Great Britain are 
already few enough and poor enough in all 

The Burlington Magazine, No. 49. Vol. VII— August 1905 

E E 

conscience; but if the two or three posts 
that carry any real position with them are 
abolished or filled by men who are ob- 
viously not the most experienced and scho- 
larly men available, the effect upon art 
institutions throughout the country cannot 
fail to be disastrous. 

Capable directors cannot be improvised 
at a moment's notice. If the highest posts 
were always properly filled, they would re- 
main as a perpetual incentive to workers 
in humbler positions both in London and 
in the provinces. Provincial galleries, in- 
deed, stand sorely in need of some such 
stimulus. Two or three conspicuous suc- 
cesses in the Midlands and in the North 
are made the more prominent by the 
ignorance and mismanagement of the re- 
mainder. Bradford may serve as a case in 
point. Last year Bradford opened a nand- 
some art gallery. With the help of many 
prominent artists and collectors, a represen- 
tative exhibition was formed of the best 
English painting and English furniture 
from the beginning of the eighteenth cen- 
tury to the present time, a show which in 
method and completeness has rarely been 
rivalled in the provinces. Yet in spite of 
this admirable object lesson the corpora- 
tion has now apparently wasted its money 
upon pictures of the type beloved of the 
readers of penny magazines — pictures of 
which even the least well informed galleries 
in other counties have begun to fight shy. 
Yet if our Government discourages scholar- 
ship, how can a poor provincial town coun- 
cil be expected to do better ? 

If rumour may be trusted, it is upon 
Lord Lansdowne that the Prime Minister 
relies for advice in these matters; we 
therefore hope that the judgement which 
the Foreign Secretary has recently shown 
in international affairs will soon be exercised 
on behalf of serious art scholarship in the 
country, and of the important industries 
directly or indirectly dependent upon it. 



'HE portrait of Aretino 
by Titian, from theChigi 
Palace, now at Messrs. 
P. cv I). Colnaghi's gallery 
and here reproduced by 
their kind permission, 
has been made familiar 
to students by Dr. Gronau's notice and 
reproduction of it in his excellent mono- 
graph on the master. It is no small 
piece of good fortune to us to be able 
to examine at leisure and in a good 
light so remarkable an example of Titian's 
portraiture. It is indeed in some ways a 
unique example on account of the peculiar 
relationship which subsisted between the 
artist and sitter. 

The conditions of the artist's profession 
were undergoing rapid changes by the 
middle of the sixteenth century. The 
barriers of local schools were breaking 
down, the power and wealth of the men 
who surrounded Charles V were pre- 
dominant, a new idea of aristocratic and 
courtly etiquette was beginning to pre- 
vail. The old intimacy between patrons 
and even humble craftsmen was disappear- 
ing. In tact the conditions were changing 
from that of the mediaeval guild with its 
well established trade rules to those of 
modern life. Already the prizes of the 
few successful artists were becoming im- 
mense, already these stood out from the 
ruck of the profession as they had never 
done before. Picture -painting was be- 
coming a somewhat speculative profession 
instead of a solid and humble trade. With 
this change towards modern conditions 
two important modern auxiliaries of the 
craft came into existence, the dealer and 
the journalist. In the scramble for prizes, 
the intrigues for favour, amid all the cross 
currents and undertows of influence which 
went on in court-life, Aretino piloted 
Titian with the consummate skill, the 
brilliant wit, and the brazen impudence 

which distinguished him. He it was who 
knew the precise moment at which a 
present would take effect, who knew 
which picture to send to the Empress in 
order to secure the Emperor's favour. 
Titian, man of the world though he was, 
had not, one may imagine, the same cer- 
tainty of instinct nor the same cynical 
knowledge of human nature as this pro- 
fessional flatterer, bully, and tout. In any 
case Titian owed something of his extra- 
ordinarily rapid success to Aretino, and their 
intimate friendship remained unbroken for 
nearly thirty years. That Aretino had the 
sensibility of an artist, a keen critical in- 
sight and the charm of a brilliant talker, 
together with some capacity for generous 
and spontaneous feeling, may help to explain 
Titian's intimacy. 

Thus it is that there are few portraits left 
to us by the greatest masters in which the 
relation of artist and sitter was as intimate 
as is here the case. According to Milanesi 
Titian painted Aretino six times. Once as 
Pilate in the Christ before Pilate at Vienna, 
once as a soldier in the Allocution of del 
J\isto in the same gallery, and four times 
in separate portraits. One of these, exe- 
cuted in 1545, was sent by Aretino to 
Duke Cosimo I de' Medici, and is now in 
the Pitti. It is this which is described in 
a letter by Aretino with disparaging re- 
marks, unintelligible to our eyes, about the 
painting of the accessories. Another was 
painted in 1527, soon after Aretino's arrival 
in Venice, and was sent to the marquis of 
Mantua. The date of this clearly prevents 
it from being the same as the Chigi por- 
trait, which, therefore, is probably one of 
the two remaining ones of which we have 
notices. These were, one belonging to 
the engraver Marcolini, the other done 
for Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici. Since 
Ippolito was poisoned in 1535, while our 
picture must clearly date from the forties, 
there is every probability that it is the one 




which was once in Marcolini's possession. 
Marcolini used to boast of this that Titian 
had painted it in three days, and indeed 
there is nothing incredible in such a state- 
ment. The portrait has a note of intimacy 
and spontaneity which well agrees with the 
idea of its being such a rapid rendering of 
a man struck off while the inspiration of 
some happy accident of pose and lighting 
on the familiar features lasted — a work 
done entirely among friends without any 
reference to the outside world, without any 
pose or afterthought. It has strikingly 
this character when compared with the Pitti 
portrait, done perhaps a few years earlier, 
but done with slightly more regard to Are- 
tino's pretensions. In that it is true the 
satyr in Aretino comes out, but the in- 
tention is to show him as a great man, as 
the intimate of princes and the patron of 
merit. Here we have Aretino in his 
friend's studio, without self-consciousness, 
without pose and without reserve, ab- 
stracted for a moment, in a mood of 
equable reverie, which allows one to see 
the whole man with no one aspect so em- 
phasized as to disturb the balance. 

Whether the picture is, as we have sug- 
gested, the one done for Marcolini or no, 
it has the character which we have indi- 
cated : it is an intensely artistic portrait, 
painted particularly for those who under- 
stand the language of art, painted without 
any compromises with the exigencies of 
princely or popular demands. Such at 
least is the impression which we get 
from this wonderful masterpiece, with 
its intense simplification of form, of tone, 
and of colour. The contour is rounded off 
to a great oval mass almost including the 
head, which, with its heavy bull neck and 
massive protruding forehead, predominates, 
in spite of the exaggerated length and 
volume of the body and arm. Several por- 
traits painted about the same period as this 
show a similar tendency to m such a rounded 
oval mass in the general contour. Dr. Gro- 

Tietro Aretino by 'Titian 

nau has already called attention to the 
similarity with the Granvella portrait at 
Besancon of 1548, and the John Frederick 
of Sax ony, of the same year, affords another 
striking example. In tone and colour the 
same reduction to the simplest and most 
directly expressive terms is apparent. The 
whole magnificent scheme built up out of 
a few elements, the pure and lovely grey 
(a Whistlerian grey in effect) of the back- 
ground, the deep, tawny brown orange of 
the robe, and the rich, earthy carnations, 
make an unforgettable harmony in one 
restricted key. 

The handling betrays the same singleness 
of purpose ; the impressive effect of solidity 
and mass is obtained by thin scumbles, 
put on with the utmost ease and apparent 
rapidity ; a few marvellously written scrawls 
of lighter yellow upon the half-tone of the 
sleeve give it at once its form and an adequate 
notion of texture. Throughout we get 
the spontaneity of direct, together with 
the elusiveness and mystery of indirect 
painting. Analysis here gives place to mere 
wonder at the inscrutable quality of the 

It has been suggested that means should 
be found to acquire this magnificent work 
for the nation, and already we believe an 
anonymous and public-spirited donor has 
offered a large sum towards the price. It 
is most sincerely to be hoped that others 
will come forward with the same gene- 
rosity. With this example of Titian's 
portraiture in the full maturity of his 
powers placed beside the early Giorgio- 
nesque work we have lately acquired, we 
should have the most interesting exemplifi- 
cation of the development of Titian's 
genius. Titian at seventy was so com- 
pletely different a man from Titian at 
twenty-five, and both were such supreme 
masters, that the scheme of acquiring this 
for the nation should not be overruled on 
the ground that we already possess a noble 
example of his work as a portraitist. 




OME fifteen years ago it 
was not an uncommon 
thing to hear that French 
art was in complete deca- 
dence, that two artists 
'alone, Bastien Lepage and 
Dalou, relieved the average ' doubtless 
clever — but tricky.' Time and fashion have 
dealt very roughly (too roughly in fact) 
with Lepage ; Dalou has survived for several 
reasons, among which we may count his 
genuine and instinctive ability. 

For some years an exile in England, he 
is still remembered as an indirect educa- 
tional influence on our more timid local 
sculpture. France in the second virgin 
blush of her Third Republic has welcomed 
him again as a new republican sculptor, the 
sculptor in fact of the republic. At its 
best his work is assured of enduring admi- 
ration, at its worst it is a survival from the 
Second Empire. Easy in his art, engaging, 
and a little florid, to some he is an admir- 
able ' piece sculptor,' to others he is a ' de- 
corative sculptor : ' both verdicts are founded 
on his facility. If admirable at times in the 
execution of the piece, he never achieves 
the mastery which Rodin for instance re- 
veals in a bust or fragment ; with one or 
two exceptions Dalou has executed no good 
busts. In his large decorative works he 
realizes a spirited effect which raises them 
beyond decorative set-pieces; they are ' tell- 
ing ' as a whole, admirable in part if a little 
shallow in invention ; they are genial and 
abundant, rhetorical in a legitimate way, 
and admirably illustrative of their sounding 
titles, Fraternity uniting the people, Time 
striding to wrest the wreath from Fame. In 
this he is essentially French — it is part of 
the temper of a people that has inherited 
the old Latin sense of the effective. Some- 
thing which has a pictorial force is to be 
found in the utterances of Napoleon and the 
men of the Revolution. Delacroix and even 
Puvis de Chavannes give titles to their 



works which have an epigrammatic terse- 
ness in their Latin ease. Dalou is in every- 
thing traditional and Gallic, he is at his 
ease in the public place and in the palace — 
that is, a French palace where Fame, Vic- 
tory, and the Arts find a home even in the 
cornices. I would state this without the 
slightest insular or provincial British pre- 
judice. I recognize in our more shy and 
remote sense of art a lesser vitality, or per- 
haps even conviction. I am even inclined 
to think that our coldness towards direct- 
ness of utterance, or condensed thought, or 
effective symbol accounts to some extent 
for the small hold the sculpture of Alfred 
Stevens has achieved upon cultivated people 
in this country. Dalou lived for several 
years in England, known to his contem- 
poraries as a facile and dainty craftsman 
whose work showed something of that 
undefinable quality which might be de- 
scribed as ' le sourire du XVIIP siecle.' 
In the Victorian era, which we are begin- 
ning to look back upon as one of great 
refinement, anterior to the sort of ' Hotel 
Ritz ' ideal of life now prevailing, Dalou 
obtained employment even from royalty, 
and to the English phase of his career we 
owe two very fine works, an admirable 
bust of Mrs. Crowe and an admirable seated 
portrait of Lady Carlisle. English taste, with 
its leaning towards the pretty, encouraged 
him in that side of his temperament in 
which he descends from the craftsmen of the 
eighteenth century ; he is often of their 
rank. He is not to be counted with the 
foremost of them like the incomparable 
Houdon (one of France's truly great artists) ; 
and Clodion, with all his desperate facility 
and monotony, is perhaps more endowed 
in that essential element of personality, 
being in fact a sort of eighteenth-century 
Rossellino ; but a comparison between 
Dalou and the work of Falconet and Pajou 
is not crushing to the modern Frenchman. 
Dalou's work is more at home in fact in 


















*r ar 


the vicinity of the better sculpture of the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries than 
in the companv of the major sculptors of 
the nineteenth ; there is a latent feverish- 
ness in the work of Carpeaux which was 
due perhaps to the lingering influence of 
Delacroix. The more austere and intense 
arts of Barve, Rodin, and Meunier are even 
less allied to him, though in some of his 
latest works he has not concealed his ac- 
knowledgedadmirationfor Meunier. Rude, 
the republican who incarnates the Revolu- 
tion and the First Empire, has had little 
influence upon Dalou the republican and 
socialist. It is Houdon and Clodion who 
were crushed by the Revolution, who stand 
sponsors to his art ; Puget and Caffieri 
were not far off, the second had stood spon- 
sor to Carpeaux ; but these masters felt and 
modelled with a more violent and expres- 
sive force. Dalou's work stands below them 
in character, below them in sincerity ; he 
is too fluent and easy and too local. 

Perhaps the last sentence requires some 
explanation, for in the long run it will be 
found that most great artists focus for us 
the temper of some locality or period in 
which the casual and contemporary man is 
very anxious to claim some after share. 
Let us for the moment grant that most art 
could only have been done when and where 
it was done. We find, nevertheless, that the 
major men stand above these more obvious 
relationships ; they catch light from each 
other even at a distance, and illumine the 
future of a great art tradition, such as it has 
been the privilege of two great civilizing 
nations — Italy and France — to produce : 
the major men stand out as beacons on 
different heights. However related to 
French thought and emotion, the art of 
Rodin, for instance, is equally related to that 
of Donatello and Michael Angelo, whose 
teaching he turns to his own special uses. 
Bane, though one of the great figures of the 
Romantic period, faces the essential ele- 
ments of his art with a directness and pre- 


cision which carry us back in thought 
almost to a pre-Pheidean epoch. 

Below such men stand their artistic con- 
temporaries who translate into a more 
general tongue the more personal messages 
of the major man. These secondary crafts- 
men remould the temper of their period and 
nation, and form the connecting and reflect- 
in? mass between different masters and tra- 
ditions. This faculty of absorption and 
dilution, this faculty for continuity and 
reconciliation, is a great element in the 
general French artistic temperament ; no- 
thing escapes it, nothing is lost by it, it is 
at once the privilege of the greater number, 
and, if viewed properly, a sort of consolation 
to the master. It is in the essentially tradi- 
tional and national elements in French art 
that Dalou is quite himself; a slight accent 
of his own epoch — that, namely, of the 
Second Empire — accounts for an indefinable 
absence of what I would call spirituality 
for lack of a more accurate word ; the 
amiability of the eighteenth century is more 
nimble and delicate. In the art of Dalou 
we find that the kindred elements between 
the great French sculptors, such as Puget 
and Carpeaux, have become reconciled to 
Houdon and even to Clodion, whose fresh 
wet clay work Dalou can emulate, whose 
method of sketching he at times possesses 
absolutely. The head of Diana here re- 
produced l is a vounger sister of the more 
aristocratic and exquisite goddess by Hou- 
don, who in her turn, perhaps, claims re- 
lationship with the lithe elegant figures 
of the French Renaissance ; for, strangely 
enough, this bust by this modern sculptor 
is even more in the manner of the eighteenth 
centurv than the prototype. This Diana 
seems on the watch for some rude, sudden 
Cupid by Fragonard, bent on stealing her 
arrows. A study of a sleeping child 2 might 
be some piece of sculpture introduced by 
Chardin in a group of accessories illustrating 
the arts ; both these works are exquisite ; 

F F 

' Plate I, page 349 s Plate II, page 352. 



they are illumined by the spirit of a charmed 
period in art, that of the ieighteenth cen- 
tury ; they are touched with the sunlight 
of France — to use the exquisite words of 
the great Gluck. 

Like many facile and instinctive artists, 
Dalou felt he had also some major intellectual 
mission, and to that impression we owe two 
magnificent works, the Monument of the 
Republic with its decorative lions, cherubs, 
and buxom women, and a fine bas-relief of 
Fraternity Uniting the People. Both are 
virile in modelling and fine in the sense of 
movement ; they are equal in quality to 
the superb Silenus and Nymphs in the Lux- 
embourg Gardens, which has no didactic 
aim. In these pictorial groups the sense 
of vitality runs high, the invention and 
modelling are rich and easy; they are worth 
a dozen monuments to Gambetta or the 
projected Pillar to the Proletariat or Monu- 
ment du Travail, with its hastily invented 
series of workmen niched in a ridiculous 

I have stated that Dalou was unsuccessful 
in most of his busts ; in this he inherits 

nothing from his master Carpeaux, nothing 
from Houdon, who are both two of the 
greatest, perhaps the two greatest, portrait 
sculptors ; yet, to me at least, there is one 
exception, namely his bust of Delacroix. 
This is so admirable that one wonders if 
too great an habitual reliance upon nature 
may not account for his many failures ; or 
shall we say that the exigencies of his living 
models may be to blame with their pre- 
conceived knowledge of their faces in 
photography, whose influence has by now 
almost stifled all interpretive art in current 
modern portraiture ? True, that in the bust 
of Delacroix the sculptor had the fine ner- 
vous portrait by the master to follow, yet 
this does not discount the fact that the 
result surpasses anticipation, that it reveals 
imaginative insight, showing us Delacroix 
as he stands in history, concentrated and 
intense, one of those who are ' impassioned 
of passion ' ; this vivid face in bronze is 
worthy of the model ; it is outside and be- 
yond the habitual temper and gift of Dalou ; 
it is possessed of the finest qualities possible 

in portraiture. 



This striking work, which by the cour- 
tesy of the owner, Mrs. BischofFsheim, 
we are permitted to reproduce as a fron- 
tispiece to the present number of The 
Burlington Magazine (p. 342), is a 
comparatively recent addition to the artistic 
treasures of Bute House. According to 
Mr. Humphry Ward's monumental ' Life 
of Romney' the original picture at Petworth 
was painted at Eartham for Lord Egremont 
in 1795- The subject is described as 'A 
lady and four children ; the lady in the 
character of Titania, with her children as 
fairies, shooting at bats with bows and 
arrows.' Some uncertainty seems to exist 
as to the identity of the lady in the Petworth 
group. There was no countess of Egremont 
when the picture was painted, and the earl 


who commissioned it was never married, 
and his mother by a second marriage became 
Countess Briihl in 1794. In the Petworth 
Catalogue (No. 381) the personages are thus 
enumerated : ' Elizabeth countess of Egre- 
mont, with Colonel Wyndham, General 
Wyndham, Lady Burrell, and Mrs. King 
when children. 

In Mrs. BischofFsheim's version of the 
subject the recumbent figure is obviously 
a reminiscence of Lady Hamilton. The 
picture appears to have remained in Sus- 
sex till it was recently brought to Lon- 
don. There it was recognized and pur- 
chased by Mrs. BischofFsheim, and her 
judgement has been since confirmed by 
Mr. Claude Phillips and Sir Walter Arm- 


HE religious side of the 
Renascentine movement 
— that which presented 
itself to a cultured Italian 
— had surely its element 
of pathos. Around him 
he saw the mental sys- 
tems of an Old World of thought engaged 
in conflict with a New World of ideas, and 
mediaeval mysticism hard put to it to hold 
her own in the atmosphere of classical 
artificiality with which humanism enve- 
loped her. Then Rome, with her monu- 
ments, some freshly discovered, all freshly 
appreciated, stepped into the arena, bring- 
ing to the new cause traditions that had the 
charm both of antiquity and the appeal to 
patriotism. To the mind of a Florentine 
or Milanese citizen, grieving over Italy's 
divisions and exposure to foreign incursion, 
Rome would present herself with enhanced 
vigour as the embodiment of unity, and a 
dominion which made invasion the re- 
motest of contingencies ; while, for the 
sensuous side of his character, fresh stimu- 
lus would be provided by the store of pagan 
imagery which every year saw rescued by 
her excavators. Is it matter for wonder 
that, among the great and the learned, 
doubt should here and there have arisen as 
to the limits likely to be observed by the 
new movement — whether Neopaganism 
would not reach the position of an accepted 
creed, and Christ have to give place to 
Jupiter ? But as in the rise of Christianity, 
so now in her temporary decline, her hold 
upon ' the common people ' is the secret of 
her power ; and while among the human- 
ists cases arise of those who coquet with 
Olympus, or burn lamps before Plato, the 
great mass of the population remains faith- 
ful to orthodox ideas. 

In their prosecution of this conflict be- 
tween two ideals, the ascetic, and one that 
took all knowledge and all pleasure for its 
province, both sides furnished employment 

for the new art of engraving. Mantegna's 
contributions by his burin to the classical 
revival are too well known to need de- 

From Marc - Antonio's bottega there 
issued a succession of some 170 still extant 
pieces, devoted to pagan mythology or 
classical storv — sheets which, on their fir^t 
appearance, Vasari tells us, ' struck all 
Rome with amazement.' The passionate 
interest taken by cultured society in Roman 
excavations was fostered by engraved ver- 
sions of her statues; while the patriotism ot 
a population, torn by internal division and 
wracked by fear of foreign invasion, was 
soothed by reminiscences of Rome's former 
imperial ascendency — prints which derive 
additional poignancy from the consideration 
that their purchasers must, many of them, 
have seen her sacked by the Constable 
Bourbon's mercenaries. The opposing 
ranks of Christian orthodoxy, these also 
wielded weapons forged in Marc-Antonio's 
workshop: witness his counterfeited edition 
of Diirer's ' Life of the Virgin,' and numer- 
ous biblical subjects, the cherished trea- 
sures of sixteenth-century virtuosi. But 
for the typical printed art of the masses, 
whose piety formed the mainstay of the 
official religion, we must turn to the ephe- 
meral chap-books, which recorded for the 
Florentine populace the words of Savon- 
arola's sermons and the popular miracle- 
plays. In these catchpenny pamphlets, of 
which, from their frail character, only 
sixteenth-century later editions, for the 
most part, have come down to us, we find 
impressions of wood blocks designed and 
cut towards the close of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, when Renascentine art had reached 
its apogee of gracefulness, and before it 
had passed, as it too soon did pass, into a 
stage of meretricious exuberance. The 
paternity of their designs has been given 
to various artists — notably by Mr. Berenson, 
in the case of some of them, to a follower 


Some Florentine Woodcuts 

Fig. I. 

of Ghirlandaio. 1 What I wish here to 
emphasize is the happy fortune of the 
Florentine masses, for whose benefit these 
delicately beautiful woodcuts were pub- 
lished, at a time when painting generally 
wore the bombastic forms favoured by 
men like Bronzino and Vasari — 
pigmies straining themselves to 
wear Michelangelo's armour. If, 
as we can well believe, the wave 
of Spanish pietism, which swept 
the peninsula in the wake of 
Charles V's invasion, led to a 
larger demand for miracle-play 
literature, we may regard the 
consequent preservation of these 
modest designs as some small 
counterpoise to the injury wrought 
by that movement upon the art 
of the sixteenth century. 

Happy in the general concep- 
tion of these illustrations, the 

draughtsmen of the majority of them 
were equally happy in their adaptation 
of their design to the conditions of the 
material that was to interpret it. They 
seem to have recognized intuitively that 
the flat black ground of the block was 
the artistic raison d'etre of a woodcut's exist- 
ence, and that to work that black ground 
in the direction of its greatest capacity of 
expression was a law for the designer no less 
than the craftsman. Self-evident as this 
may appear, the contrary practice had been 
too much the rule in Germany, whose colder 
climate made it, from an early age, the home 
of duplicated illustration. There, wood- 
cutting had from the first been set to 
reproduce drawings made with the pen or 
point, and a material whose special genius 
lay in the rendering of tint had with the 
rarest exceptions 2 been set to copying line. 3 
Transferred to Italy, the art in the main took 
the same unfortunate direction, the greatest 
skill being devoted to the execution of wood- 
cuts whose ideal seemed to be the reduction of 
the black ground of the block to a mini- 
mum. In Florence however — whether, 

2 Conspicuous among these exceptions are the six wood blocks 
giving the intricate convolutions of an endless white line which 
Diirer produced under the inspiration of certain line engravings 
proceeding from Leonardo da Vinci's Academy. 

8 The existence of a preliminary stage in which woodcut was 
supplemented by colour-wash will not, however wide its pre- 
valence, affect our judgment of the final and independent result. 

1 Burlington Magazine, Vol. I, pp. 18, 19 
(March 1903). 

Fig. 2. 


as Delaborde suggests, from the artists' 
previous familiarity with niello - work, 
or from that intuitive perception of the 
narrow road of rectitude in art which 
her citizens believed they owed to their 
clearer air and severer mutual criticism 
— in Florentine woodcuts we find the 
ground of the block allowed fuller artistic 
utterance. Even here the law of white on 
black is by no means unanimously followed, 
and Delaborde's statement regarding the 
Florentine artists, that it is ' d'un com- 
mun accord qu'ils s'y conforment,' re- 
quires some qualification. The charming 
woodcut given by Mr. Pollard and Dr. 
Kristeller, from Jacopone da Todi's ' Laudi,' 
runs perilously close to contemporary 
Venetian cuts in giving a suggestio falsi 
as to the nature of the material employed, 
and not a few of the cuts in Kristeller, 
if their borders were eliminated, would 
be open to the same criticism. Figs. 2 
and 3 here reproduced, the signs of whose 
blocks' long service cannot hide their original 
beauty, fall within the same category. In 
advance of these the fine cut from the ' Rap- 
presentazione of S. Alexo,' Fig. 4, shows the 
block's ground utilized for door and window 
shadow ; while in Fig. 5 it is given still 
greater prominence in the form of alternate 

Fig. 3- 

Some Florentine Woodcuts 

insets to a stone flooring. From this it is 
but a step to scenes like Fig. 6, represent- 
ing Saint Apollonia's martyrdom, in which 
the intaglio effect is complete, and the 
scheme white on black receives full reali- 
zation. After this the transference of the 
method to out-door effects is easy, and we 
reach a scene like Fig. 7, which represents 
the Communion of St. Mary Magdalene, 
or still better Fig. 8, where some artist 
working in his happiest mood has found a 
craftsman worthy of his conception. 

Dr. Kristeller's text-book gives his readers 
abundant examples of the black ground's 
various stages of utilization. I have con- 
fined myself in the above to cuts, repro- 
ductions of which do not appear in his 
pages, and which an appeal to Mr. Pollard's 
wide experience of book illustration in- 
duces me to think are among the speci- 
mens of the art least familiar to English 
students. 4 

In thus putting the Rappresentazione 
woodcuts in the forefront of the religious 
printed art of the Florentine masses, we 
have to make the admission that some of 
the cuts attain that dignity solely by the 
accident of their insertion in the text of 
the miracle-plays, and not by any inherent 
directness of religious application. When 
the publisher of a later edition of 
one of these ' books of the words' 
wished to give it greater attrac- 
tiveness, he felt no scruple about 
inserting a block that had ap- 
peared in a secular publication, 
however unsuitable might be its 
past history or present signifi- 
cance. Thus the woodcut Fig. 8, 
containing two queens, with their 

4 Of Fig. 1 I can find no mention in Dr. Kris- 
teller's catalogue. The border is characteristically 
Florentine, but there are points about the treat- 
ment of the subject suggesting Venetian influence, 
and I am doubtful therefore of its right to appear 
in its present companionship. The print, which 
is a mere fragment, bears upon its verso a list of 
the virtues and vices, ' L'Odio, La Fede,' etc., 
arranged index fashion. Here also I find trace of 
the Venetian dialect. Possibly some more experi- 
enced reader of the Burlington can throw light 
on the origin of the cut. 


Some Florentine Woodcuts 


Fig. 4. 

attendants, strolling through a charming 
landscape, has been borrowed by the 
publisher from some unknown source to 
embellish the story of the Maries and 
Lazarus, with which it has not the 
slightest literary connexion. The same 
miracle-play treats us to a picture of the 


. death bed of Lazarus, of which all the 
"appropriateness is dissipated by the fact 
obtruded on our notice that the sufferer is 
a woman. Again, Dr. Kristeller's repro- 
duction, No. 168, in which a bare-legged 
gentleman prepared for bed is laying down 
the law to a much-afflicted lady, makes 
its first appearance in the 'Novella della 
figliuola del mercatante,' the story of a wife 
who from prudential motives makes her 
escape from her husband at the close of the 
marriage festivities. Opening its career 
under these wholly secular and somewhat 
dubious conditions, it is rather startling to 
find the cut figuring in a later miracle-play 
containing the story of St. Theodora, a 
maiden who, on religious grounds, had 
vowed herself to perpetual virginity, and 
suffered martyrdom rather than become 
the wife of a heathen pro-consul. 

In the tribute rendered above to the 
merits of the Florentine school of wood- 
cutting it will be understood that it is 
the relative superiority of their method 
that I wish to establish, not the pre- 
eminence over all other woodcut illus- 
tration of their ultimate result. I have 
supposed it to be an axiom that a 
method which displays the nature of the 
material employed, and carries it for- 
ward in the direction of its greatest 
capacity of expression, is more artistic 
than one that obscures the material basis 
and neglects its special genius of utter- 
ance. I should have thought this to be 
a truth so elementary as to be perilously 
close to a commonplace, if it had not 
furnished occasion for controversy be- 
tween two reputable antagonists, one a 
theorist, the other an expert, and if I were 
not, in the line here adopted, so unfortunate 
as to be opposed by the expert. When the 
late Mr. Hamerton in his volume on the 
Graphic Arts reaches the art of Holbein 
and his exponent Lutzelburger, he finds 
himself obliged to qualify his admiration 
of the Dance of Death series by the follow- 

Some Florentine Jl r oodeuts 

ing caution : ' It is a great mis- 
take to suppose that facsimile 
wood-engraving, like that which 
bears the name of Holbein, repre- 
sents the art at its best, or even 
represents it fairly. The Holbein 
cuts are only drawings in grey and 
white, and they do not make the 
most of a wood-block, with its 
possibilities of fine blacks and 
other resources.' Upon this judge- 
ment that excellent craftsman 
Mr. W. J. Linton brings down his 
truncheon with almost Johnso- 
nian vigour. ' I think this very 
unintelligent criticism. Aredraw- 
ings or engravings in grey and 
white less artistic than drawings 
or engravings that make the most of " fine 
blacks " or " other resources " ? ' 

Here, I submit, it is Mr. Linton who is 
unintelligent, ignoring the point at issue. 
It is of course quite conceivable that two 
pre-eminent artists, working on mistaken 
lines, may combine in the creation of a 
masterpiece which shall eclipse the pro- 
ductions of their less competent brethren 
working on a more harmonious system. 
Few, I suppose, would deny to Holbein 

Fig. 6. 

Fig- 5- 

and Lutzelburger, or to Diirer and that un- 
known form Schneider who cut the block of 
the Great Trinity (Bartsch, 122), the credit 
of producing results which defy comparison, 
and form the acme of Renascentine woodcut 
illustration. All this it is possible to grant, 
and yet feel regarding them that they are 
only magnificent aberrations, victories won 
in defiance of the rules of the game, and 
that in the modest prints here treated of, 
stray waifs from the Florentine presses, we 
are ' shown a more excellent 
way ' of utilizing a wood- 
block's resources. 

It is on much the same 
principle that some of us con- 
I tinue to derive pleasure from 
line engravings of the now de- 
preciated Roman school, a 
pleasure which is quite distinct 
from that afforded us by their 
grace of form or place in Re- 
nascentine history. In the 
generous spaces clear of shad- 
ing, that we owe to their 
limited chiaroscuro, we find 
record, not only of each plate's 
line of execution, but of the 
art's early connexion with low- 


Some Florentine Woodcuts 

Fig. 7- 

relief metalwork. Our imagination carries 
us back in thought to those early crafts- 
men, and that worship of humanity which 
underlies all artistic interest, whether in 
the cave-dwellers' scratchings or in the 
vault of the Sistine, receives grateful stimu- 
lation. Add to these merits that predomi- 
nance of noble line, which was im- 
paired when local colour was given 
its value and the plate was wholly 
obscured with shading, and we get 
a result which makes us disposed 
to be lenient to some tameness in 
the burin-work, and to an occa- 
sional defect in draughtsmanship. 
One further reflection presents 
itself. Wood-engraving is not the 
only art which, lured by the charm 
of a rival, has at some stage of its 
career left the road and been false to 
its highestvocation. Students will 
remember in plastic art instances 
where bronze has been given a 
treatment inspired by painting 5 

* Ghiberti's gates for instance. 

and in architecture where stone has 
copied forms more appropriate to a fibrous 
material. In the case of these arts, how- 
ever, the lapse from principle was only 
occasional, or made during the period 
of early immaturity. It was the fate of 
wood-engraving, over the larger part of 
Western Europe, and for the greater part 
of its career, to put forth work, voluminous 
in quantity and of great technical ability, 
which was conceived upon a system pre- 
scribed for it by a kindred art, based upon 
radically different technical conditions ; 
and, Florence and the North Italian chiaros- 
curo prints excluded, we have to come to 
England, and the close of the eighteenth 
century, to find the surface texture of a 
wood-block given its completest and most 
natural expression. It is a far cry artistically 
and socially from Florence under the earlier 
Medici to Newcastle or London under the 
later Georges ; but it adds to the pleasure 
we derive from these Florentine woodcuts 
that we are able to see in their unknown 
authors the precursors of William Blake and 
Thomas Bewick, and find, even in the rudest 
of them, anticipations of the skill displayed 
in pictures like those of Phillips's 'Pastoral 
Poems,' and the ' British Birds.' 

|FW4MiJ<>WI (JM£WJW«^*tt*raT[ 

Fig. 8. 




ARTICLE VIII— {Conclusion) 1 

EVERAL of the publica- 
tions of the Chippendale 
period are interesting rather 
from the bearing they have 
on the furniture history of 
the time than from artistic 
merit. Chief among these 
is a book by William Halfpenny, entitled 
'New Designs for Chinese Temples, Trium- 
phal Arches, Garden Seats, etc' This 
was published in 1750 ; that is, four 
years before Chippendale's ' Director,' and 
also prior to the time when Sir William 
Chambers settled in London. The intro- 
duction of 'the Chinese taste' is, never- 
theless, continually ascribed to one or other 
of these men, who had certainly nothing 
to do with its inception, so far, at least, as 
publication is concerned. Actual Chinese 
pieces had been imported into England in the 
latter half of the seventeenth century, and 
though it is difficult to fix even the approxi- 
mate date when English furniture design 
began to be affected, it is certain that it was 
considerably before even Halfpenny's publi- 
cation. He does not, like Chambers, make 
any misleading claim to innovation, but, on 
the contrary, distinctly states that the 
Chinese style had already been used ' with 

Chambers, therefore, could have had 
nothing to do with the introduction of 
Chinese design ; and though it is possible 
that Chippendale may have been the first 
culprit so far as actual manufacture is con- 
cerned, it is extremely unlikely. He 
troubled himself neither with invention nor 
the search for new influences, being content 
to take what lay to his hand, and, in his own 
words, ' refine and improve ' what other 
designers had already made fashionable. 

1 For Articles I to VII see Vol. IV, page 227; Vol. V, 
page 173 ; Vol. VI, pp. 47, 210, 402 ; and pp. 41, 211 ante (March, 
May, October, December, 1904 ; February, April, June, 1905). 

G G 

It was probably to Halfpenny's book and 
another (equally open to criticism) pub- 
lished by Edwards and Darly in 1754, that 
Chambers alluded when he spoke of ' the 
extravagancies that daily appear under the 
name of Chinese.' ' Most of them,' he con- 
tinues, ' are mere inventions, and the rest 
copies from the lame representations found 
on porcelain and paperhangings.' 

Even the advent of Robert Adam did 
nothing to stop the Chinese craze, and some 
of the most virulent examples were pub- 
lished by Crunden in 1765, and again in 
1770. These are absolutely without value 
from any point of view, and a third book 
by the same author (1776), in which he had 
the assistance of Columbani, Overton, and 
Milton, is little better. From his titles to 
his designs, everything connected with his 
books is merely laughable. High-flown 
titles for such publications were a fashion 
of the time, but no one attained the point 
of bathos touched by Crunden when he 
christened his first book " The Joyner and 
Cabinet-Maker's Darling.' 

Matthias Darly — not the one who colla- 
borated with Edwards, but Chippendale's 
principal engraver — published a book of his 
own, mostly architectural, in 1 770. A con- 
siderable part of this bears a very strong 
resemblance to the plates he engraved tor 
Chippendale ; indeed, it requires an actual 
comparison of the books to be certain that 
Chippendale's plates of the five orders of 
architecture have not been reprinted. The 
chimney-pieces are also so exceedingly 
similar as to make it likely that those in the 
' Director ' were designed as well as en- 
graved by Darly. He gives several pages 
of urns and vases, all of them being heavy 
and clumsy in style — the very acme of the 
useless combined with the unornamental. 
He is somewhat happier in his mirror 


Minor English Furniture Makers 

frames, in which he attempts, though vainly, 
to follow Robert Adam. The book is well 
engraved, for Darly executed the plates him- 
self, but it is a wearisome production with 
little else to recommend it to notice. 

Another designer of the time who, follow- 
ing in his father's footsteps, adapted himself 
to the newer feeling, was Thomas Chip- 
pendale the younger. George Smith, ' Up- 
holsterer to His Majesty,' writing of him in 
1826, says, 'Mr. Thomas Chippendale 
(lately deceased) though possessing a great 
degree of taste and ability as a draughtsman 
and designer, was known only to a few.' 
The exact date of his death, as has been 
discovered by Miss Constance Simon, was 
1823, and he was probably born about 
1750, as, again quoting Miss Simon, his 
father, or another man of the name, was 
married in 1748. 

We are also indebted to the same author 
for the information that both Thomas 
Chippendale and his son were members of 
the Society of Arts, and that the younger 
man, despite his connexion with the rival 
institution, had pictures hung from time to 
time by the Royal Academy. Of these 
there seems unfortunately to be no trace, 
but their titles would suggest that he was 
influenced by George Morland, who, though 
only twenty-one at the date of the first of 
these exhibits (1784), had already come to 
the front. 

The ' London Directory ' of the eigh- 
teenth century is excessively incomplete, 
and in most cases there is but little to be learnt 
from it. As negative evidence it is value- 
less, for it seems to have been looked on, 
both by its producers and the firms men- 
tioned in it, as a means of advertisement 
rather than a complete and exhaustive 
directory. Very few of the cabinet-makers 
thought it necessary for their names to 
appear at all, and then chiefly in the closing 
years of the century. The author of the 
' Director ' never used it, though a certain 
John Chippindale, cooper (who later spells 


his name ' Chippingdale'), does so from 
1 760 . It is possible that he may have been 
a connexion of the furniture maker's, es- 
pecially as he seems to have taken a partner 
into his business in the same year (1779). 
The St. Martin's Lane firm were equally 
careless how their names were spelt, the first 
mention of them being as ' Chippindale and 
Hage,' mistakes which they did not trouble 
to correct till 1785, when for a few years 
the junior partner became head of the busi- 
ness, which is then entered as ' Haig and 

Though the approximate time of the last 
Chippendale's death has always been com- 
mon knowledge, there is a widespread idea 
that the difference in style between the first 
and third editions of the 'Director' arose 
from the introduction of designs by Thomas 
Chippendale's son or sons. There is no im- 
possibility as regards dates that this may 
have been the case, for the marriage dis- 
covered by Miss Simon may either be that 
of someone else or not a first marriage. 
The differences in style, however, are di- 
rectly traceable to the influence of Johnson 
and the employment of fresh engravers, 
whose individualities show so plainly that 
the latitude allowed to them is evident. 

Another argument against the supposi- 
tion, which I have myself expressed, is 
founded on the more retiring nature of the 
son and his avoidance of advertising him- 
self by publication. That he did not pro- 
duce a book at all comparable to the 
' Director ' may be looked on as certain, 
for such a book, with such a name attached, 
could hardly have been lost. There has, 
however, lately come into my hands a small 
publication by him containing eight original 
etchings, each plate being signed 'T.Chip- 
pendale Jun r - inv'- et ex.', and dated 1779. 
From these it is at least evident that his 
reason for not appearing before the public 
in a more pretentious way was not lack of 
artistic ability. The etchings are by no 
means supreme either in design or execu- 

Minor English Furniture Makers 


tion, but they are much the best of the 
original plates produced by any of the furni- 
ture designers of the time, with the possible 
exception of some by Pergolesi. Unfortu- 
nately, they are devoted entirely to orna- 
ment; yet they are interesting not only in 
themselves, but as showing the change 
which had taken place in the work of the 
firm. The author of the ' Director ' was 
still alive at the date of this publication, 
though there is some reason for supposing 
that he had by that time retired from the 
management of the business, it not from 
all connexion with it. The change, how- 
ever, was probably quite as much due to 
the father as the son, for the great Chip- 
pendale was an absolute chameleon, taking 
colour from all his surroundings, whether 
bad or good. 

If Robert Adam's chief idea had been to 
influence the whole of the English furni- 
ture he could not have hit on a better plan 
than that he adopted. Had he started a 
workshop, or, as in the case of his patent 
stucco, employed a crowd of workmen of 
his own, he would have met with consider- 
able opposition from the trade. It would 
not have affected either his position or his 
income ; nor was he the man who cared 
the snuff of a candle for personal enmity 
(of which he had his full share), but, pro- 
bably because his hands were sufficiently 
full already, he left the manufacture of 
furniture to the men whose business it was. 
Not only were the pieces he designed put 
in the hands of the existing cabinet-makers, 
but in several notable instances — Claydon 
House, for example — he appears to have 
left them a free hand. That Chippendale 
and Gillow worked for him or with him is 
a matter of history, and that Lock also did 
so is, in my opinion, capable of proof, while 
Johnson and probably also several other 
carvers of the time appear to have been 

In one single instance, where Adam was 
architect, Chippendale's bill for furniture 

ran to about eighteen hundred pounds. 
There was every reason, therefore, for 
adopting Adam's style, and very little for 
the expensive advertisement of books such 
as the ' Director.' With the exception of 
Adam's own publication nothing else of 
any real importance appeared between 1 765 
and 1 787. The old style, as we have already 
seen, still existed, becoming gradually modi- 
fied by the fresh influence ; but it is only 
from the relics of the furniture actually 
constructed that we can form any estimate 
of its prevalence. As far as can be shown, 
the Chippendales at least had very little to 
do with keeping it alive, and ' the newest 
taste' appears to have been the text of 
the son as much as it had been of the 

The pamphlet mentioned is utterly un- 
like anything we know as ' Chippendale,' 
bearing throughout a strong resemblance 
to Robert Adam, and a stronger still to 
Pergolesi. Regarded merely as etchings the 
designs are superior to Lock's, but wanting 
in the restraint which Lock so admirably 
copied from Robert Adam. The Italians 
of the time seemed unable to leave well 
alone, and few of the English copyists suc- 
ceeded in grasping the dignity ot Adam's 
translations. Among these the last Chip- 
pendale cannot be ranked. His designs are 
pleasing enough in general construction, 
but he insists on carrying them too far. 
Just as the flamboyance of Johnson attracted 
his father, so he was affected by the too 
intricate treatment of Pergolesi. Nor is 
there anything which can be called new in 
his ornament. The ram's head, the urn, 
the fan, the medallion, and the honeysuckle 
are extensively used, as also the griffin and 
the sphinx. To the latter he gives a whole 
plate, besides using it as a supporter. It is 
not, of course, the Sphinx of Gizeh, but is 
taken, like those of Robert Adam and other 
designers up to Sheraton, from the Greek 
imitation — the female Sphinx who pro- 
pounded the famous conundrum, and killed 


Minor English Furniture Makers 

herself, in a fit of temper, when it was solved. 
Though these are the only etchings which 
have come to light, the executive skill they 
display proves that they were not maiden 
efforts. The designs have not been trans- 
ferred to the ground, but drawn directly on 
it with the needle, for the middle line he 
used as a guide in getting both sides alike 
shows on the prints. They are, for the 
most part, pleasantly composed, with con- 
siderable artistic feeling and knowledge of 
draughtsmanship. The form, too, is fre- 
quently cleverly suggested instead of being 
made out in the hard and fast manner of 
Lock and his contemporaries, and the 
figures, particularly some of the more 
sketchy among them, are effective and 
dainty. There is, in fact, artistic power 
but no attempt at originality. If one might 
guess the branch of cabinet-making he 
worked at personally, the likelihood would 
seem to be that while his father's tool was 
the chisel his was the brush. 

It is quite possible that this small book 
may have been published in emulation of 
Pergolesi, who two years previously had 
begun issuing in parts a volume of what 
purport to be original plates. Pergolesi 
was one of the crowd of foreign artists who 
flocked to London during the fifties and 
sixties when we were just beginning to 
have a real national art of our own. The 
reception given to many of these is now 
almost unbelievable. Cipriani was con- 
sidered the best historical painter, and 
several of the others were original members 
of the Royal Academy. That their influ- 
ence on the English Renaissance was no 
greater is little short of miraculous, for 
they had, one and all, that soul-destroying 
facility so captivating to the young worker. 
As artists they barely merit serious con- 
sideration, but as furniture and mural deco- 
rators they were exactly in their right 
places, and it was in these walks of art that 
they were greatly engaged, Sir W.Chambers 
and Robert Adam, who employed them, 


being responsible for the arrival of most of 
them in England. 

Michel Angelo Pergolesi has been 
credited by some of his admirers with a 
dexterity in the use of the brush as great 
as his ease in ornament, but, judging on the 
evidence of his book, this appears to me to 
be more than doubtful. This book is folio 
size, the different parts dating from 1777 
to shortly after the death of his patron, 
Robert Adam. His dedication is almost as 
grandiloquent as his wrongly-spelt name: — 
'To the Memory of the late most High 
and Puissant Prince, Hugh Percy, Duke ot 
Northumberland, who was a Patron of the 
Arts, and to Whose Virtues This work is 
Dedicated by His most Grateful and humble 
Servant Michel Angelo Pergolesi.' 

The publication line engraved on his 
plates is as curiously wrong in manner as 
in fact : — ' Pergolesi Del 1 Scul 4 et Publish' d 
according to act of Parliament the 1 of 
May 1777.' That some of the etchings 
— many of them, in fact — were executed 
by himself is extremely likely, but a large 
proportion are evidently by several different 
men. Most of the plates contain ten or 
more different designs, in placing which, 
so as to make a pleasing whole, he displays 
considerable skill and judgement. 

In some of the later numbers there is a 
central panel such as that illustrated, 2 drawn 
by Cipriani and engraved by Bartolozzi ; 
yet though their names are engraved on 
each side of it in the usual manner, Per- 
golesi makes no alteration in his publica- 
tion line for the whole plate. There are 
other similar plates in the earlier part of 
the book which seem to have given rise to 
the idea that he himself could treat a figure 
panel in this manner ; but not only is the 
majority of the figure-work which may be 
ascribed to him immensely inferior to that 
of his greater compatriots, but the unac- 
knowledged plates in this style are evidently 
also by them. 

2 No. 2, Plate I, page 365. 

•*■ a. < 

-. ° 2 

'■ 2 

§ § H 

g t 5 

- ^ « 

H <9 X _ 

_ W a. M 

- i. o < 


'7 '•■-■•?■" 





;ece decorated by angelica kaukkman; forme 


Minor English Furniture Makers 

Pergolesi must have been immensely 
useful to Robert Adam as a draughtsman, 
for it is evident that he had the whole 
work of the school from which Adam took 
his ornament at his finger ends, and where 
he restrained his too exuberant curves 
and flourishes, it is difficult to discriminate 
between them, more particularly as a large 
number of Adam's acknowledged designs 
were probably by him. When, however, 
we come to furniture there can be no such 
confusion. The page illustrated 3 is a fair 
sample both of Pergolesi's ornament and 
his furniture, which latter, fortunately for 
us, resembles nothing else of the period. 

By far the most famous decorator of 
English eighteenth-century furniture was 
the lady artist we know as Angelica 
Kauffman, whose real names were Marie 
Anne Angelique Catherine. Some of her 
biographers must have been, like the gen- 
tleman in the Bab Ballads, ' shaky in their 
dates,' as they seldom agree. Her first 
marriage, for instance, is variously said to 
have taken place in 1768 and 1769 ; her 
departure from England in 1780 and 1781, 
and her death in 1805 and 1807; nor do 
they even agree as to the time and place 
of her birth. As, however, none of these 
occurrences were, like Robert Adam's 
return from Italy, epoch-making in the 
history of English furniture, absolute ac- 
curacy is not required so far as present 
purposes are concerned. 

' The fair Angelica,' as her English 
adorers loved to call her, began as an infant 
prodigy. Her father was a poor Swiss 
portrait painter, and at the age of nine her 
earnings were already of considerable im- 
portance to her parents, while at eleven 
she was painting portraits of bishops, arch- 
bishops, and dukes. At fifteen, when she 
was the rage of Rome, she could speak 
four languages perfectly, and was a finished 
musician in addition to her other artistic 
endowments. Even if we accept the earlier 

8 No. 1, Plate I, page 365. 

date given for her birth and add another 
two years to the ages given, the facts will 
still be sufficiently surprising. 

She came to England in 1765, and at 
once became the fashion, both in social 
and artistic circles. She painted portraits 
of the king and the prince of Wales, and 
became the personal friend of Queen Char- 
lotte. She had proposals of marriage by 
the score, for she was amiable and beauti- 
ful as well as clever, but she paid heed 
to none of them, having fixed her affec- 
tions (or possibly her ambition) on Rey- 
nolds. Though that confirmed old bachelor 
saw no reason for changing his condition, 
he not only found her work, but actually 
employed her, and the marble chimney- 
piece illustrated 4 was one of two in his 
house which were thus treated. 

White marble chimney-pieces had only 
just come into fashion, and were considered 
very grand indeed. Goldsmith makes one 
of his characters say, ' I have often seen a 
good sideboard, or a marble chimney-piece, 
though not actually put in the bill, inflame 
the bill confoundedly.' Our ideas regard- 
ing them have changed. The cold white 
of marble is destructive to colour harmony, 
and one of our greatest experts on colour 
furnishing recommended giving them a 
coat of paint. Reynolds evidently felt 
something of this, but, not being quite so 
revolutionary in his ideas, endeavoured to 
make them suit their surroundings by hav- 
ing them decorated by the fair Angelica. 

It is probably a mistake to suppose that 
Angelica Kauffman was included as an 
original member of the Royal Academy 
through Reynolds's influence ; it is, in fact, 
much more likely that she had a good deal 
to do with the actual grant of the Charter. 
Whatever the Academy may or may not 
have done to justify its existence, nothing 
can be more certain than that it was 
founded on pique and came into being 
through back-stairs intrigue. Angelica 

* Plate II, page 368. 


Minor English Furniture Makers 

had the Queen's ear, and her influence with 
royalty could only have been second to 
that of Sir William Chambers, the royal 

The re-introduction of painted decora- 
tion into English furniture may be ac- 
counted for in more ways than one, but it 
is by no means improbable that the vogue 
attained by this lady artist had much to do 
with its general adoption. Robert Adam 
has left a design for an organ, dated in the 
early sixties, in which painted panels formed 
part of the decoration ; but musical instru- 
ments, to a very great extent, followed a 
line of evolution of their own, and so far 
as his drawings in the Soane Museum show, 
he did not again employ this method till 
1770. It was not for want of artists capa- 
ble of executing the work that this means 
was not resorted to, for Cipriani had come 
to London three years before Adam re- 
turned from Italy. Angelica certainly be- 
longed to the rival artistic faction, but so 
did his own assistant Zucchi, and, more- 
over, he had probably met her in Rome as 
well as London. 

Be that as it may, it is at least certain 
that it was not till some years after Ange- 
lica Kauffman had attained to eminence 
in England that painted furniture became 
the fashion. The commode illustrated 5 is 
an instance of how the chisel was rapidly 
being forsaken for the brush. 

Up to the time of her inclusion in the 
Royal Academy Angelica's history had 
been a series of unbroken successes ; after 
that she made the fatal mistake which 
ruined her life. The footman whom 
she married under the impression that 
he was of noble birth was pensioned off 
on the condition of his leaving England ; 
but Angelica felt the blow to her pride 
so severely that, for the rest of her stay 
in this country, she never again appeared 
in society. Her work continued to be 
much sought after, and she must have 

« Plate II, page 368. 

amassed a considerable fortune ; the ceiling 
of the Council-room of the Royal Academy 
was decorated by her, and Boydell published 
nearly sixty plates from her paintings. 

There is nothing distinctive in her style, 
and much is attributed to her on which it 
would be difficult to pass an opinion with- 
out an amount of study which the subject 
does not deserve. It is worthy of remark, 
however, that when in 1780 (or 178 1) her 
husband died and she married Zucchi, 
she left for Rome never again to return 
to England. Yet though this throws 
considerable doubt on the later work at- 
tributed to her, it does not absolutely 
prove that such pieces are not authentic. 

Poor Angelica's second marriage was 
even more disastrous than the first, for 
Zucchi seems to have taken to gambling 
or speculation, and dissipated her fortune 
as well as his own. Nor was her second 
visit to Rome a success. Her former re- 
ception in what was then the art capital 
of the world was probably quite as much 
due to her marvellous precocity as to her 
art, and the woman of forty seems to have 
come very near starvation where the child 
made a large income. Under these cir- 
cumstances it would have been strange if 
such a good business woman had not used 
her English connexion. In matters artis- 
tic Rome was nearer London in the end of 
the eighteenth century than it is now, and 
the mere fact that an art object of any 
kind came from the Eternal City gave it 
value in the eyes of the ordinary English 
collector. There is, therefore, every like- 
lihood, especially towards the end of the 
century when her circumstances had gone 
from bad to worse, that she made use of 
the only market where her work was still 
in demand, and that many of the later 
painted decorations on which doubt has re- 
cently been thrown 6 are perfectly authentic. 

6 Compare, e.g., a piano shown at the Bradford Exhibition last 
year and illustrated in The Burlington Magazine for August 
1904 (Vol. V, page 501), which must have been made nearly 
twenty years after Angelica Kauffman's departure from England. 


JET another season is draw- 
king to its close, and dealers, 
'collectors, and all interested 
in artistic matters are en- 
gaged in contemplating the 
.result of the work of the 
past seven or eight months. 
As most of the interest centres around the 
dealer, let us consider his case first. 

To begin with, it must be remembered 
that he is a very conservative mortal, who 
will continue to pursue a course that has 
paid him well in the past, even when he 
sees business declining from month to 
month. The shrinkage has been ascribed 
to bad trade, Stock Exchange depression, 
the rage for motor-cars — any reason has 
served as an excuse but the right one. 
Last year a writer in this magazine 
warned the dealers that the day ot 
phenomenal prices for rubbish, in either 
America or Europe, was fast drawing to a 
close. A few took the advice in the spirit 
in which it was given, and are now reaping 
the benefit. But those who in the past 
have made large sums from a lucky deal or 
two are hard to convince of the foolishness 
of a policy that has yielded them such a rich 

They have been pursuing the same course, 
accumulating a number of objects — 
most of them of considerable interest, for 
there has been a decided improvement in 
quality — at prices bordering on the ex- 
travagant, and holding them in the hope of 
inducing trans-Atlantic buyers to pay any- 
thing they choose to ask for them. This 
policy has accounted for the extraordinary 
prices realized from time to time during 
the past season for objects having some 
pretension to quality and importance. 
Again they have been unsuccessful. Nearly 
all these objects remain in the hands of 
the dealers who purchased them. Most 
of them, it is true, are wealthy men ; 
still they do not purchase for their own 
amusement, and the result of this season's 

operations — perhaps the worst they have 
yet encountered — will leave them in no 
encouraging mood. 

The smaller men have had a very hard 
time. Owing to the excessive prices that 
good things have fetched, they have been 
unable to buy what their old customers 
require, and they have in consequence been 
obliged to look on at the operations of their 
richer friends. 

Yet, side by side with this condition of 
affairs, the sales have been exceedingly well 
attended, and prices have ruled high even 
for specimens that in past years would have 
come under the category of rubbish. The 
habit of attending sales has become a society 
craze, and the wealthiest people in England 
are to be found in the rooms for the two or 
three days upon which the things are on 
view. Naturally manv objects attract their 
attention, and they give a commission or 
two before they leave the sale-room. Now, 
unfortunately, wealth and artistic percep- 
tion do not necessarily go hand in hand, 
and these people are seldom found to possess 
either judgement or idea of value. The 
result is that grotesquely extravagant prices 
have frequently been obtained for rubbish. 
The fact is all the harder for the dealer to 
bear since he is conscious that he has far 
finer things at home that he would often 
be only too pleased to sell for one quarter 
of the figure realized for similar specimens 
in the auction room. 

Then, again, when a person purchases 
anything from a dealer he expects a 
guarantee — unreasonable as it frequently 
is on the face of it — and gets it. If 
some indiscreet friend of the buyer, or some 
rival of the seller, declares the object other 
than what it was sold for, the dealer is 
compelled to rescind the sale, or risk creat- 
ing a situation which may materially 
damage his reputation. When a thing is 
purchased under the hammer the auctioneer 
effectually safeguards himself against any 
contingency by selling with all faults and 


The Auctioneer as Dealer 

errors of description, and making no war- 
rant whatsoever. Thus he has in a large 
measure usurped the place of the dealer 
whilst ridding himself of the latter's respon- 

At the same time we frankly admit that 
the auctioneer has not wittingly created 
the situation. He sold works of art under 
precisely the same conditions in past years 
when few but dealers frequented his rooms. 
In a great measure the change has been 
brought about by the phenomenal puffing 
of sales in the press. The attention of 
the public has been attracted by sensa- 
tional articles which more often than not 
dwell entirely upon the sensational prices 
likely to be obtained for certain objects, 
and neglect utterly the artistic stand- 

The result is that art sales have been 
invested with a speculative attraction that 
can be likened only to the cotton or wheat 
market when a boom is in progress. Now 
and then some of these reporters overstep 
the limits of their knowledge and endeavour 
to work up the aesthetic side of their sub- 
ject, with results that are frequently ludi- 
crous. Many of our readers will remember 
a long article which appeared at the time 
of the Capel Cure sale, upon a compara- 
tively worthless terra-cotta bust given to 
Donatello, urging its purchase by the 
nation ! It realized some fifty or sixty 
guineas. Similar nonsense was written 
about the so-called Botticelli at the Ash- 
burton sale the other day. 

The mischief wrought to the collector and 
dealer by such writing is enormous, not 
to mention the injury to the cause of art 
itself by the setting up of wrong ideals and 
by fostering a sordid spirit amongst the 
general public. 

That the really meritorious objects are 
not always appreciated fully can well be 
seen by examining the results of the Capel 
Cure sale. The della Robbias, many of 

the bronzes, the superb Riccio plaques — 
finer have never been seen in London — 
and the exquisite Italian shield, were sold 
for comparatively insignificant sums. 

In truth, the public have turned the auc- 
tioneer into their dealer. In the long run 
the results will be still more disastrous for 
the purchasers than for the dealers. The 
latter are generally men of long experience 
and wide knowledge, which formerly were 
placed at the disposal of their customers. 
Hence if the latter possessed little or no 
judgement they were protected in their 
purchases by the dealer, provided he acted 
in an honest manner. 

Then again the purchaser is not always 
treated fairly by the commission agent. An 
agent is tempted to refrain from adverse 
criticism when he sees a buyer keen upon 
acquiring an object. He knows he will 
meet with small opposition in buying a 
poor thing, and a handsome fee will accrue 
to himself. When a good example is sub- 
mitted it is to the interest of the dealers 
to make a private man, buying either in 
person or through a commission agent, pay 
its full value, to prevent an impression get- 
ting abroad that things can be bought 
more cheaply in the open market than 
from them. 

However, another season like that which 
is coming to a close may effectually break 
up the apparently invincible combina- 
tion at present dominating the market in 
works of art. Already a few courageous 
spirits have demonstrated by their exhibi- 
tions that a thing must not of necessity be 
old in order to be good. They might go 
one step further still and show that beau- 
tiful and valuable objects can be secured 
by people of quite moderate means. 

In this way the older type of collector, 
the man who was a connoisseur in the 
truest sense of the term, may be tempted 
back to the hobby he has so long had to 



EFORE dealing with the dinal-legate, Peter de Foix, afterwards 

archbishop of Aries, forbade the clergy of 

the Aragonese dominions to make use of 

Against this decree one of the canons 

remaining colours, it may 
not be amiss to give some 
,more instances of the use 
[of red by bishops, canons, 
'and other churchmen. It 
would be impossible to complete the list, 
but as every ecclesiastic in red is at once 
assumed to be a cardinal every additional 
item of information is of value and should 
tend to minimize errors. 

To the list of bishops must be added 
the archbishop of Milan, who, a friend on 
the spot informs me, wears a red cappa 
like the archbishop of Pisa. The arch- 
bishop of Valencia, if an anonymous seven- 
teenth-century writer 2 may be trusted, at 
one time dressed as a cardinal ; of this, how- 
ever, I have not found any confirmation, nor 
do I know how he dresses at the present day. 
It is perhaps worth mentioning that the 
archbishop of Florence was, at the be- 
ginning of the sixteenth century, granted 
the privilege of using the ' purple ' for his 
dress on certain great feasts. 3 

It seems that the archbishop of Canter- 
bury wore a red cassock. Warham (i 503- 
1532) is so represented in his portraits at 
Lambeth and in the Louvre ; so is Arundel 
(1397—1398 and 1 399—1414) in his por- 
trait at Lambeth, but in this case a ques- 
tion arises as to the date of the painting. 

Villanueva 4 quotes a document from the 
archives of the chapter of Urgel, or La Seu 
d'Urgel, in Catalonia, which shows that 
the bishop of Urgel ( joint over-lord with 
France of the republic of Andorra) and his 
canons formerly, and apparently for a long 
period, dressed in red. In 1429, the car- 

1 For Article I see page 281, ante (July, 1905). 

: The author of Voyage d'Espagne, Contenant cntrc plusieurs par- 
ticularitcz de ce Royaume Trois Discours Politique sur les affaires du 
Protcctcur d'Angleterre, la Reine de Suede ct du Due de Lorraine 
(Cologne, 1666). See p. 103. 

3 Moroni, Dizionario, xxv, 56. 

* Viage literario a las Iglesias de Espana, ix, 1S6, 1S7. (Madrid, 
1803-1852 ; the work is in 22 vols.) 


of Urgel, Augustin de Insula, protested at 
the council of Tortosa, presided over by the 
legate. In his protest the worthy canon 
stated that the bishop and canons had for 
more than three hundred years worn red, 
and that the pope and the Roman church 
had known of and tolerated the custom. 
Villanueva adds that he does not know the 
result of the protest ; at the time of his 
visit, however, the canons dressed in violet. 
Among the canons, not already men- 
tioned, who wear red are those of Bisi- 
gnano, in Calabria, who have a crimson 
cappa and mozzetta; 5 those of the cathe- 
drals in the provinces of Aragon, Catalonia, 
and Valencia, who all use a dark red cappa, 
trior ado ox mulberry colour. The canons of 
Brixen, in Tyrol, have had a red collar 
since 1748 ; 7 those of Valladolid, in Old 
Castile, have not only a red collar but also 
red stockings; 8 and those of Braga, in Por- 
tugal, have red stockings and a red sash. 9 
The canons of Sorrento have for ages past, 
da tempo antichissimo, worn a ' purple ' moz- 
zetta ; I0 and the same distinction was granted 
to the chapter of the collegiate church of 
Courgne, in Piedmont, in the early part of 
the last century. 11 About the same time 
the canons of the collegiate churches of 
Monticelli and Castellarquato, in the then 
duchy of Parma, were given a crimson silk 
mozzetta ; 12 and those of Sora, in the Terra 

5 Bullarii Romani Continuatio (edited by Barberi), xvii, 418. 
The crimson mozzetta was worn before this date; the bull 
confirmed the custom and gave the crimson cappa. 

6 Villanueva, op. cit. i, 33, 34. 

I This appears from the statutes of the chapter. The part 
relating to the choir-dress of the canons was most kindly copied 
and sent to me, with much further information, by the Rev. 
Alfred Fink, of the Missionhaus at Brixen. 

8 For this information I am indebted to the rector of the Scots' 
college, Valladolid. 

' Bull. Rom. Cont. xiii, 457. 
10 Moroni, lxvii, 233. 

II Bull. Rom. Cont. xix, 653. 
12 Ibid, xiv, 572 and xv, 291. 

H H 


Ecclesiastical T)ress in *Art 

di Lavoro, have the particular privilege of 
wearing one of crimson velvet like that of 
the pope. 13 

In former times the canons of Milan 
had red skullcaps and shoes in addition to 
the red cappa which they still wear; 14 and 
the dignitaries of Le Puy en Velay had not 
given up their red choir dress when Vital 
Bernard, himself a canon of that church, 
wrote in the seventeenth century. 15 In the 
Low Countries the wearing of red was not 
unknown ; the canons of Tournay have 
been mentioned already, but they were 
not the only ones distinguished by the 
use of that colour. In the exhibition at 
Utrecht in 1894 there was a portrait (be- 
longing, I believe, to the city orphanage) 
of one Evert Zoudenbatch, who was canon 
and treasurer of Utrecht, and provost of 
Maestricht at the end of the fifteenth or 
the beginning of the sixteenth century. 
He is represented in cassock, surplice, and 
almuce ; and the exhibition catalogue says 
that the cassock is red. 16 

Certain ecclesiastics, of whom no men- 
tion has so far been made, wore red because 
of their connexion with a military order. 
Some of the knights of the French order of 
Mount Carmel and St. Lazarus were clerics, 
and their distinguishing dress was a crimson 
velvet mozzetta worn over a rochet. 17 The 
Italian order of Constantine also had eccle- 
siastical knights, and such of them as were 
of noble birth wore a crimson velvet bi- 
retta. 18 The chief ecclesiastic of the Con- 
stantine order and the ordinary of its 
churches was the grand prior. In chapter 
and on state occasions this personage wore 
a violet cassock with crimson trimmings ; 
a lace rochet; over the rochet a ' sopraveste' 
of sky-blue ; a crimson sash ; on the 

13 Moroni, lxvii, 202. 

14 Magistretti, Li Vesti eeclesiastiche in Milano, p. 15 (2nd ed. 
Milan, 1905). 

15 V. Bernard, Li Miroir de Chanoines, p. 27 (Paris, 1630). 

16 A reproduction of the portrait and the catalogue of the exhi- 
bition are in the print room of the Eritish Museum. 

17 Helyot, Histoirc des Ordres Eeligitux, i. 346 (Paris, 1714- 

18 Radente, Bolla di Clemente XI ' Militantis Ecchsic,' e suo 
commento. p. 145. (Naples, 1858.) 


breast of the ' sopraveste' the cross o 
the order in crimson velvet, silver and 
gold ; a violet mantle; and a crimson velvet 
biretta — a dress which suggests the glory 
or the gaudiness of a bird of paradise or a 
parrot. 19 

Some religious also dressed in red. An 
order of Slav monks found in Bohemia and 
Poland had a habit of that colour ; 20 and 
Boissard mentions another, the ' ordo 
Johannitarum de Civitate ' as having a red 
habit, 21 but I have so far failed^to find any 
mention of this order elsewhere. 

Before passing on something more must 
be said too about rose. It was stated in 
the last article that the hat-cord of proto- 
notaries was of this colour. This is no 
longer the case; the reigning pope has 
but just recently changed it. In February 
last he regulated the privileges of protono- 
taries by a motu propria ; and now the cord 
of their hat, the cord of their pectoral 
cross, when they wear one, the tuft of their 
biretta, and the tassels of the hat placed 
over their arms have all to be ruby-coloured, 
coloris rubini. 22 On the other hand, the 
canons of Leghorn do not stand alone in 
having a rose-coloured choir-dress. The 
canons of the collegiate church of St. Eras- 
mus at Veroli, in the Campagna, have a 
rose silk cappa, the tippet of which is 
faced with violet. 23 

Violet. — Till the second half of the 
sixteenth century there was no restriction 
as to the use of violet. With French 
clerics it was a favourite colour during the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, 24 and 
its use by them continued till well within 
the seventeenth ; Dom Claude de Vert, 
prior of the Cluniac house of St. Peter at 
Abbeville, says that people were still living 

19 Radente, op. cit. 138. 

:o Helyot, op. cit. i. 229 ss. and Boissard, Habitus variarum 
orHs gentium, Pt. iii, plate 15. (Antwerp, 1581.) 

51 Loc. cit. 

™ Motu Proprio, Inter multiplied euras at pp. 9, 10, 12 (Rome 
Vatican Press, 1905). 

23 Moroni, xciv, 10 (volume dated 1859). 

" Quicherat, Histoire du Costume en France (Paris, 1875). 
p. 318. 

when he wrote, at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, who remembered eccle- 
siastics in that town wearing violet. 25 It 
is also mentioned in English inventories. 26 
In Venice it was used by parish priests 
and by such other ecclesiastics as were 
graduates of Padua ; 27 we find too that, in 
1 59 1, the canons of St. Mark's, the ducal 
chapel, were ordered by the doge, Pas- 
qual Cicogna, to resume the violet choir- 
dress which they had abandoned. 28 In 
1592 violet was recognized by the patri- 
arch, Laurence Priuli, as suitable for the 
use of the dignified clergy and of parish 
priests. 29 In the diocese of Bologna it 
had to be expressly forbidden so late as 

But already at the beginning of the six- 
teenth century it is mentioned by Paris de 
Grassis as being one of the two colours 
suitable for a bishop's cappa ; 3I and in the 
last year of that century it was definitely 
ordered for bishops by the Caeremoniale 
Episcoporum, published by direction of 
Clement VIII. But as has been said already 
its use by the ordinary clergy lingered on 
for another century. However in 1736 
Cardinal Lambertini was able to say, in 
general terms, that then violet was proper 
to bishops, the papal household, and some 
seminarists to the exclusion of all other 
ecclesiastics. He made no mention of 
canons, many of whom wear violet, possibly 
because, except in the case of a special 
privilege, they may only use this colour for 
their choir-dress, whilst the others also use 
it for their ordinary dress. 

The violet ordered by the Caeremoniale 
did not extend to the head-dress. The skull- 
cap of that colour was granted to bishops 

25 Ceremonies de Vcglise (2nd ed.), ii, 357. 

26 See, for example, that of Richard de Ravenser in The Pro- 
ceedings of the Royal Archaeological Institute, 1848. 

27 Gallicciolli, Memorie Venete, bk. ii, § 1678 (Venice, 1795). 
» Ibid. § 1684. 2a Ibid. § 1683. 

80 See the decree of Cardinal Lambertini, afterwards Bene- 
dict XIV, then archbishop of Bologna ; it is printed in Barbier 
de Montault, Li Costume et les Usages ccdisiastiques (Paris, 1898), 

•• 37- 

81 De Ceremoniis Cardinalium et Episcoporum, p. 45 (Rome, 1563); 
it may be well to repeat that the book was written between the 
years 1502 and 1510. 

Ecclesiastical JDress in zArt 

so late as 1867 by Pius IX ; 32 and the 
biretta only by Leo XIII in 1888.33 But 
skullcaps and birettas of violet had already 
been used by some dignified ecclesiastics; 
and the biretta even by the choir boys of 
Angers. 3-t The patriarch of Aquileia wore 
a violet biretta whenever he wore a violet 
cappa ; 35 according to Sarnelli, quoted 
by Bonanni, 30 the canons of Antwerp also 
used one by ancient custom ; in 1748 
Benedict XIV granted it to the cathedral 
chapter of Brixen ; and in 1801 it was 
granted by Pius VII to the canons of Csanad 
in Hungary. 37 French bishops, too,adopted 
it before its use became general. So with 
the skullcap : it was worn by many arch- 
bishops and by French and Flemish bishops 
before the reign of Pius IX, 33 and before 
the French revolution by the canons of 
Antwerp. 30 Some ten years ago a violet 
biretta of peculiar form was granted to the 
Ruthenian chapters of Lemberg, Przemsyl, 
and Stanislaw. 40 And the 'privilege' of 
violet skullcap and biretta is being extended 
to abbots. The abbot of Monte Cassino 
has both. But it must be observed that, 
though not a bishop, he has episcopal juris- 
diction, and actually rules a diocese larger 
than most in southern Italy. The present 
abbot of Monte Vergine also has both as 
a personal privilege ; 41 but he, too, has 
episcopal jurisdiction. The abbot of Ein- 
siedeln, though he also has episcopal juris- 
diction, has neither skullcap nor biretta of 
violet. The abbot of Solesmes has the 
violet skullcap. 42 

At the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury many, perhaps most, of the curial pre- 
lates wore black; but in the course of that 
century the use of violet was so freely 

33 Barbier de Montault, op. cit. i. 224. 33 Ibid. p. 231. 

84 Moleon, Voyages liturgiques en France, p. 83 (Paris, 1718). 

35 Macri, Hicrolexicon, s. v. Cardinalis. 

88 La Gerarchia Ecclesiastica, i, 154 (Rome, 1720). Bonanni 
does not give the reference, but he is apparently quoting from 
the Letter e Ealesiasiiche of Pompeo Sarnelli (Manfredonia, iG86, 
and a second edition, Venice, 1716). 

87 Bull. Rom. Conl. xi, 167. 

88 Moroni, v, 174 (volume published in 1840) 8a Ibid. 

40 Barbier de Montault, op. cit. i. 454. 

41 So I am informed by his secretary, Dom Celestin Mercuro. 

42 Barbier de Montault, op. cit. i. 226. 


Ecclesiastical T)ress in *Art 

granted to them that it came to be re- 
garded as the proper colour for the dress 
of the officials of the papal court — taking 
this term to include not only those who 
actually perform the duties appertaining 
to the various offices, but also those whose 
connexion with the court is but honorary. 
And the lavish bestowal, in later times, of 
these honorary distinctions makes violet 
nowadays very common. 43 Writers on 
ecclesiastical subjects are prone to see 
svmbolism in everything, and it is not 
without interest to find that one such 
writer 44 says (and he seems to be writing 
seriously) that there is good reason for the 
use of violet by the curial officials because 
that colour typifies ' modesty, moderation, 
and humility.' The papal household, how- 
ever, is not the only one clothed in violet ; 
that of the patriarch of Lisbon enjoys the 
same distinction. 45 

The grand prior of the order of Constan- 
tine was given permission by Clement XI 
(1700— 1721) to wear a violet mozzetta in 
the churches under his jurisdiction, in the 
absence of the grand-master. When that 
dignitary was present he might not wear 
the mozzetta, but was allowed a violet 
mantelletta. 46 The same pope granted the 
use of the violet mozzetta to sixty chaplains 
of the order of St. John of Jerusalem. As 
a matter of fact they only availed them- 
selves of the privilege in Malta : some of 
them tried to do so in France, but the 
bishops objected. 47 

The canons of many churches have a 
violet choir-dress : for example, those of 
the patriarchal basilicas of Rome ; of the 
cathedral of Milan, at certain seasons; 48 of 

48 The Annuairc Pontifical Catholique for 1905 gives a list of 
over 3,000 holders of honorary offices (all having the title Mon- 
signore) — protonotaries, domestic prelates, chamberlains, chap- 
lains — with the warning, however, that the numbers must not 
be taken too strictly, as notices of death come to hand slowly. 
In 1797, according to the Notisie dell' Anno for that year, there 
were only 266 of these honorary distinctions. 

44 Bonanni, op. cit. p. 472. 45 Moroni, xxxviii, 314. 

46 Radente, op. cit. 138. 

4 ? Helyot, iii, 114, 115. 

48 Magistretti, op. cit. p. 20. 

St. Ambrose at Milan ; 49 of Toledo 5 ° and 
Seville in Spain ; those of Cologne and Mainz 
in Germany ; of Le Puy and Besancon in 
France ; of Trent and Brixen in Tyrol ; 
of Mechlin and Liege in Belgium ; 51 of 
Westminster and the other catholic cathe- 
drals in England. The cappa of the canons 
of Salamanca is partly black and partly 
violet ; the mantle being of the former 
colour, the tippet of violet velvet. 52 For- 
merly the canons of Brioude and Laon, 53 the 
dignitaries of Orleans, 54 and the canons- 
regular of some houses, as those of St. Eloi 
of Arras and of St. Aubert of Cambrai, 55 
also wore violet. Some minor canons 55 
also have it, and among them those of Pisa 
and Lisbon. And in at least one house of 
canons-regular, that of St. Jean des vignes 
at Soissons, the lay brothers were dressed 
in violet. 57 In Rome the consistorial advo- 
cates, 58 though for the most part laymen 
and married, wear, probably now only on 
ceremonial occasions, the ecclesiastical dress 
and that of violet. 

It is advisable to note that there are two 
kinds of violet — the Roman which inclines 
to red, and the commoner one which tends 
to blue; and that Paris deGrassis 59 expressed 
the opinion that the violet cappa should 
vary in shade, that it should be lighter or 
darker according to the season or the feast. 
There is a specimen of a light shade of the 
Roman violet in the picture labelled Por- 
trait of a Cardinal in the large Tuscan room 
of the National Gallery. 

(To be continued.) 

49 Magistretti, op. cit. p. 16. 

50 Barbier de Montault, op. cit. i, 391. 

51 I am indebted to the Rev. Theodore Collme, a vicar of the 
cathedral of Cologne, to Mgr. Schneider, a canon of Mainz, to 
Canon Daniel of Le Puy, to the secretaries of the archbishops of 
Besancon and Mechlin, to the Rev. Dr. Niglutsch of Trent, and to 
Canon Le Roy, president of the seminary at Liege, for informa- 
tion relating to the cathedral chapters of these cities. 

63 For this information I have to thank the rector of the Irish 
college at Salamanca. 53 CI. de Vert, loc. cit. 

54 Moleon, op. cit. pp. 181, 182. 55 Helyot, ii, 76. 

56 I use this term to denote the second rank of ecclesiastics in 
a cathedral or collegiate church ; as a matter of fact they are 
known by various names. 

" Helyot, ii, 84. a Moroni, iii, 306. 

59 Op. cit. p. 44.